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Full text of "NFPA 1 (2003): Fire Prevention Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 



NFPA 1 (2003) , the Uniform Fire Code, as incorporated 
by and mandated by the States and Municipalities, 
including Rhode Island, Maryland, Montana, 
Florida, et . alia. 





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NFPA1 

UNIFORM 
FIRE CODE 



TM 



2003 Edition 




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NFRAT 



Comprehensive 

Consensus 

Codes™ 




IMPORTANT NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS CONCERNING NFPA DOCUMENTS 

Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerning the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of which the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the develop- 
ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

The NFPA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether 
special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance 
on this document. The NFPA also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information 
published herein. 

In issuing and making this document available, the NFPA is not undertaking to render professional or other services 
for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the NFPA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity 
to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, 
seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. 

The NFPA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. 
Nor does the NFPA list, certify, test or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. 
Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to 
the NFPA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. 

Important Notices and Disclaimers continued on inside back cover. 



10/03 



1-1 



Copyright © 2003, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved 

NFPA1 
Uimifooim Fira Code™ 

2003 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code™, was prepared by the Technical Committee on 
Fire Prevention Code and acted on by NFPA at its November Association Technical Meeting 
held November 16-20, 2002, in Adanta, GA. It was issued by the Standards Council on January 
17, 2003, with an effective date of February 6, 2003, and supersedes all previous editions. 

This edition of NFPA 1 was approved as an American National Standard on January 17, 2003. 

Origin and Development of NFM 1 

This code was originally developed as a result of the requests of many members of the 
National Fire Protection Association for a document covering all aspects of fire protection 
and prevention that used the other developed NFPA codes and standards. NFPA staff initiated 
this work in 1971 upon a directive from the NFPA Board of Directors. 

The original code was written around a format that served as a guide for the development 
of a local fire prevention code. Prerogatives of local officials were excluded from the main 
text of the document but included within appendices as guidance for exercising desired 
prerogatives. 

In the late 1980s, the Fire Marshals Association of North America undertook the task of 
developing a code that was more self-contained, adding administrative sections and extract- 
ing heavily from other NFPA codes and standards. The draft was submitted to the Fire Preven- 
tion Code Committee. The Committee examined changes in the built environment as it is 
affected by fire and incorporated significant portions of the Life Safety Code®. A special task 
group on hazardous materials examined technological changes in the handling, storage, and 
use of flammable and combustible materials. Chapters extracting hazardous material require- 
ments placed a greater emphasis on protection of life and property from chemical products 
made and used in the environment. A major rewrite resulted in the 1992 edition of the Fire 
Prevention Code. 

The 1997 edition updated the text extracted from other NFPA codes and standards and 
added compliance with additional NFPA codes and standards as part of the requirements of 
NFPA1. 

The 2000 edition of NFPA 1 was a complete revision that updated the text extracted from 
other NFPA codes and standards. Additional direct references from NFPA codes and stan- 
dards that are essential to a code official's use of the document were added. The Committee 
also added a new section on performance-based design as a valuable tool for code officials and 
design professionals. NFPA 1 was restructured to be more functional with respect to adminis- 
tration, code enforcement, and regulatory adoption processes. 

The 2003 edition of NFPA 1 , Uniform Fire Code™, is a complete revision of the code. It 
incorporates provisions from the Western Fire Chiefs, Uniform Fire Code'™, under a partnership 
between NFPA and Western Fire Chiefs, while updating and expanding the provisions ex- 
tracted from other key NFPA codes and standards. To emphasize the partnership, the docu- 
ment was renamed NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code™. The Uniform Fire Code is a trademark of the 
Western Fire Chiefs Association. 

NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code™, was restructured into parts to be more compatible with the 
regulatory adoption procedures, including administration and code enforcement, occupan- 
cies, processes, equipment, and hazardous materials provisions. The Committee included a 
newly expanded chapter on performance-based design as an enhanced tool for code officials 
and design professionals. Additional extracts and references from NFPA codes and standards 
that are essential to a code official's use of the document were added, bringing the number of 
referenced NFPA codes and standards to over 125. Additional chapters on hazardous materi- 
als have been included that incorporate the provisions covered in the Uniform Fire Code™. 

NFPA 1 , UniformFire Code™, reflects the technical knowledge of the originating committees 
who are responsible for the codes and standards from which text is extracted and incorpo- 
rates technical provisions from the Western Fire Chiefs' Uniform Fire Code™. This Code is in- 
tended to provide state, county, and local jurisdictions with an effective local fire code. 



1-2 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



Technical Committee on Fire Prevention Code 



Donald P. Bliss, Chair 

New Hampshire Dept. of Safety, NH [E] 

Rep. National Association of State Fire Marshals 



Scott W. Adams, Park City Fire District, UT [E] 
John F. Bender, Maryland Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, MD [E] 
David F. Bibber, City of Dover Fire and Rescue, NH [E] 

Rep. International Association of Fire Chiefs 
D. Edwin Blehschmidt, West Virginia University, WV [U] 

Rep. NFPA Health Care Section 
James W. Bowman, The DuPont Company, DE [U] 
Jeffrey P. Collins, Palm Beach County Fire/Rescue, FL [E] 
Brian J. Denk, Sara Lee Corporation, IL [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 
Matthew D. Dobson, National Association of Home 
Builders, DC [U] 

Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
IL[M] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Douglas S. Erickson, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, VI [U] 

Rep. American Society for Healthcare Engineering 
Ronald R. Farr, Kalamazoo Township Fire Department, 
MI [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Alfred J. Hogan, Reedy Creek Improvement District, FL 
[U] 

Howard Hopper, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA 
[RT] 

Thomas W.Jaeger, Gage-Babcock & Associates Inc., VA [SE] 
Robert J. James, City of Bloomington Fire Prevention, 
MN [E] 



Richard S. Kraus, Petroleum Safety Consultants, VA [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 
Michael J. Laderoute, MJL Associates, Inc., VA [M] 

Rep. Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Associadon 
James K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, Inc., CT [SE] 
Len Malmquist, Central Emergency Services, AK [E] 
Ronald K Mengel, System Sensor, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Wayne D. Moore, Hughes Associates, Inc., RI [M] 

Rep. Automatic Fire Alarm Association, Inc. 
Joseph L. Navarra, Potomac Electric Power Company, 
DC [U] 

Rep. Edison Electric Institute 
Michael A. O'Hara, The MountainStar Group, MN [SE] 
Kenneth R. Quick, Jr., City of Culver City Fire 
Department, CA [E] 

Rep. South Bay Section Fire Prevention Officer 

Association 
Robert Rowe, City of Downey Fire Department, CA [E] 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engineering 
Corporation, NC [I] 

Jeffrey M. Shapiro, International Code Consultants, TX 
[M] 

Rep. The Chlorine Institute, Inc. 
Amal Tamim, W.R. Grace & Company — Conn, MA [M] 
Randolph W. Tucker, The RJA Group, Inc., TX [SE] 
Stanley Wheeler, CA [E] 

Rep. International Code Council, Inc./AEBO 
Peter J. Willse, GE Global Asset Protection Services, CT [I] 



Alternates 



Anthony C. Apfelbeck, Altamonte Springs Fire 
Department, FL [E] 

(Alt. to J. P. Collins) 
Carl F. Baldassarra, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL[I] 

(Alt. to C. W. Schirmer) 
Thomas T. Bulow, AZ [U] 

Rep. NFPA Health Care Section 

(Alt. to D. E. Blehschmidt) 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, MD [E] 

(Alt. to J. F. Bender) 
John A. Davenport, VA [I] 

Rep. GE Global Asset Protection Services 

(Alt. to P.J. Willse) 
Kenneth A. Ford, National Association of Home Builders, 
DC[U] 

(Alt. to M. D. Dobson) 
John D. Garcia, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., NJ [RT] 

(Alt. to H. Hopper) 
Raymond A. Grill, The RJA Group, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to R. W. Tucker) 
William K. Hopple, SimplexGrinnell, CA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to R. K Mengel) 



Lynne Kilpatrick, Seatde Fire Department, WA [E] 

(Alt. to L. Malmquist) 
Roy C (Chuck) Kimball, Brooks Equipment Company, 
Inc., NC [M] 

Rep. Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association 

(Alt. to M.J. Laderoute) 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to J. K. Lathrop) 
Michael E. Lyden, The Chlorine Institute, Inc., DC [M] 

(Alt. to J. M. Shapiro) 
Anthony Sanfilippo, Michigan Dept. of Consumer 
& Industry Services, MI [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 

(Alt. to R. R. Farr) 
Rick Thornberry, The Code Consortium, Inc., CA [M] 

(Alt. to A. Tamim) 
Wayne Waggoner, National Fire Sprinkler Association, TN 
[M] 

(Alt. to G. B. Endthoff) 
Patrick C. Ward, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., CA 

(Alt. to T. W.Jaeger) 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



Nonvoting 

Robert Bourke, Lynn Fire Department, MA [E] Eddie Phillips, City of East Ridge Fire and Police, TN [E] 

Rep. Northeast Regional Fire Code Development Rep. Southeast Regional Fire Code Development 

Committee Committee 

James E. Everitt, Tualatin Valley Fire/Rescue, OR [E] Walter Smittle, WV [SE] 

Rep. Western Regional Fire Code Development (Member Emeritus) 

Committee 
Jon Nisja, Minnesota State Fire Marsha] Division, MN [E] 

Rep. North Central Regional Fire Code Development 

Committee 

Martha H. Curtis, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Cominittee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on a Fire Prevention 
Code that includes appropriate administrative provisions, to be used with the National Fire Codes for the 
installation, operation, and maintenance of buildings, structures and premises for the purpose of providing 
safety to life and property from fire and explosion. This includes development of requirements for, and 
maintenance of, systems and equipment for fire control and extinguishment. Safety to life of occupants of 
buildings and structures is under the primary jurisdiction of the Committee on Safety to Life. 

This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time, 
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document. 

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of theAssociation or 
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 



2003 Edition 



1-4 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



Contents 



Part I Administrative 



1- 9 



Chapter 1 Administration 1— 9 

1.1 Scope 1- 9 

1.2 Purpose 1- 9 

1.3 Application 1- 9 

1.4 Equivalencies, Alternatives, and 
Modifications 1— 10 

1.5 Units 1- 10 

1.6 Enforcement 1- 10 

1.7 Authority 1- 10 

1 .8 Duties and Powers of the Incident 
Commander 1- 11 

1.9 Liability 1- 11 

1.10 Board of Appeals 1- 12 

1.11 Records and Reports 1— 12 

1.12 Permits and Approvals 1- 12 

1.13 Certificates of Fitness 1- 19 

1.14 Plan Review 1- 20 

1.15 Technical Assistance 1— 20 

1.16 Notice of Violations and Penalties 1- 20 

Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 1- 20 

2.1 General 1- 20 

2.2 NFPA Publications 1- 20 

2.3 Other Publications 1- 22 

ChapterS Definitions 1-24 

3.1 General 1- 24 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions 1- 24 

3.3 General Definitions 1- 24 

3.4 Special Performance-Based Definitions .... 1— 38 

Chapter 4 General Requirements 1— 39 

4.1 Goals and Objectives 1— 39 

4.2 Assumptions 1- 40 

4.3 Compliance Options 1- 40 

4. 4 Fundamental Requirements 1- 40 

4.5 General Requirements 1— 41 

Chapter 5 Performance-Based Option 1— 42 

5.1 General 1- 42 

5.2 Performance Criteria 1- 43 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements 1— 43 

5.4 Design Scenarios 1- 44 

5.5 Evaluation of Proposed Designs 1-45 

5.6 Safety Factors 1- 46 

5.7 Documentation Requirements 1— 46 

Cfaapter6 Reserved 1- 46 

Chapter? Reserved 1- 46 

Chapter8 Reserved 1- 46 



Chapter9 Reserved 1- 46 

Part II General 1- 46 

Chapter 10 General Fire Safety 1—46 

10.1 Fundamental Requirements 1-46 

10.2 Owner/Occupant Responsibilities 1- 46 

10.3 Occupancy 1- 47 

10.4 Maintenance and Testing 1— 47 

10.5 Building Evacuation 1- 47 

10.6 FireDrills 1-47 

10.7 Reporting of Fires and Other 

Emergencies 1- 47 

10.8 Tampering with Fire Safety Equipment .... 1— 48 

10.9 Emergency Plans 1- 48 

10.10 Smoking 1- 48 

10.11 Open Fires, Incinerators, and 

Commercial Fireplaces 1— 48 

10.12 Access to Structures or Areas 1-49 

10.13 Fire Protection Markings 1-49 

10.14 Vacant Buildings and Premises 1- 49 

10.15 Combustible Vegetation 1- 50 

10.16 Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and 

Fairs 1- 50 

10.17 Outside Storage 1-51 

10.18 Parade Floats 1- 51 

10.19 Powered Industrial Trucks 1—51 

Chapter 11 Building Services 1-51 

11.1 Electrical Fire Safety 1- 51 

11.2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air 

Conditioning 1- 52 

11.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors 1-52 

11.4 Utilities 1- 52 

11.5 Heating Appliances 1— 53 

11.6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and 

Laundry Chutes 1- 53 

11.7 Stationary Generators and Standby 

Power Systems 1— 53 

11.8 Smoke Control 1-54 

11.9 Emergency Command Center 1—54 

Chapter 12 Features of Fire Protection 1— 54 

12.1 General 1- 54 

12.2 Construction 1- 54 

12.3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies 1- 54 

12.4 Fire Doors and Windows 1- 55 

12.5 Interior Finish 1- 55 

12.6 Furnishings, Contents, Decorations, 

and Treated Finishes 1- 55 

12.7 Fire Barriers 1-55 

12.8 Smoke Partitions 1-57 

12.9 Smoke Barriers 1-58 



2003 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-5 



Chapter 13 Fire Protection Systems 1— 60 

13.1 General 1- 60 

13.2 Standpipe Systems 1-60 

13.3 Automatic Sprinklers 1- 61 

13.4 FirePumps 1- 70 

13.5 WaterSupply 1-72 

13.6 Portable Extinguishers 1- 72 

13.7 Detection, Alarm, and Communication 

Systems 1- 78 

13.8 Other Fire Protection Systems 1-92 

Chapter 14 Means of Egress 1-93 

14.1 Application 1- 93 

14.2 Exit Access Corridors 1- 93 

14.3 Exits 1- 93 

14.4 Means of Egress Reliability 1- 94 

14.5 Doors 1- 94 

14.6 Enclosure and Protection of Stairs 1- 97 

14.7 Exit Passageways 1- 98 

14.8 Capacity of Means of Egress 1-98 

14.9 Number of Means of Egress 1-100 

14.10 Arrangement of Means of Egress 1—101 

14.11 Discharge from Exits 1-102 

14.12 Illumination of Means of Egress 1-103 

14.13 Emergency Lighting 1-104 

14.14 Marking of Means of Egress 1-104 

14.15 Secondary Means of Escape 1-106 

Chapter 15 Planned Building Groups 1—106 

15.1 Applicability 1-106 

15.2 Compliance 1-106 

15.3 Plans 1-106 

Chapter 16 Safeguards During Building 
Construction, Alteration, and 

Demolition Operations 1—106 

16.1 General Requirements 1—106 

16.2 Processes and Hazards 1-107 

16.3 Fire Protection 1-107 

16.4 Safeguarding Construction and 

Alteration Operations 1—109 

16.5 Fire Safety During Demolition 1—110 

16.6 Torch-Applied Roofing Systems 1—110 

16.7 TarKettles 1-110 

16.8 Asbestos Removal 1-111 

Chapter 17 Midland Urban Interface 1-111 

17.1 General 1-111 

17.2 Plans 1-111 

17.3 Wildland Fire-Prone Areas 1-111 

Chapter 18 Fire Department Access and Water 

Supply 1—113 

18.1 General 1-113 

18.2 Fire Department Access 1-113 

18.3 Water Supplies and Fire Hydrants 1-114 



Chapter 19 Combustible Waste and Refuse 1-114 

19.1 General 1-114 

19.2 Combustible Waste and Refuse 1-115 

Part HI Occupancy 1-115 

Chapter 2§ Occupancy Fire Safety 1-115 

20.1 Assembly Occupancies 1—115 

20.2 Educational Occupancies 1-119 

20.3 Day-Care Occupancies 1-120 

20.4 Health Care Occupancies 1-121 

20.5 Residential Board and Care 

Occupancies 1-123 

20.6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers 1-1 24 

20.7 Detention and Correctional 

Occupancies 1-125 

20.8 Hotels and Dormitories 1-126 

20.9 Apartment Buildings 1-127 

20.10 Lodging or Rooming Houses 1-127 

20. 1 1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and 
Manufactured Housing 1-127 

20.12 Mercantile Occupancies 1—127 

20.13 Business Occupancies 1—127 

20.14 Industrial Occupancies 1-127 

20.15 Storage Occupancies 1-127 

20.16 Special Structures and High-Rise 

Buildings 1-129 

20.17 Historical Buildings 1-129 

Chapter 21 Airports and Heliports 1-129 

21.1 Hangars 1-129 

21.2 Terminals 1-129 

21.3 Rooftop Heliport Construction and 
Protection 1-131 

Chapter 22 Automobile Wrecking Yards 1-132 

22.1 General 1-132 

22.2 Permits 1-132 

22.3 Fire Department Access Roads 1-132 

22.4 Welding and Cutting 1-133 

22.5 Housekeeping 1-133 

22.6 Fire Extinguishers 1-133 

22.7 Tire Storage 1-133 

22.8 Burning Operations 1-133 

22.9 Motor Vehicle Fluids and Hazardous 

Materials 1-133 

Chapter 23 Cleamrooms 1-133 

23.1 General 1-133 

23.2 Applicability 1-133 

23.3 Permits 1-133 

Chapter 24 Drycleaning 1—133 

24.1 General 1-133 

24.2 Permits 1-133 



2003 Edition 



1-6 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 1 



Chapter 25 Grandstands and Bleachers, 

Folding and Telescopic Seating, 

Tents, and Membrane 

Structures 1—133 

25.1 General 1-133 

25.2 Tents 1-135 

25.3 Grandstands 1-135 

25.4 Folding and Telescopic Seating 1—137 

25.5 Permanent Membrane Structures 1-137 

25.6 Temporary Membrane Structures 1—138 

Chapter 26 Laboratories Using Chemicals 1—1 39 

26.1 General 1-139 

26.2 Laboratories in Health Care 

Occupancies 1—140 

26.3 Permits 1-140 

Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and 

Recreational Vehicle Sites 1—140 

27.1 Manufactured Home Sites 1-140 

27.2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and 
Campgrounds 1-140 

Chapter 28 Marinas and Boatyards 1-140 

28.1 Marinas, Boatyards, and Other 

Recreational Marine Facilities 1-140 

28.2 Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves 1-143 

28.3 Construction, Repair, and Lay-Up of 

Vessels 1-143 

Chapter 29 Parking Garages 1-143 

29.1 General 1-143 

Chapter 30 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities 

and Repair Garages 1-143 

30.1 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities 1-143 

30.2 Repair Garages 1-144 

30.3 Operational Requirements 1-146 

Chapter31 Forest Products 1-146 

31.1 General 1-146 

31.2 Permits 1-146 

31.3 Forest Products 1-146 

Chapter 32 Reserved 1-150 

Chapter 33 Reserved 1-150 

Chapter34 Reserved 1-150 

Chapter 35 Reserved 1-150 

Chapter36 Reserved 1-150 

Chapters? Reserved 1-151 

Chapter38 Reserved 1-151 



Chapter 39 Reserved 1-151 

Part IV Processes 1-151 

Chapter 40 Dust Explosion Prevention 1-151 

40.1 General 1-151 

40.2 Permits 1-151 

Chapter41 Hot Work Operations 1-151 

41.1 General 1-151 

41.2 Responsibility for Hot Work 1-151 

41.3 Fire Prevention Precautions 1-152 

41.4 Public Exhibitions and 

Demonstrations 1-153 

41.5 Arc Welding Equipment 1-153 

Chapter42 Refueling 1-154 

42.1 General 1-154 

42.2 Automotive Fuel Servicing 1-154 

42.3 Marine Fueling 1-162 

42.4 Aircraft Fuel Servicing 1-166 

42.5 Alternate Fuels 1-172 

Chapter 43 Spraying, Dipping, and Coating 
Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials 1—177 

43.1 Application 1-177 

43.2 Organic Peroxides and Plural 

Component Coatings 1—185 

43.3 Styrene Cross-Linked Composites 
Manufacturing (Glass Fiber 

Reinforced Plastics) 1-186 

43.4 Dipping and Coating Processes 1-187 

43.5 Training 1-187 

Chapter44 Solvent Extraction 1—187 

44.1 General 1-187 

44.2 Application 1-187 

44.3 Permits 1-187 

44.4 Special Requirements 1—187 

Chapter45 Reserved 1-187 

Chapter46 Reserved 1-187 

Chapter47 Reserved 1-187 

Chapter48 Reserved 1-187 

Chapter49 Reserved 1-187 

Part V Equipment 1-187 

Chapter 50 Commercial Cooking Equipment 1—187 

50.1 Application 1-187 

50.2 General Requirements 1-188 

50.3 Protection of Coverings and Enclosure 
Materials 1-188 



2003 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-7 



50.4 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment 1-188 

50.5 Procedures for the Use and 

Maintenance of Equipment 1—190 

50.6 Minimum Safety Requirements for 

Cooking Equipment 1—191 

Chapter 51 Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 1—192 

51.1 General 1-192 

51.2 Location 1-192 

51.3 Safety Controls 1-192 

Chapter 52 Stationary Lead-Acid Battery 

Systems 1-192 

52.1 General 1-192 

52.2 Permits 1-192 

52.3 Safety Features 1-192 

Chapter 53 Mechanical Refrigeration 1—193 

53.1 General 1-193 

53.2 Classification 1-193 

53.3 Definitions 1-193 

53.4 Permits and Plans 1-193 

53.5 Installation and Maintenance 1-193 

53.6 Access 1-193 

53.7 Emergency Control Box 1-193 

53.8 Treatment and Flaring Systems for 
Refrigerant Discharge 1-193 

53.9 Ammonia Diffusion Systems 1-194 

53.10 Refrigeration Machinery Rooms 1-194 

53.11 Refrigerant Vapor Detection and 

Alarm Systems 1-195 

53.12 Electrical 1-195 

53.13 Instructions 1-195 

53.14 Signs and Labels 1-195 

53.15 Testing of Equipment 1-196 

53.16 Notification of Refrigerant Discharges 1—196 

53.17 Changing of Refrigerant Type 1-196 

53.18 Records of Refrigerant Quantities 1-196 

53.19 Storage 1-196 

tar 54 Reserved 1—196 

ter55 Reserved 1—196 

Chapter 56 Reserved 1—196 

Chapter 57 Reserved 1—196 

Chapter58 Reserved 1-196 

Chapter59 Reserved 1-196 

Part VI Hazardous Materials 1-196 

ChapterSO Hazardous Materials 1-196 

60.1 General 1-196 

60.2 Control Areas and Quantity Limits 1—200 



60.3 General Requirements for Storage and 
Use of Hazardous Materials in 
Amounts Exceeding Maximum 

Allowable Quantities 1-207 

60.4 Supplemental Requirements for 
Storage of Hazardous Materials in 
Amounts Exceeding Maximum 

Allowable Quantities 1-209 

60.5 Supplemental Requirements for Use 
and Handling of Hazardous 
Materials in Amounts Exceeding 

Maximum Allowable Quantities 1-213 

ChapterSl Aerosol Products 1—216 

61.1 General Provisions 1—216 

61.2 Classification of Aerosol Products 1—216 

61.3 Marking of Packages of Aerosol 

Products 1-216 

61.4 Basic Requirements 1-217 

61.5 Storage in Warehouses and Storage 

Areas 1-218 

61.6 Mercantile Occupancies 1-218 

61.7 Operations and Maintenance 1-219 

Chapter 62 Combustible Fibers 1—220 

62.1 General 1-220 

62.2 Electrical Wiring 1-220 

62.3 No Smoking 1-220 

62.4 Vehicles and Material Handling 

Equipment 1-220 

62.5 Loose Storage of Combustible Fibers 1-220 

62.6 Baled Storage 1-220 

Chapter 63 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic 

Fluids 1-221 

63.1 General Provisions 1-221 

63.2 Building Related Controls 1-222 

63.3 Compressed Gases 1-225 

63.4 Cryogenic Fluids 1-234 

Chapter 64 Corrosive Solids and liquids 1-239 

64.1 General 1-239 

64.2 Outdoor Storage 1-239 

Chapter 65 Explosives, Fireworks, and Model 

Rocketry 1-239 

65.1 General 1-239 

65.2 Display Fireworks 1-239 

65.3 Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate 

Audience 1-239 

65.4 Flame Effects Before an Audience 1-239 

65.5 Fireworks Manufacturing 1-239 

65.6 Model Rocketry 1-239 

65.7 Rocketry Manufacturing 1-239 

65.8 High Power Rocketry 1-240 

65.9 Explosives 1-240 



2003 Edition 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



65.10 Ammonium Nitrate 1-240 

65.11 Sale, Handling, and Storage of 

Consumer Fireworks 1-240 

Chapter 66 Flammable and Combustible 

Liquids 1-247 

66.1 General 1-247 

66.2 Tank Storage 1-247 

66.3 Piping Systems 1-255 

66.4 Container and Portable Tank Storage 1-255 

66.5 Operations 1-282 

66.6 Electrical Equipment and Installations 1-289 

66.7 Handling Underground Releases of 
Flammable and Combustible 

Liquids 1-289 

Chapter67 Flammable Solids 1-292 

67.1 General 1-292 

67.2 Outdoor Storage 1-292 

Chapter 68 Highly Toxic and Toxic Soh'ds and 

Liquids 1-292 

68.1 General 1-292 

68.2 Indoor Storage 1-292 

68.3 Outdoor Storage 1-292 

Chapter 69 Liquefied Petroleum Gases and 

Liquefied Natural Gases 1—292 

69.1 General Provisions 1-292 

69.2 Containers 1-292 

69.3 Installation of LP-Gas Systems 1-294 

69.4 LP-Gas Liquid Transfer 1-306 

69.5 Storage of Cylinders Awaiting Use, 

Resale, or Exchange 1—307 

69.6 Vehicular Transportation of LP-Gas 1-308 

69.7 LP-Gases at Utility Plants 1-310 

69.8 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1-310 

Chapter 70 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1—310 

70.1 General 1-310 



70.2 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 1—310 

70.3 Organic Peroxide Formulations 1—316 

Chapter 71 Pyrophoric Solids and Liquids 1—320 

71.1 General 1-320 

71.2 Outdoor Storage 1-320 

Chapter 72 Unstable (Reactive) Solids and 

Liquids 1-320 

72.1 General 1-320 

72.2 Outdoor Storage 1-320 

Chapter 73 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids 1—320 

73.1 General 1-320 

73.2 Outdoor Storage 1-320 

AnnexA Explanatory Material 1-320 

AnnexB Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1-411 

Annex C Sample Ordinance Adopting the 

NFPA1, Uniform Fire Code™ 1-420 

Annex D Hazardous Materials Management 
Plans and Hazardous Materials 

Inventory Statements 1—421 

Annex E Model Citation Program 1-430 

Annex F Model Fees and Charges Program 1-436 

Annex G Ozone Gas-Generating Equipment 1—440 

Annex H Fire Flow Requirements for Buildings 1—441 

Annex I Fire Hydrant Locations and 

Distribution 1—443 

Annex J Additional, Adoptable NFPA Codes and 

Standards 1-443 

Annex K Informational References 1—445 

Index 1-450 



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NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter desig- 
nating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on the 
paragraph can be found in Annex A. 

A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph 
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA 
document. As an aid to the user, Annex K lists the complete 
title and edition of the source documents for both mandatory 
and nonmandatory extracts. Editorial changes to extracted 
material consist of revising references to an appropriate divi- 
sion in this document or the inclusion of the document num- 
ber with the division number when the reference is to the 
original document. Requests for interpretations or revisions 
of extracted text shall be sent to the technical committee re- 
sponsible for the source document. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 2 and Annex K. 



Qnapter 1 

1.1 Scope. 

1.1.1 The scope includes, but is not limited to, the following: 

(1) Inspection of permanent and temporary buildings, pro- 
cesses, equipment, systems, and other fire and related 
life safety situations 

(2) Investigation of fires, explosions, hazardous materials 
incidents, and other related emergency incidents 

(3) Review of design and construction plans, drawings, and 
specifications for life safety systems, fire protection sys- 
tems, access, water supplies, processes, and hazardous 
materials and other fire and life safety issues 

(4) Fire and life safety education of fire brigades, employees, 
responsible parties, and the general public 

(5) Existing occupancies and conditions, the design and 
construction of new buildings, remodeling of existing 
buildings, and additions to existing buildings 

(6) Design, alteration, modification, construction, mainte- 
nance, and testing of fire protection systems and equip- 
ment 

(7)*Access requirements for fire department operations 

(8) Hazards from outside fires in vegetation, trash, building 
debris, and other materials 

(9) Regulation and control of special events including, but 
not limited to, assemblage of people, exhibits, trade 
shows, amusement parks, haunted houses, outdoor 
events, and other similar special temporary and perma- 
nent occupancies 

(10) Interior finish, decorations, furnishings, and other com- 
bustibles that contribute to fire spread, fire load, and 
smoke production 

(11) Storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site transpor- 
tation of flammable and combustible gases, liquids, and 
solids 

(12) Storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site transpor- 
tation of hazardous materials 

(13) Control of emergency operations and scenes 

(14) Conditions affecting fire fighter safety 



1.1.2 Title. The title of this Code shall be NFPA 1, Uniform Fin 
Code™, of the National Fire Protection Association. 

1.2* Purpose. The purpose of this Code is to prescribe mini- 
mum requirements necessary to establish a reasonable level of 
fire and life safety and property protection from the hazards 
created by fire, explosion, and dangerous conditions. 

1.3 Application. 

1.3.1 This Code shall apply to both new and existing conditions. 

1.3.2* Referenced Standards. 

1.3.2.1 Details regarding processes, methods, specifications, 
equipment testing and maintenance, design standards, per- 
formance, installation, or other pertinent criteria contained 
in those standards and codes listed in Chapter 2 of this Code 
shall be considered a part of this Code. 

1.3.2.2 Where no applicable codes, standards, or require- 
ments are set forth in this Code or contained within other laws, 
codes, regulations, ordinances, or bylaws adopted by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction (AHJ), compliance with applicable 
codes and standards of NFPA (National Fire Protection Asso- 
ciation) or other nationally recognized standards as are ap- 
proved shall be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance 
with the intent of this Code. (See Annex J.) 

1.3.2.3 Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of 
the AHJ to determine compliance with codes or standards for 
those activities or installations within the AHJ's responsibility. 

1.3.3 Conflicts. 

1.3.3.1 When a requirement differs between this Code and a 
referenced document, the requirement of this Code shall apply. 

1.3.3.2 When a conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement occurs, the specific requirement shall apply. 

1.3.4 Multiple Occupancies. Where two or more classes of oc- 
cupancy occur in the same building or structure and are so 
intermingled that separate safeguards are impracticable, 
means of egress facilities, construction, protection, and other 
safeguards shall comply with the most restrictive fire safety 
requirements of the occupancies involved. 

1.3.5 Vehicles and Vessels. Vehicles, vessels, or other similar 
conveyances, when in fixed locations and occupied as build- 
ings, as described by Section 11.6 of NFPA 101®, Life Safety 
Code®, shall be treated as buildings and comply with this Code. 

1.3.6 Buildings. Buildings permitted for construction after 
the adoption of this Code shall comply with the provisions 
stated herein for new buildings. 

1.3.7* Buildings in existence or permitted for construction 
prior to the adoption of this Code shall comply with the provi- 
sions stated herein or referenced for existing buildings (see 
10.3.3). 

1.3.8 Repairs, renovations, alterations, reconstruction, 
change of occupancy, and additions to buildings shall con- 
form with NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, and the adopted build- 
ing code of the jurisdiction. 

1.3.9 Newly introduced equipment, materials, and opera- 
tions regulated by this Code shall comply with the require- 
ments for new construction or processes. 

1.3.10 Severability. If any provision of this Codeor the applica- 
tion thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the 



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remainder of the Code and the application of such provision to 
other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby. 

1.4 Equivalencies, Alternatives, and Modifications. 

1.4.1 Equivalencies. Nothing in this Code is intended to pre- 
vent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or 
superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, dura- 
bility, and safety to those prescribed by this Code, provided 
technical documentation is submitted to the AHJ to demon- 
strate equivalency and the system, method, or device is ap- 
proved for the intended purpose. 

1.4.2 Alternatives. The specific requirements of this Coffeshall 
be permitted to be altered by the AHJ to allow alternative 
methods that will secure equivalent fire safety, but in no case 
shall the alternative afford less fire safety than, in the judg- 
ment of the AHJ, that which would be provided by compliance 
with the provisions contained in this Code. 

1.4.3 Modifications. The AHJ is authorized to modify any of 
the provisions of this Code upon application in writing by the 
owner, a lessee, or a duly authorized representative where 
there are practical difficulties in the way of carrying out the 
provisions of the Code, provided that the intent of the Code 
shall be complied with, public safety secured, and substantial 
justice done. 

L4.4 Buildings with equivalency, alternative or modification 
approved by the AHJ shall be considered as conforming with 
this Code. 

1.4.5 Each application for an alternative fire protection fea- 
ture shall be filed with the AHJ and shall be accompanied by 
such evidence, letters, statements, results of tests, or other sup- 
porting information as required to justify the request. The 
AHJ shall keep a record of actions on such applications, and a 
signed copy of the AHJ's decision shall be provided for the 
applicant. 

1.4.6 Approval. The AHJ shall approve such alternative con- 
struction systems, materials, or methods of design when it is 
substantiated that the standards of this Code are at least 
equaled. If, in the opinion of the AHJ, the standards of this 
Code shall not be equaled by the alternative requested, ap- 
proval for permanent work shall be refused. Consideration 
shall be given to test or prototype installations. 

1.4.7 Tests. 

1.4.7.1 Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compli- 
ance with the requirements of this Code or evidence that any 
material or method of construction does not conform to the 
requirements of this Code, or to substantiate claims for alterna- 
tive construction systems, materials, or methods of construc- 
tion, the AHJ shall be permitted to require tests for proof of 
compliance to be made by an approved agency at the expense 
of the owner or his/her agent. 

1.4.7.2 Test methods shall be as specified by this Code for the 
material in question. If there are not appropriate test methods 
specified in this Code, the AHJ is authorized to accept an appli- 
cable test procedure from another recognized source. 

1 .4.7.3 Copies of the results of all such tests shall be retained 
in accordance with Section 1.11. 

1.5 Units. 

1.5.1 International System of Units. Metric units of measure- 
ment in this Code are in accordance with the modernized met- 
ric system known as the International System of Units (SI). 



1.5.2 Primary and Equivalent Values. If a value for a measure- 
ment as given in this Code is followed by an equivalent value in 
other units, the first stated value shall be regarded as the re- 
quirement. A given equivalent value could be approximate. 

1.6 Enforcement. This Code shall be administered and en- 
forced by the AHJ designated by the governing authority. (See 
Annex Cfor a Sample Ordinance Adopting the NFPA 1, Uniform Fire 
Code™.) 

1.7 Authority. 

1.7.1 Administration. The provisions of this Code shall apply 
without restriction, unless specifically exempted. 

1.7.2 Interpretations. 

1.7.2.1 The AHJ is authorized to render interpretations of 
this Code and to make and enforce rules and supplemental 
regulations in order to carry out the application and intent of 
its provisions. 

1.7.2.2 Such interpretations, rules, and regulations shall be 
in conformance with the intent and purpose of this Code and 
shall be available to the public during normal business hours. 

1.7.3 Enforcement Assistance. Police and other enforcement 
agencies shall have authority to render necessary assistance in the 
enforcement of this Codev/hen requested to do so by the AHJ. 

1.7.4 Delegation of Authority. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
delegate to other qualified individuals such powers as neces- 
sary for the administration and enforcement of this Code. 

1.7.5 Inspection. 

1.7.5.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to inspect, at all reason- 
able times, any building or premises for dangerous or hazard- 
ous conditions or materials as set forth in this Code. 

1.7.5.2 The AHJ shall have authority to order any person (s) 
to remove or remedy such dangerous or hazardous condition 
or material. Any person(s) failing to comply with such order 
shall be in violation of this Code. 

1.7.5.3 To the full extent permitted by law, any AHJ engaged 
in fire prevention and inspection work shall be authorized at 
all reasonable times to enter and examine any building, struc- 
ture, marine vessel, vehicle, or premises for the purpose of 
making fire safety inspections. 

1.7.5.4 Before entering, the AHJ shall obtain the consent of 
the occupant thereof or obtain a court warrant authorizing 
entry for the purpose of inspection except in those instances 
where an emergency exists. 

1.7.5.5 As used in 1.7.5.4, emergency means circumstances 
that the AHJ knows, or has reason to believe, exist and that can 
constitute immediate danger to life and property. 

1.7.5.6 Persons authorized to enter and inspect buildings, 
structures, marine vessels, vehicles, and premises as herein set 
forth shall be identified by credentials issued by the governing 
authority. 

1.7.6 Where conditions exist and are deemed hazardous to 
life and property by the AHJ, the AHJ shall have the authority 
to summarily abate such hazardous conditions that are in vio- 
lation of this Code. 

1.7.7 Interference with Enforcement. Persons shall not inter- 
fere or cause conditions that would interfere with an AHJ car- 
rying out any duties or functions prescribed by this Code. 



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1.7.8 Impersonation. Persons shall not use a badge, uniform, 
or other credentials to impersonate the AHJ. 

1.7.9 Investigation. 

1.7.9.1 Authority. The AHJ shall have the authority to investi- 
gate the cause, origin, and circumstances of any fire, explosion, 
release of hazardous materials, or other hazardous condition. 

1.7.9.2 Evidence. The AHJ shall have the authority to take 
custody of all physical evidence relating to the cause of the 
fire, explosion, release of hazardous materials, or other haz- 
ardous condition. 

1.7.9.3 Limitiing Access. The AHJ shall have the authority to 
limit access to emergencies or other similar situations. 

1.7.9.4 Trade Secret. Information that could be related to 
trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public 
record except as could be directed by a court of law. 

1.7.10 Plans and Specification. The AHJ shall have the au- 
thority to require plans and specifications to ensure compli- 
ance with applicable codes and standards. 

1.7.11 Inspection of Construction and Installation. 

1.7.11.1 The AHJ shall be notified by the person performing 
the work when the installation is ready for a required inspection. 

1.7.11.2 Whenever any installation subject to inspection prior 
to use is covered or concealed without having first been in- 
spected, the AHJ shall have the authority to require that such 
work be exposed for inspection. 

1.7.11.3 When any construction or installation work is being 
performed in violation of the plans and specifications as ap- 
proved by the AHJ, a written notice shall be issued to the re- 
sponsible party to stop work on that portion of the work that is 
in violation. 

1.7.11.4 The notice shall state the nature of the violation, and 
no work shall be continued on that portion until the violation 
has been corrected. 

1.7.12 Stop Work or Evacuation. 

1.7.12.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to order an opera- 
tion or use stopped and the immediate evacuation of any oc- 
cupied building or area when such building or area has haz- 
ardous conditions that present imminent danger. 

1.7.12.2 Whenever any work is being done contrary to provi- 
sions of this Code, the AHJ is hereby authorized to order such 
work stopped. 

1.7.12.3 Such work shall immediately stop until authorized 
by the AHJ to proceed. 

1.7.13 Standby Fine Personnel. 

1.7.13.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to require standby 
fire personnel or an approved fire watch when potentially haz- 
ardous conditions or a reduction in a life safety feature exist 
due to the type of performance, display, exhibit, occupancy, 
contest or activity, an impairment to a fire protection feature, 
or the number of persons present. 

1.7.13.2* The owner, agent, or lessee shall employ one or more 
qualified persons, as required and approved, to be on duty. 

1.7.13.3 Such standby fire personnel or fire watch personnel 
shall be subject to the AHJ's orders at all times and shall be 
identifiable and remain on duty during the times such places 



are open to the public, when such activity is being conducted, 
or as required by the AHJ. 

1.7.14 Public Fire Education. 

1.7.14.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to develop and 
implement a public fire safety education program as deemed 
necessary for the general welfare with respect to the potential 
fire hazards within the jurisdiction. 

1.7.14.2 The AHJ shall have the authority to ensure duly au- 
thorized public fire safety education programs or public fire 
safety messages are disseminated to the general public. 

1.8 Duties and Powers off the Incident Comunmander. 

1.8.1 Authority. The incident commander conducting opera- 
tions in connection with the extinguishment and control of 
any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, natural di- 
saster, rescue, and/or other emergency shall have authority to 
direct all operations of fire extinguishment, mitigation of a 
hazardous materials incident, natural disaster, rescue, and/or 
control and to take necessary precautions to save life, protect 
property, and prevent further injury or damage. 

1.8.2 Controlling Scene. During any emergency described in 
1.8.1, including the investigation of the cause of such emer- 
gency, the incident commander shall be permitted to control 
or prohibit the approach to the scene of such emergency by 
any vehicle, vessel, or person. 

1.8.3 Obstruction of Operations. No person shall obstruct 
the operations of the fire department or disobey any com- 
mand of the incident commander or any part thereof, or any 
order of a police officer assisting the fire department. 

1.8.4 Scene Barrier. The incident commander in charge of an 
emergency scene shall have the authority to establish barriers 
to control access in the vicinity of such emergency and to 
place, or cause to be placed, ropes, guards, barricades, or 
other obstructions across any street or alley to delineate such 
emergency scene barrier. 

1.8.5 No person, except as authorized by the incident com- 
mander in charge of the emergency, shall be permitted to 
cross barriers established in accordance with 1 .8.4. 

1.9 Liability. 

1.9.1 The AHJ, and other individuals charged by the AHJ or 
the incident commander with the control or extinguishment 
of any fire, the enforcement of this Code or any other official 
duties, acting in good faith and without malice in the dis- 
charge of their duties, shall not thereby be rendered person- 
ally liable for any damage that could accrue to persons or 
property as a result of any act or by reason of any act or omis- 
sion in the discharge of their duties. 

1.9.2 Any suit brought against the AHJ, the incident com- 
mander, or such individuals because of such act or omission 
performed in the enforcement of any provision of such codes 
or other pertinent laws or ordinances implemented through 
the enforcement of this Code or enforced by the code enforce- 
ment agency shall be defended by this jurisdiction until final 
termination of such proceedings, and any judgment resulting 
therefrom shall be assumed by this jurisdiction. 

1 .9.3 This Code shall not be construed to relieve from or lessen 
the responsibility of any person owning, operating, or control- 
ling any building or structure for any damages to persons or 
property caused by defects, nor shall the code enforcement 



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agency or its parent jurisdiction be held as assuming any such 
liability by reason of the inspections authorized by this Code or 
any permits or certificates issued under this Code. 

1.10 Board of Appeals. 

1.10.1 Establishment of Board of Appeals. 

1.10.1.1 ABoard of Appeals shall be established consisting of 
members and alternate members who shall be appointed by 
the appointing official of the jurisdiction by reason of educa- 
tion, experience, and knowledge and are deemed to be com- 
petent to sit in judgment on matters concerning this Code and 
its enforcement. 

1.10.1.2 No more than one of said members or their alter- 
nates shall be engaged in the same business, profession, or 
line of endeavor. 

1.10.1.3 The members shall serve for a term of three years, 
except for the initial appointees who shall serve as follows: two 
for a term of one year, two for a term of two years, and three 
for a term of three years. 

1.10.1.4 All members and any alternate members shall be 
appointed and shall serve in accordance with the terms and 
conditions of the AHJ. 

1.10.2 Rules of Board of Appeals. The Board shall establish 
rules and regulations for conducting its business and shall ren- 
der all decisions and findings in writing to the AHJ, with a copy 
to the appellant. 

1.10.3 Conflicts of Interest. 

1.10.3.1 Board members shall not be officers, agents, or em- 
ployees of the jurisdiction. 

1.10.3.2 No member of the Board of Appeals shall sit in judg- 
ment on any case in which the member, personally, is direcdy 
interested. 

1 . 1 0.4 Duties of Board of Appeals. 

1.10.4.1 The Board of Appeals shall provide for reasonable 
interpretation of the provisions of this Code and rule on ap- 
peals from decisions of the AHJ. 

1.10.4.2 The ruling of the appeals board shall ensure that the 
intent of the Code is complied with and public safety is secured. 

1.10.5 Meetings of Board of Appeals. 

1.10.5.1 The Board of Appeals shall meet whenever directed 
by the appointing authority to interpret the provisions of this 
Code and to consider and rule on any properly filed appeal 
from a decision of the AHJ, giving at least five days' notice of 
hearing, but in no case shall it fail to meet on an appeal within 
30 calendar days of the filing of notice of appeal. 

1.10.5.2 All of the meetings of the board shall be open to the 
public. 

1.10.6 Quorum. Two-thirds, but not less than four members, 
of the Board of Appeals shall constitute a quorum. In varying 
the application of any provision of this Code, or in modifying 
an order of the AHJ, a majority vote shall be required. 



1.10.7 Meetings and Reconds. 

1.10.7.1 Meetings of the Board of Appeals shall be held at the 
call of the chair and at such other times as the board determines. 

1.10.7.2 All hearings before the Board of Appeals shall be 
open to the public. 

1.10.7.3 The Board of Appeals shall keep minutes of its pro- 
ceedings showing the vote of each member on every question, or 
if the member is absent or fails to vote, indicating such actions. 

1.10.7.4 The Board of Appeals shall also keep records of its 
examinations and other official actions. 

1 . 10.7.5 Minutes and records of the Board of Appeals shall be 
public record. 

1.10.8 Procedures. The Board of Appeals shall establish rules 
and regulations for its own procedures consistent with the pro- 
visions of this Code. 

1.10.9 Means of Appeals. 

1.10.9.1 Any person shall be permitted to appeal a decision 
of the AHJ to the Board of Appeals when it is claimed that any 
one or more of the following conditions exist: 

( 1 ) The true intent of the codes or ordinances described in 
this Code has been incorrectly interpreted. 

(2) The provisions of the codes or ordinances do not fully 
apply. 

(3) A decision is unreasonable or arbitrary as it applies to al- 
ternatives or new materials. 

1.10.9.2 An appeal shall be submitted to the AHJ in writing 
within 30 calendar days of notification of violation outlining 
the Code provision from which relief is sought and the remedy 
proposed. 

1.10.9.3* All documentation supporting an appeal shall be 
submitted to the AHJ. 

1.11 Records and Reports. 

1.11.1 A record of examinations, approvals, equivalencies, 
and alternates shall be maintained by the AHJ and shall be 
available for public inspection during business hours in accor- 
dance with applicable laws. 

1.11.2 The AHJ shall keep a record of all fire prevention in- 
spections, including the date of such inspections and a sum- 
mary of any violations found to exist, the date of the services of 
notices, and a record of the final disposition of all violations. 

1.11.3 Emergency Response Records. 

1.11.3.1 The fire department shall keep a record of fire and 
other emergency responses occurring within its jurisdiction 
and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to the 
extent and damage caused by such fires or emergencies. 

1.11.3.2 The fire department shall report its incident record 
data, collected in accordance with 1.11.3, to the recognized 
state agency responsible for collecting such data. 

1.11.4 All records required to be kept shall be maintained 
until their usefulness has been served or as required by law. 



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1.12 Permits and Approvals. 

1.12.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to establish and issue 
permits, certificates, notices, approvals, or orders pertaining 
to fire control and fire hazards pursuant to Section 1.12. 

1.12.2 Applications for permits shall be made to the AHJ on 
forms provided by the jurisdiction and shall include the appli- 
cant's answers in full to inquiries set forth on such forms. 

1.12.2.1 Applications for permits shall be accompanied by 
such data as required by the AHJ and fees as required by the 
jurisdiction. 

1.12.2.2 The AHJ shall review all applications submitted and 
issue permits as required. 

1.12.2.3 If an application for a permit is rejected by the AHJ, 
the applicant shall be advised of the reasons for such rejection. 

1.12.2.4 Permits for activities requiring evidence of financial 
responsibility by the jurisdiction shall not be issued unless 
proof of required financial responsibility is furnished. 

1.12.3 Misrepresentation. 

1.12.3.1 Any attempt to misrepresent or otherwise deliber- 
ately or knowingly design; install; service; maintain; operate; 
sell; represent for sale; falsify records, reports, or applications; 
or other related activity in violation of the requirements pre- 
scribed by this Code shall be a violation of this Code. 

1.12.3.2 Such violations shall be cause for immediate suspen- 
sion or revocation of any related licenses, certificates, or per- 
mits issued by thisjurisdiction. 

1.12.3.3 In addition, any such violation shall be subject to any 
other criminal or civil penalties as available by the laws of this 
jurisdiction. 

1.12.4 A permit shall be predicated upon compliance with 
the requirements of this Code and shall constitute written au- 
thority issued by the AHJ to maintain, store, use, or handle 
materials, or to conduct processes that could produce condi- 
tions hazardous to life or property, or to install equipment 
used in connection with such activities. 

1.12.5 Any permit issued under this Code shall not take the 
place of any other license or permit required by other regula- 
tions or laws of thisjurisdiction. 

1.12.6 Where additional permits are required by other agen- 
cies, approval shall be obtained from those other agencies. 

1.12.7 The AHJ shall have the authority to require an inspec- 
tion prior to the issuance of a permit. 

1.12.8 A permit issued under this Code shall continue until 
revoked or for the period of time designated on the permit. 

1.12.9 The permit shall be issued to one person or business 
only and for the location or purpose described in the permit. 

1.12.10 Any change that affects any of the conditions of the 
permit shall require a new or amended permit. 



1.12.11 The AHJ shall have the authority to grant an exten- 
sion of the permit time period upon presentation by the per- 
mittee of a satisfactory reason for failure to start or complete 
the work or activity authorized by the permit. 

1.12.12 A copy of the permit shall be posted or otherwise 
readily accessible at each place of operation and shall be sub- 
ject to inspection as specified by the AHJ. 

1.12.13 Any activity authorized by any permit issued under 
this Code shall be conducted by the permittee or the permit- 
tee's agents or employees in compliance with all requirements 
of this Code applicable thereto and in accordance with the 
approved plans and specifications. 

1.12.14 No permit issued under this Codeshall be interpreted 
to justify a violation of any provision of this Code or any other 
applicable law or regulation. 

1.12.15 Any addition or alteration of approved plans or speci- 
fications shall be approved in advance by the AHJ, as evi- 
denced by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 

1.12.16* Permits shall be issued by the AHJ and shall bear the 
name and signature of the AHJ or that of the AHJ's designated 
representative. In addition, the permit shall indicate the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Operation or activities for which the permit is issued 

(2) Address or location where the operation or activity is to be 
conducted 

(3) Name and address of the permittee 

(4) Permit number and date of issuance 

(5) Period of validity of the permit 

(6) Inspection requirements 

1.12.17 Any application for, or acceptance of, any permit re- 
quested or issued pursuant to this Code shall constitute agree- 
ment and consent by the person making the application or 
accepting the permit to allow the AHJ to enter the premises at 
any reasonable time to conduct such inspections as required 
by this Code. 

1.12.18 Revocation or Suspension of Permits. 

1.12.18.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to revoke or suspend a 
permit or approval issued if any violation of this Code is found 
upon inspection or in case any false statements or misrepre- 
sentations have been submitted in the application or plans on 
which the permit or approval was based. 

1.12.18.2 Revocation or suspension shall be constituted 
when the permittee is duly notified by the AHJ. 

1.12.18.3 Any person who engages in any business, opera- 
tion, or occupation, or uses any premises, after the permit 
issued therefore has been suspended or revoked pursuant to 
the provisions of this Code, and before such suspended permit 
has been reinstated or a new permit issued, shall be in viola- 
tion of this Code. 

1.12.19 Permits shall be required in accordance with Table 
1.12.19(a). 



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Table 1.12.19(a) Permit Requirements 


Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Aerosol Products 


To store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 2 or Level 3 
aerosol products in excess of 500 lb (226.8 kg) 


61.1.2 


Aircraft Fuel Servicing 


To provide aircraft fuel servicing 


42.4.1.2 


Aircraft Hangars 


For servicing or repairing aircraft 


21.1.1 


Aircraft Refueling Vehicles 


To operate aircraft refueling vehicles 


42.4.1.2 


Airport Terminal Buildings 


For construction and alteration 


21.2.2.1 


Ammonium Nitrate 


For storage 


65.10.2 


Amusement Parks 


For construction, alteration, or operation of amusement park fire 
protection safety features 


10.16.1 


Asbestos Removal 


For the removal of asbestos 


16.8.2 


Automatic Fire Suppression Systems 


For installation or modification 


13.1.1.1 
50.4.2 


Automobile Wrecking Yards 


To operate automobile wrecking yards 


22.2 


Automotive Fuel Servicing 


To provide automotive fuel servicing 


42.2.2.1 

42.5.2.2.4 

42.5.3.1 


Battery System 


To install or operate stationary lead-acid battery systems having an 
electrolyte capacity of more than 100 gal (379 L) in sprinklered 
buildings or 50 gal (189 L) in nonsprinklered buildings 


52.2 


Candles, Open Flames, and Portable 
Cooking 


To use in connection with assembly areas, dining areas of 
restaurants, or drinking establishments 


17.3.4.6.1 
20.1.4.1.4.1 


Carnivals and Fairs 


To conduct the events 


10.16.1 


Cellulose Nitrate Film 


For storage, handling, or use 


20.15.6.1 


Cellulose Nitrate Plastic 


To store or handle more than 25 lb (11.3 kg) 


43.1.1.4 


Cleanrooms 


For construction, alternation, or operation 


23.3 


Combustible Fibers 


For storage or handling of combustible fibers greater 
(2.8 m 3 ) 


than 100 ft 3 


62.1.3 


Combustible Material Storage 


To store more than 2500 ft 3 (70.8 m 3 ) gross volume 


19.1.1 
20.15.4.2 


Commercial Rubbish-Handling 
Operation 


To operate 


19.1.1 



2003 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-15 



Table 1.12.19(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Compressed Gases 


To store, use, or handle compressed gases in excess of the amounts 
listed in Table 1.12.19(b). When the compressed gases in use or 
storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 1.12.19(b), a permit 
is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place 
temporarily out of service, close, or substantially modify a 
compressed gas system. For additional permit requirements for 
compressed gases facility closures, see 63.1.2. 


63.1.2 


Consumer Fireworks (1.4G) 


For the sale, on-site handling, manufacture, and storage of 
consumer fireworks (1.4G) 


65.5.2 
65.11.3.1 


Covered Mall Buildings 


Annual requirement for facilities that utilize mall area for exhibits 
or displays with 4 conditions 


20.1.4.4.1 


Cryogens 


To produce, store, or handle cryogens in excess of amounts listed 
in Table 1.12.19(c) 

Exception: Where federal or state regulations apply or for fuel systems of a 
vehicle. 


63.1.2 


Cutting and Welding Operation 


For operations within a jurisdiction 


17.3.4.6.1 
41.1.5; 41.3.1.2; 
41.3.3.1 


Display Fireworks (1.3G) 


For possession, transportation, storage, manufacture, sale, 
handling, and discharge of display fireworks within the 
jurisdiction 


65.2.3 
65.5.2 


Drycleaning Plants 


To engage in business of drycleaning or to change to a more 
hazardous cleaning solvent 


24.2 


Dust-Producing Operations 


To operate a grain elevator, flour mill, starch mill, feed mill, or 
plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices, or 
sugar, etc. 


40.2 


Exhibit and Trade Shows 


For operation of all exhibits and trade shows held within a 
jurisdiction 


20.1.4.4.1 


Explosives 


Manufacture, sell, dispose, purchase, storage, use, possess, or 
transport of explosives within the jurisdiction. For additional 
permit requirements for blasting operations, see 65.9.2.1 


65.9.2 


Fire Alarm and Detection Systems and 
Related Equipment 


Installation or modification to fire alarm and detection systems and 
related equipment 1 


13.1.1.1 


Fire Hydrants and Water-Control Valves 


To use a fire hydrant or operate a water-control valve intended for 
fire suppression purposes 


13.1.1.1 


Fire Pumps and Related Equipment 


Installation of or modification to fire pumps, jockey pumps, 
controllers, and generators 1 


13.1.1.1 


Flame Effects 


Use of flame effects before an audience 


65.4.2 



(continues) 



2003 Edition 



1-16 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE T 



Table 1.12.19(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 



Permit Required 



Cross Reference 
Section No. 



Flammable and Combustible Liquids 



1. To use or operate, repair, or modify a pipeline for the on-site 
transportation of flammable or combustible liquids 

2. To store, handle, or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 gal (18.9 L) 
in a building or in excess of 10 gal (37.9 L) outside of a building. 
Exception to item (2): A permit is not required for the following: 

(a) The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor 
vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power plant, or mobile heating plant 
unless such storage in the opinion of the chief would cause an unsafe 
condition 

(b) The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes, or similar flammable 
mixtures when such liquids are stored for maintenance, painting, or 
similar purposes for a period of not more than 30 days 

3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class III-A liquids in excess of 
25 gal (94.6 L) in a building or in excess of 60 gal (227.1 L) 
outside a building. 

Exception to item (3): Fuel oil used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment 

4. To remove Class I or Class II liquids from an underground 
storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by any means other 
than the approved, stationary on-site pumps normally used for 
dispensing purposes 

5. To install, construct, alter, or operate tank vehicles, equipment, 
tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, 
distilleries, and similar facilities where flammable and 
combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, 
stored, dispensed, or used 

6. To install, alter remove, abandon, place temporarily out of 
service, or otherwise dispose of a flammable or combustible 
liquid tank 

7. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable or 
combustible liquid tank to a material other than those for which 
the tank was designed and constructed 



66.1.5 



Grandstands and Bleachers, Folding 
and Telescopic Seating 



For construction, location, erection, or placement of grandstands 
and bleachers, folding and telescopic seating 



25.1.2 



Hazardous Materials 



To store, transport on site, dispense, use, or handle hazardous 
materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 1.12.19(d) or 
to install, repair, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of 
service, close, or substantially modify a storage facility or other 
area regulated by Chapter 60 when the hazardous materials in 
use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 1.12.19(d) 



60.1.6.1.1 



High-Piled Combustible Storage 



To use any building or portion thereof as a high-piled storage area 
exceeding 500 ft (46.45 m 2 ) 



20.15.7.1.1 



High-Powered Rocketry 



For the manufacturing, sale, and use of high-powered rocketry 



65.8.2 



Hot Work Operations 



For hot work. For additional permit requirements for hot work 
operations, see 41.1.5 



17.3.4.6.1 

41.1.5 

41.3.3.1 



Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 



For operation of industrial ovens and furnaces covered by 
Chapter 51 



51.1.2.1 



Laboratories 



For construction, alteration, or operation 



26.3 



2003 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-17 



Table 1.12.19(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Liquefied Petroleum Gases 


1. To store, use, handle, or dispense LP-gas 

2. To install or modify LP-gas systems 


42.5.2.2.4 
69.1.2 


Liquid- or Gas-Fueled Vehicles 


To display, compete, or demonstrate liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles 
or equipment in assembly buildings 


20.1.4.4.1 


Lumberyards and Woodworking Plants 


For storage of lumber exceeding 100,000 board ft 


31.2 


Marine Craft Fuel Servicing 


To provide marine craft fuel servicing 


42.3.1.4 


Membrane Structures, Tents, and 
Canopies — Permanent 


For construction, location, erection, or placement 


25.1.2 


Membrane Structures, Tents, and 
Canopies — Temporary 


To erect or operate an air-supported temporary membrane 

structure or tent having an area in excess of 200 ft 2 (18.6 m 2 ) or 
a canopy in excess of 400 ft 2 (37.2 m 2 ). 

Exception: Temporary membrane structures, tents, or canopy structures 
used exclusively for camping 


25.1.2 


Oil- and Gas-Fueled Heating Appliances 


To install oil- and gas-fired heating appliances 


11.5.1.5 


Open Burning 


To conduct open burning. For additional permit requirements for 
open burning, see 10.11.1 


10.11.1 


Open Fires 


For kindling or maintaining an open fire. For additional permit 
requirements for open burning, see 10.11.4 2 


10.11.1 


Organic Coatings 


For operation and maintenance of a facility that manufactures 
organic coatings 


43.1.1.4 


Organic Peroxide Formulations 


To store, transport on site, use, or handle materials in excess of 
amounts listed in Table 1.12.19(c) and (d) 


70.3 


Oxidizers 


To store, transport on site, use, or handle materials in excess of 
amounts listed in Table 1.12.19(c) and (d) 


70.2 


Parade Floats 


To use a parade float for public performance, presentation, 
spectacle, entertainment, or parade 


10.18.1 


Places of Assembly 


To operate a place of assembly 


10.16.1; 20.1.1 


Pyrotechnic Articles 


For the manufacture, storage, sale, or use of pyrotechnic articles 
within the jurisdiction 


65.2.3; 65.3.3 
65.5.2; 65.11 


Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate 
Audience 


For the display and use of pyrotechnic materials before a proximate 
audience 


65.3.3 


Pyroxylin Plastics 


For storage, handling, assembly, or manufacture of pyroxylin 
plastics 


43.1.1.4 


Private Fire Hydrants 


For installation, modification, or removal from service of any 
private fire hydrants 


13.1.1.1 


Refrigeration Equipment 


To install or operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or system 


53.4.1 


Repair Garages and Service Stations 


For operation of service stations and repair garages 


30.1.1.3; 30.2.1.1 


Rocketry Manufacturing 


For the manufacturing of model rocket motors 


65.7.2 


Rooftop Heliports 


For construction, modification, or operation of a rooftop heliport 


21.3.2.1 



(continues) 



2003 Edition 



1-18 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



Table 1.12.19(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Solvent Extraction 


For storage, use, and handling 


44.3 


Spraying or Dipping of Flammable 
Finish 


To conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or 
combustible liquids or powder coating; for installation or 
modification of any spray room, spray booth, or preparation 
work station 


43.1.1.4 


Standpipe Systems 


For installation, modification, or removal from service of any 
standpipe system 1 


13.1.1.1 


Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and 
Fairs 


For the location and operation of special outdoor events, carnivals, 
and fairs 


10.16.1 


Tar Ketdes 


For placement of a tar kettle, placement shall be obtained prior to 
the placement of a tar kettle 


16.7.1.2 
17.3.4.6.1 


Tire-Rebuilding Plants 


For operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuilding plant 


20.15.4.2 


Tire Storage 


To use an open area or portion thereof to store tires in excess of 
1000 ft 3 (28.3 m 3 ) 


20.15.4.2 


Torch-Applied Roofing Operation 


For the use of a torch for application of roofing materials 


16.6.1 


Wildland Fire-Prone Areas 


For use of hazardous areas within fire-prone areas. 


17.3.2 


Wood Products 


To store chips, hogged material, lumber, or plywood in excess of 
200 ft 3 (5.7 m 3 ) 


31.2 



'Maintenance performed in accordance with this Code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit. 
2 Cooking and recreational fires are exempt and do not require a permit. 



Table 1.12.19(b) Permit Amounts for Compressed Gases 



Table 1.12.19(c) Permit Amounts for Cryogens 





Amount 1 " 


Type of Cryogen 


Inside Building 
(gal) 


Outside Building 

(gal) 






Type of Gas 


ft 3 mm 3 












Corrosive 


Over 1 


Overl 


Corrosive 


200 0.57 


Flammable 


Over 1 


60 


Flammable (except cryogenic 


200 0.57 


Highly toxic 


Over 1 


Overl 


fluids and LP-Gas) 




Nonflammable 


60 


500 


Highly toxic 


Any amount 


Oxidizer 


10 


50 


Inert and simple asphyxiant 


6000 169.9 


(includes 






Oxidizing (including oxygen) 
Pyrophoric 


504 14.3 
Any amount 


oxygen) 












Toxic 


Any amount 


Note: See Chapter 63. 






Unstable (reactive) 


Any amount 









Note: See Chapters 41, 42, 60, 63, and 69 for additional requirements 

and exceptions. 

t Cubic feet measured at normal temperature and pressure. 



2003 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-19 



Table 1.12.19(d) Penult Amounts for Hazardous Materials 



Type of Material 



Amount 



Cellulose nitrate 

Combustible fiber 

Combustible liquids 

Consumer fireworks (1.4G) 

Corrosive gases 

Corrosive liquids 

Corrosive solids 

Cryogens 

Display fireworks (1.3G) 

Explosives 

Flammable gases 

Flammable liquids 

Flammable solids 

Highly toxic gases 

Highly toxic liquids 

LP-Gas 

Nitrate film (cellulose) 

Oxidizing gases 

Oxidizing liquids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Oxidizing solids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Organic peroxides: 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 
Pyrophoric gases 
Pyrophoric liquids 
Pyrophoric solids 
Toxic gases 
Toxic liquids 
Toxic solids 

Unstable (reactive) gases 
Unstable (reactive) liquids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Unstable (reactive) solids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Water reactive liquids: 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Water reactive solids: 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 



25 lb (11.3 kg) 

100 ft 3 (2.8 m 3 ) 

See Table 1.12.19(a) 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

55 gal (208 L) 

500 lb (227 kg) 

See Table 1.12.19(c) 

Any amount 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

See Table 1.12.19(a) 

100 lb (45.4 kg) 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

See Table 1.12.19(a) 

Any amount 

1 gal (3.8 L) 

10 gal (38 L) 

55 gal (208 L) 

See Table 1.12.19(a) 

Any amount 

10 lb (4.5 kg) 

100 lb (45 kg) 

500 lb (227 kg) 

See Table 1.12.19(a) 

Any amount 

Any amount 

10 lb (4.5 kg) 

20 lb (9 kg) 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

Any amount 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

10 gal (38 L) 

100 lb (45 kg) 

See Table 1.12.19(b) 

Any amount 
Any amount 
5 gal (19 L) 
10 gal (38 L) 

Any amount 
Any amount 
50 lb (22.7 kg) 
100 lb (45 kg) 

Any amount 
5 gal (19 L) 
10 gal (38 L) 

Any amount 
50 lb (22.7 kg) 
100 lb (45 kg) 



Note: See Chapter 60 for additional requirements and exceptions. 



1.13 Certificates of Fitness. 

1.13.1 Authorization. The AHJ shall have the authority to re- 
quire certificates of fitness and collect fees for individuals or 
companies performing activities related to fire or life safety 
within the jurisdiction such as the following: 

(1) Use of explosive materials 

(2) Blasting or demolition operations 

(3) Fireworks displays 

(4) Inspection, servicing, or recharging of portable fire extin- 
guishers 

(5) Installation, servicing, or recharging of fixed fire extinguish- 
ing systems 

(6) Installation or servicing of fire alarm or fire communica- 
tion systems 

(7) Servicing of gas- or oil-burning heating systems 

(8) Chimney sweep operations 

(9) Installation, inspection, or servicing of range-hood systems 

1.13.2 Where certificates of fitness are required, the AHJ 
shall be responsible for their issuance. 

1.13.3 All applications for a certificate of fitness shall be filed 
with the AHJ on forms provided by the AHJ. 

1.13.4 Every individual or company applying for a certificate 
of fitness shall furnish evidence to the AHJ of familiarity with 
the codes and standards for which the certificate of fitness is 
issued. 

1.13.5 Investigation of Applicant. 

1.13.5.1 The AHJ shall investigate every application for a cer- 
tificate of fitness. 

1.13.5.2 The investigation shall include an examination of 
the applicant's experience and training in the field of the cer- 
tificate of fitness for which application has been made. 

1.13.5.3 When the AHJ determines that an applicant is not fit 
to receive the certificate of fitness because of the applicant's 
inability to comply with the provisions of this Code, the AHJ 
shall refuse to issue the certificate of fitness. 

1.13.5.4 If the refusal is based on the applicant's inability to 
pass an examination given to determine competency, the ap- 
plicant shall not be permitted to apply again for the certificate 
of fitness within a 10-day period following the examination. 

1.13.6 Certificates of fitness shall not be transferable. 

1.13.7 Certificates of fitness shall be issued for the period of 
time as indicated on the certificate of fitness as determined by 
the AHJ, but such period of time shall not exceed 3 years. 

1.13.8 Applications for renewal of a certificate of fitness shall 
be filed in the same manner as an application for an original 
certificate. 

1.13.9 Each individual or company holding a certificate of 
fitness shall notify the AHJ in writing of any address change 
within 10 days after such change. 

1.13.10 A certificate of fitness shall be in the form of an identi- 
fication card. The card shall contain the following information: 

(1) Purpose for which the certificate of fitness is issued 

(2) Date of expiration 

(3) Information necessary to easily identify the individual to 
whom the certificate of fitness is issued 



2003 Edition 



1-20 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



(4) Signature of the individual to whom the certificate of fit- 
ness is issued 

(5) Name and signature of the AHJ or a designated represen- 
tative 

(6) Printed thereon in bold type the following: 

THIS CERTIFICATE IS NOT AN ENDORSEMENT OF 
THIS INDIVIDUAL OR COMPANY BYTHE 
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION . 

1.13.11 Any individual or company to whom a certificate of fit- 
ness has been granted shall, upon request, produce and show 
proper identification and the certificate of fitness to anyone for 
whom that individual seeks to render services or to the AHJ. 

1.13.12 Revocation. 

1.13.12.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to revoke or suspend a 
certificate of fitness issued if any violation of this Code is found 
upon inspection or where any false statements or misrepresen- 
tations are submitted in the application on which the approval 
was based. 

1.13.12.2 Revocation or suspension shall be constituted 
when the certificate holder is duly notified by the AHJ. 

1.13.12.3 Failure on the part of an individual to give such 
notification of a change of address required by 1.13.9 shall 
constitute grounds for revocation of the certificate of fitness. 

1.14 Plan Review. 

1.14.1* Where required by the AHJ for new construction, 
modification, or rehabilitation, construction documents and 
shop drawings shall be submitted, reviewed, and approved 
prior to the start of such work as provided in Section 1.14. 

1.14.2 The applicant shall be responsible to ensure that the 
following conditions are met: 

(1) The construction documents include all of the fire pro- 
tection requirements. 

(2) The shop drawings are correct and in compliance with 
the applicable codes and standards. 

(3) The contractor maintains an approved set of construction 
documents on site. 

1.14.3 It shall be the responsibility of the AHJ to promulgate 
rules that cover the following: 

(1) Criteria to meet the requirements of Section 1.14 

(2) Review of documents and construction documents within 
established time frames for the purpose of acceptance or 
providing reasons for nonacceptance 

1.14.4 Review and approval by the AHJ shall not relieve the 
applicant of the responsibility of compliance with this Code. 

1.14.5 When required by the AHJ, revised construction docu- 
ments or shop drawings shall be prepared and submitted for 
review and approval to illustrate corrections or modifications 
necessitated by field conditions or other revisions to approved 
plans. 

1.15* Technical Assistance. 

1.15.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to require a review by an 
independent third party with expertise in the matter to be 
reviewed at the submitter's expense. 

1.15.2 The independent reviewer shall provide an evaluation 
and recommend necessary changes of the proposed design, 
operation, process, or new technology to the AHJ. 



1.15.3 The AHJ shall be authorized to require design submit- 
tals to bear the stamp of a professional engineer. 

1.15.4 The AHJ shall make the final determination as to 
whether the provisions of this Code have been met. 

1.16 Notice of Violations and Penalties. 

1.16.1 Whenever the AHJ determines violations of this Code,a 
written notice shall be issued to confirm such findings. 

1.16.2 Serving Notice. 

1.16.2.1 Any order or notice issued pursuant to this Code shall 
be served upon the owner, operator, occupant, or other person 
responsible for the condition or violation, either by personal ser- 
vice, by mail, or by delivering the same to, and leaving it with, 
some person of responsibility upon the premises. 

1.16.2.2 For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of 
such order or notice shall be posted on the premises in a con- 
spicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises and 
the order or notice shall be mailed by registered or certified 
mail, with return receipt requested, to the last known address 
of the owner, occupant, or both or publication in a newspaper 
of general circulation wherein the subject premise is located. 

1.16.3 Any person who mutilates, destroys, or removes posted 
orders or notices without the authorization of the AHJ shall be 
subject to the penalties established by the jurisdiction. 

1.16.4 Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of 
this Code or who fails to carry out an order made pursuant of 
this Code or violates any condition attached to a permit, ap- 
proval, or certificate shall be subject to the penalties estab- 
lished by the jurisdiction. 

1.16.5 Failure to comply with the time limits of an abatement 
notice or other corrective notice issued by the AHJ shall result 
in each day that such violation continues being regarded as a 
new and separate offense. 



Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 

2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this 
chapter are referenced within this code and shall be consid- 
ered part of the requirements of this document. 

2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion 
Foam, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 11 A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam 
Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 12 A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, 
1997 edition. 

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 1 3D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- 
and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose 
Systems, 2003 edition. 



2003 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-21 



NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protec- 
tion, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler 
and Foam-Water Spray Systems, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 

2002 edition. 

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for 
Fire Protection, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, 

2003 edition. 

NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service 
Mains and Their Appurtenances, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair 
Garages, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Prod- 
ucts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip- 
ment, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 32, Standard for Drycleaning Plants, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using 
Flammable or Combustible Liquids, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 36, Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 37, Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary 
Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose 
Nitrate Film, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 50, Standard for Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, 
2001 edition. 

NFPA 50B, Standard for Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at Con- 
sumer Sites, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel 
Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 51A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, 
2001 edition. 

NFPA 5 IB, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- 
ting, and Other Hot Work, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Com- 
pressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Con- 
tainers, Cylinders, and Tanks, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas Plant Code, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 59A, Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling 
of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 2001 edition. 

NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, 2002 
edition. 



NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 80, Standardfor Fire Doors andFire Windows, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han- 
dling Systems and Equipment, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special 
Processing Atmosphere, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as 
an Atmosphere, 1999 edition. 

NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 2002 edition. 

NFPA90A, Standard for the Installation ofAir-Conditioningand 
Ventilating Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating 
and Air-Conditioning Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 91 , Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 96, Standardfor Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of 
Commercial Cooking Operations, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 99, Standardfor Health Care Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 102, Standardfor Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic 
Seating Tents, and Membrane Structures, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 110, Standard far Emergency and Standby Power Systems, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 120, Standardfor Coal Preparation Plants, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Production 
Studio Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 160, Standard far Flame Effects Before an Audience, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 204, Standard for Smoke and Heat Venting, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 211, Standard far Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
Fuel-Burning Appliances, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 221, Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA 232, Standard for the Protection of Records, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 241, Standardfor Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, 
and Demolition Operations, 2000 edition. 

NFPA251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of 
Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block 
Assemblies, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire Door As- 
semblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor Sys- 
tems, 2001 edition. 



2003 Edition 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



NFPA 302, Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial 
Motor Craft, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of 
Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of Vessels During Con- 
struction, Repair, and Lay-Up, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 318, Standard for the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrica- 
tion Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 395, Standard for the Storage of Flammable Liquids at 
Farms and Isolated Sites, 1993 edition. 

NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling 
Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, Metal Powders, and 
Metal Dusts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate, 1998 
edition. 

NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 498, Standard for Safe Havens and Interchange Lots for 
Vehicles Transporting Explosives, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured 
Home Installations, Sites, and Communities, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks 
Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Mainte- 
nance, and Operation, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 560, Standard for the Storage, Handling, and Use of Eth- 
ylene Oxide for Sterilization and Fumigation, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combus- 
tible Particulate Solids, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explo- 
sions, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in 
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 701 , Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation 
of Textiles and Films, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated Wood and 
Fire Retardant Coatings far Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards 
of Materials for Emergency Response, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Protection for Facilities Handling 
Radioactive Materials, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resources, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 1122, Code for Model Rocketry, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1123, Code for Fireworks Display, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage, 
and Retail Sales of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1125, Code for the Manufacture of Model Rocket and High 
Power Rocket Motors, 2001 edition. 



NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a Proxi- 
mate Audience, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1127, Code for High Power Rocketry, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building 
Groups, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural 
Fire Fighting, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1144, Standard for Protection of Life and Property from 
Wildfire, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Camp- 
grounds, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and 
Business Continuity Programs, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Sys- 
tems, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 5000™, Building Construction and Safety Code™, 2003 
edition. 

2.3 Other Publications. 

2.3.1 ANSI Publications. American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, 13th floor, New York, NY 10036. 

CABO/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Acces- 
sible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, 1998 edition. 

ANSI B31.3, Process Piping, 2001 edition. 

ANSI B56. 1 , Safety Standard for Low-Lift and High-Lift Trucks, 
1993 edition. 

ANSI/UL 1479, Standard for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration 
Firestops, 1995 edition. 

2.3.2 API Publications. American Petroleum Institute, 1220 
L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. 

API-ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids 
and Gases, Pre-July 1, 1961. 

API BULL 1529, Aviation Fueling Hose, 1998 edition. 

API 607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves, 1993 edition. 

2.3.3 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. 

ASME A13.1, Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, 
1996 edition. 

ASME/ ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 
2000 edition. 

ASME/ ANSI A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Es- 
calators, 2001 edition. 

ASMEB31, Code for Pressure Piping, 1998 edition. 

ASME B31.3, Process Piping, 2002 edition. 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Rules for 
the Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels," 1998 edition. 

ASME Code Case Interpretations and Addenda, 1998 edition. 

2.3.4 ASTM Publications. American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 
19428-2959. 

ASTM D 5, Standard Method of Test for Penetration of Bitumi- 
nous Materials, 1997 edition. 



2003 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-23 



ASTM D 86, Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petro- 
leum Products, 2001 edition. 

ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by 
Cleveland Open Cup, 1998 edition. 

ASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of 
Petroleum Products (Reid Method), 1999 edition. 

ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weathering ofFire- 
Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing, 1994 edition. 

ASTM D 5391, Standard Test for Electrical Conductivity and 
Resistivity of a Flowing High Purity Water Sample, 1993 edition. 

ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in 
a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, 1998 edition. 

ASTM E 681, Standard Test Method for Concentration Limits of 
Flammability of Chemicals (Vapors and Gases), 2001 edition. 

ASTM E 814, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through 
Penetration Fire Stops, 2002 edition. 

ASTM E 1 226, Test Method for Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise 
for Combustible Dusts, 1994 edition. 

ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for Data for Fire Models, 1994 
edition. 

ASTM F 852, Standard for Portable Gasoline Containers for Con- 
sumer Use, 1999 edition. 

ASTM F 976, Standard for Portable Kerosene Containers for Con- 
sumer Use, 1999 edition. 

2.3.5 ATA Publication. American Trucking Association Traf- 
fic Department, 2200 Mill Road, Alexandria, VA 22314. 

National Motor Freight Classification, 2002 edition. 

2.3.6 CGA Publications. Compressed Gas Association, 1725 
Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202-4100. 

CGAC-4, Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Contain- 
ers to Identify the Material Contained, 1990 edition. 

CGA C-1 , Guide to the Preparation of Precautionary Labeling and 
Marking of Compressed Gas Containers, 2000 edition. 

CGA PT, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers, 
2000 edition. 

CGA P-18, Standard for Bulk Inert Gas Systems at Consumer 
Sites, 1992 edition. 

CGA P-20, Standard for the Classification of Toxic Gas Mixtures, 
1995 edition. 

CGA P-23, Standard for Categorizing Gas Mixtures Containing 
Flammable and Nonflammable Component, 1995 edition. 

CGA P-32, Safe Storage and Handling ofSilane and Silane Mix- 
tures, 2000 edition. 

CGA S-l.l, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 1 — Cylin- 
ders for Compressed Gases, 2001 edition. 

CGA S-l .2, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 2 — Cargo 
and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, 1995 edition. 

CGA S-l .3, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 3 - Station- 
ary Storage Containers for Compressed Gases, 1995 edition. 

2.3.7 IAS Publications. International Approval Services, 
8501 East Pleasant Valley Road, Cleveland, OH 44131. 

ANSI/IAS NGV1, Standard for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle 
(NGV) Fueling Connection Devices, 1997 edition. 



ANSI/IAS NGV2, Basic Requirements for Compressed Natural 
Gas Vehicle (NGV) Fuel Containers, 1992 edition. 

2.3.8 ISO Publications. International Standards Organiza- 
tion, 1 rue de Varembe, Case Postale 56, CH-1211 Geneve 20, 
Switzerland. 

ISO 10298, Determination of toxicity of a gas or gas mixture, 1995. 

ISO 10156, Gases and gas mixtures — Determination of fire poten- 
tial and oxidizing ability for the selection of cylinder valve outlets, 1 996. 

2.3.9 NPJFC Publication. National Railroad Freight Commit- 
tee, 222 South Riverside Plaza, Chicago, IL 60606-5945. 

Uniform Freight Classification, 2000 edition. 

2.3.10 RVIA Publication. Recreation Vehicle Industry Asso- 
ciation, 1896 Preston White Drive, P.O. Box 2999, Reston, VA 
02209-0999. 

RVIA/ ANSI A119.5, Standard for Park Trailers, 1998 edition. 

2.3.11 UL Publications. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 
Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062. 

UL8, Standard for Foam Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 147A, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposable) Type Fuel Gas 
Cylinder Assemblies, 1996. 

UL 147B, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposal) Type Metal Con- 
tainer Assemblies for Butane, 1996. 

UL 154, Standard for Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 197, Standard for Commercial Electric Cooking Appliances, 
1993. 

UL299, Standard for Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 300, Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems 
for Protection of Restaurant CookingAreas, 1996. 

UL555, Standard for Fire Dampers, 1999. 

UL555S, Standard for Smoke Dampers, 1996. 

UL 567, Standard for Pipe Connectors for Petroleum Products and 
LP-Gas, 1996. 

UL626, Standard for 2'/2-Gallon Stored-Pressure, Water-Type Fire 
Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL711, Standard Rating and Testing of Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids, 6th Edition, 
1997. 

UL900, Standard far Test Performance of Air Filter Units, 1994. 

UL 913, Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associ- 
ated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III Division 1, Hazardous 
(Classified) Locations, 1988. 

UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, 
1995. 

UL 1093, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 1313, NonmetaUic Safety Cans for Petroleum Products, 1993. 

UL 1803, Standard for Factory Follow-up on ThirdParty Certified 
Portable Fire Extinguishers, 1997. 

UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes, 1996. 



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1-24 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 1 



UL2129, Standard for Hahcarbon Agent Fire Extinguishers, 1999. 

UL 2080, Standard for Fire Resistant Tanks for Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids, 2000. 

UL 2085, Standard for Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids, 1997. 

UL 2200, Standard for Safety for Stationary Engine Generator 
Assemblies, 1998. 

UL2245, Standard for Below-Grade Vaults for Flammable Liquid 
Storage Tanks, 1999. 

UL2208, Standard for Solvent Distillation Units, 1996. 

2.3.12 ULC Publications. Underwriters' Laboratories of 
Canada, 7 Crouse Road, Scarborough, Ontario MIR 3A9, 
Canada. 

ULC-S503, Standard for Carbon Dioxide Hand and WheeledFire 
Extinguishers, 1990. 

ULC-S504, Standard for Dry Chemical and Dry Powder Hand 
and Wheeled Fire Extinguishers, 1986. 

ULC-S507, Standard for 9 Litre Stored Pressure Water Type Fire 
Extinguishers, 1983. 

ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extin- 
guishers, 1990. 

ULC-S512, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, 
1987. 

2.3.13 UN Publication. United Nations Headquarters, New 
York, NY 10017. 

United Nations, Recommendations on the Transport of Danger- 
ous Goods, Chapter 6, 9th revised edition, 1995. 

2.3.14 U.S. Goveniument Publications. U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

FAA A/C 150/5390-2, Heliport Design Advisory Circular, 
January 4, 1988. 

ICC, Rules for Construction of Unfvred Pressure Vessels, April 1, 
1967. 

Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 and 1507, 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 

Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1632, Standard for the 
Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads, January 1, 1990. 

Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1000 

Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 152.175 and 
156.10(i)(A). 

Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Transportation. 

ICC, Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, prior to 
April 1, 1967. 

2.3.15 Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the En- 
glish Language, Unabridged, 2000. 



Chapter 3 Definitions 

3.1* General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall 
apply to the terms used in this code. Where terms are not 
included, common usage of the terms shall apply. 



3.2 NFPA Official Definitions. 

3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion. 

3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AH}). The organization, 
office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, ma- 
terials, an installation, or a procedure. 

3.2.3* Code. A standard that is an extensive compilation of pro- 
visions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adop- 
tion into law independently of other codes and standards. 

3.2.4 Guide. A document that is advisory or informative in 
nature and that contains only nonmandatory provisions. A 
guide may contain mandatory statements such as when a 
guide can be used, but the document as a whole is not suitable 
for adoption into law. 

3.2.5 Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been 
attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organi- 
zation that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and 
concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic in- 
spection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and 
by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with 
appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner. 

3.2.6* Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a 
list published by an organization that is acceptable to the author- 
ity havingjurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products 
or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of 
listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, 
and whose listing states that either the equipment, material, or 
service meets appropriate designated standards or has been 
tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

3.2.7 Recoiraniended Practice. A document that is similar in 
content and structure to a code or standard but that contains 
only nonmandatory provisions using the word "should" to in- 
dicate recommendations in the body of the text. 

3.2.8 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. 

3.2.9 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

3.2.10 Standard. A document, the main text of which con- 
tains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indi- 
cate requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for 
mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adop- 
tion into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an 
appendix or annex, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to 
be considered a part of the requirements of a standard. 

3.3 General Definitions. 

3.3.1 Absolute Pressure. Pressure based on a zero reference 
point, the perfect vacuum. Measured from this reference 
point, the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is an ab- 
solute pressure of 101.325 kPa (14.7 psia). Absolute pressure 
in the inch-pound system is commonly denoted in terms of 
pounds per square inch absolute (psia). [55:1.4] 

3.3.2 Access Box. An approved secure box, accessible by the 
authority havingjurisdiction's master key or control, contain- 
ing entrance keys or other devices to gain access to a structure 
or area. 

3.3.3 Addition. An increase in the building area, aggregate 
floor area, height or number of stories of a structure. [101:3.3] 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-25 



3.3.4* Aerosol. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol 
container by a propellant. [30B:3.3] 

3.3.5 Airport (Aerodrome). An area on land or water that is 
used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of 
aircraft and includes buildings and facilities. [402:1.4] 

3.3.6 Airport Ranip. Any outdoor area, including aprons and 
hardstands, where aircraft can be positioned, stored, serviced, 
or maintained, irrespective of the nature of the surface of the 
area. [415:1.4] 

3.3.7 Alarm. A warning of danger. 

3.3.8 Alarm Signal See 3.3.176.1. 

3.3.9 Alternative. A system, condition, arrangement, mate- 
rial, or equipment submitted for approval to the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction and the fire chief as a substitute for a code 
requirement. [1141:2.1] 

3.3.10 ANSI/ASME. The designation for American National 
Standards Institute publication, sponsored and published by 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

3.3.11 Area. 

3.3.11.1 Attached Building. A building having only one 
common wall with another building having other types of 
occupancies. [30:1.6] 

3.3.11.2 Back Stock Area. The area of a mercantile occu- 
pancy that is physically separated from the sales area and 
not intended to be accessible to the public. [30B:3.3] 

3.3.11.3 Consumer Fireworks Metail Sales Area. The portion 
of a consumer fireworks retail sales facility or store, includ- 
ing the immediately adjacent aisles, where consumer fire- 
works are located for the purpose of retail display and sale 
to the public. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.11.4 Control Area. A designated area, either indoors or 
outdoors, within which limited quantities of hazardous mate- 
rials are allowed to be stored, used, handled or dispensed. 

3.3.11.5 CutoffRoom. Aroom within a building and having 
at least one exterior wall. [30:1.6] 

3.3.11.6 Fire Area (Flammable and Combustible liquids). An area 
of a building separated from the remainder of the building by 
construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having 
all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly 
having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour. [30:1.6] 

3.3.11.7 Indoor Area. An area that is within a building or 
structure having overhead cover, other than a structure 
qualifying as "weather protection" in accordance with 6.6.2 
of NFPA55. (See also 3.3.11.11 Outdoor Area.) [55:3.3] 

3.3.11.8 Inside Liquid Storage Area. A room or building 
used for the storage of liquids in containers or portable 
tanks, separated from other types of occupancies. [30:1.6] 

3.3.11.9 Inside Boom. A room totally enclosed within a 
building and having no exterior walls. [30:1.6] 

3.3.11.10 Organic Peroxide Storage Area. An area used for 
the storage of organic peroxide formulations. [432:1.5] 

3.3.11.11 Outdoor Area. An area that is either outside the 
confines of a building, or an area sheltered from the ele- 
ments by overhead cover, that is protected from weather 
exposure by an exterior wall that obstructs not more than 
25 percent of the building boundary. 



3.3.11.12 Sales Display Area. The area of a mercantile occu- 
pancy that is open to the public for the purpose of viewing 
and purchasing goods, wares, and merchandise. Individuals 
are free to circulate among the items, which are typically dis- 
played on shelves, racks, or on the floor. [30B:3.3] 

3.3.11.13 Smoking Area. A designated area where smoking 
is permitted within a premises smoking is otherwise gener- 
ally prohibited. 

3.3.11.14* Spray Area. Any area in which dangerous quanti- 
ties of flammable or combustible vapors, mists, residues, 
dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spray 
processes. It can be either enclosed or unenclosed and in- 
cludes: (1) any area in the direct path of a spray application 
process; (2) the interior of any exhaust plenum and any ex- 
haust duct leading from the spray process; (3) the interior of 
any limited finishing workstation, spray booth, or spray room, 
except as specifically provided for in Section 11.4 of NFPA33. 
[33:1.6] 

3.3.12 ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

[58:1.7] 

3.3.13 ASME Container (or Tank). See 3.3.51.1. 

3.3.14 Barrel. Avolume of 42 U.S. gal (158.9 L). [30:1.6] 

3.3.15 Barricade. A natural or artificial barrier that effectively 
screens a magazine, building, railway, or highway from the 
effects of an explosion in a magazine or building containing 
explosives. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.15.1 Artificial Barricade. An artificial mound or revet- 
ted wall of earth of a minimum thickness of 3 ft (0.9 m). 

[1124:3.3] 

3.3.15.2 Natural Barricade. A natural outdoor feature (s), 
such as hills or trees, with a density sufficient to prevent 
surrounding exposures that require protection from being 
seen from a magazine or building containing explosives 
when the trees are bare of leaves. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.16 Basememt Story of a building wholly below grade or 
partly below and partly above grade, located so that the verti- 
cal distance from grade to the floor below is greater than the 
vertical distance from grade to the floor above. [5000:3.3] 

3.3.17 Battery (Lead-Add). 

3.3.17.1* Valve-Regulated (VRLA). A lead-acid battery con- 
sisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to 
vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the bat- 
tery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. 

3.3.17.2* Vented (Flooded). Alead-acid battery consisting of 
cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. 

3.3.18 Battery System (Lead-Add). A system which consists of 
these interconnected subsystems: (1) Lead-acid batteries; (2) 
Battery chargers; (3) A collection of rectifiers, inverters, con- 
verters, and associated electrical equipment as required for a 
particular application. 

3.3.19 Board of Appeals. A group of persons appointed by 
the governing body of the jurisdiction adopting this code for 
the purpose of hearing and adjudicating differences of opin- 
ion between the authority havingjurisdiction and the citizenry 
in the interpretation, application, and enforcement of this 
Code. 



2003 Edition 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



3.3.20* Boiling Point. The temperature atwhich thevaporpres- 
sure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure. 
For purposes of defining the boiling point, atmospheric pressure 
shall be considered to be 14.7 psia (760 mm Hg). For mixtures 
that do not have a constant boiling point, the 20 percent evapo- 
rated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86, Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Prod- 
ucts, shall be considered to be the boiling point. [30:1.7] 

3.3.21* Boil-Over. An event in the burning of certain oils in 
an open-top tank when, after a long period of quiescent burn- 
ing, there is a sudden increase in fire intensity associated with 
expulsion of burning oil from the tank. Boil-over occurs when 
the residues from surface burning become more dense than 
the unburned oil and sink below the surface to form a hot 
layer, which progresses downward much faster than the re- 
gression of the liquid surface. When this hot layer, called a 
"heat wave," reaches water or water-in-oil emulsion in the bot- 
tom of the tank, the water is first superheated and then boils 
almost explosively, overflowing the tank. Oils subject to boil- 
over consist of components having a wide range of boiling 
points, including both light ends and viscous residues. These 
characteristics are present in most crude oils and can be pro- 
duced in synthetic mixtures. [30:1.6] 

3.3.22* Building. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. [101:3.3] 

3.3.22.1* Airport Terminal Building. A structure used pri- 
marily for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including 
ticket sales, flight information, baggage handling, and 
other necessary functions in connection with air transport 
operations. This term includes any extensions and satellite 
buildings used for passenger handling or aircraft flight ser- 
vice functions. Aircraft loading walkways and "mobile 
lounges" are excluded. [415:1.4] 

3.3.22.2* Apartment Building. A building containing three 
or more dwelling units with independent cooking and 
bathroom facilities. [101:3.3] 

3.3.22.3* Existing Building. A building erected or officially 
authorized prior to the effective date of the adoption of this 
edition of the Code by the agency or jurisdiction. [101:3.3] 

3.3.22.4* High-Rise Building. A building greater than 75 ft 
(23 m) in height where the building height is measured 
from the lowest level of fire department vehicle access to 
the floor of the highest occupiable story. [101:3.3] 

3.3.22.5* Important Building. A building that is considered 
not expendable in an exposure fire. [30:1.6] 

3.3.22.6 Private Building. A building or the portion of a 
building that normally is not frequented by or open to the 
public. 

3.3.22.7 Satellite Building. Astructure that can be adjacent 
to but separated from the airport terminal building, acces- 
sible above ground or through subway passages, and used 
to provide flight service operations, such as passenger 
check-in, waiting rooms, food service, enplaning or deplan- 
ing, etc. [415:1.4] 

3.3.22.8 Storage Tank Building. A storage tank building is a 
three-dimensional space that is enclosed by a roof and a 
wall that covers more than one-half of the possible area of 
the sides of the space, is of sufficient size to allow entry by 
personnel, will likely limit the dissipation of heat or disper- 
sion of vapors, and restricts access for fire fighting. 
[30:2.3.4.1 Errata] 



3.3.23 Bulk Oxygen System. See 3.3.198.2. 

3.3.24 Bulk Plant or Terminal. That portion of a property 
where liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, 
or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the pur- 
pose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank 
car, tank vehicle, portable tank, or container. [30:1.6] 

3.3.25* Ceiling Limit. The maximum concentration of an air- 
borne contaminant to which one can be exposed. 

3.3.26 Certificate of Fitness. A written document issued by 
the authority havingjurisdiction to any person for the purpose 
of granting permission to such person to conduct or engage in 
any operation or act for which certification is required. 

3.3.27 CFR. The Code of Federal Regulations of the United 
States Government. 

3.3.28 CGA. Compressed Gas Association. 

3.3.29 Chemical Heat of Combustion (AHc). The amount of 
heat released, in Btu/lb (kj/g), when a substance is oxidized 
to yield stable end products, including water as a vapor, as 
measured under actual fire conditions in a normal ambient 
(air) atmosphere. [30B:3.3] 

3.3.30 Chemical Name. The scientific designation of a 
chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system devel- 
oped by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chem- 
istry or the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, 
or a name that clearly identifies a chemical for the purpose of 
conducting an evaluation. 

3.3.31 Chemical Plant. A large integrated plant or that por- 
tion of such a plant, other than a refinery or distillery, where 
liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemi- 
cal reactions. [30:1.6] 

3.3.32 Classification of Occupancy Hazards for Portable Fire 

Extinguishers. 

3.3.32-1 Extra (High) Hazard. An occupancy in which the 
total amount of Class A combustibles and Class B flam- 
mables present, in storage, production, use, finished prod- 
uct, or combination thereof, is over and above those ex- 
pected in occupancies classed as ordinary (moderate) 
hazard. These occupancies could consist of woodworking, 
vehicle repair, aircraft and boat servicing, cooking areas, 
individual product display showrooms, product convention 
center displays, and storage and manufacturing processes 
such as painting, dipping, and coating, including flam- 
mable liquid handling. Also included is warehousing of or 
in-process storage of other than Class I and Class II com- 
modities as defined by NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems [10:1.4] 

3.3.32.2 Light (Low) Hazard. An occupancy in which the 
total amount of Class A combustible materials, including 
furnishings, decorations, and contents, is of minor quan- 
tity. This can include some buildings or rooms occupied as 
offices, classrooms, churches, assembly halls, guest room 
areas of hotels/motels, and so forth. This classification an- 
ticipates that the majority of content items are either non- 
combustible or so arranged that a fire is not likely to spread 
rapidly. Small amounts of Class B flammables used for du- 
plicating machines, art departments, and so forth, are in- 
cluded, provided that they are kept in closed containers 
and safely stored. [10:1.4] 



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DEFINITIONS 



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3.3.32.3 Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard. An occupancy in 
which the total amount of Class A combustibles and Class B 
flammables are present in greater amounts than expected un- 
der light (low) hazard occupancies. These occupancies could 
consist of dining areas, mercantile shops, and allied storage; 
light manufacturing, research operations, auto showrooms, 
parking garages, workshop or support service areas of light 
(low) hazard occupancies; and warehouses containing Class I 
or Class II commodities as defined by NFPA 1 3, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems [10:1.4] 

3.3.33 Qeammooim. A room in which the concentration of air- 
borne particles is controlled to specified limits. Cleanrooms 
include areas below the raised floor and above the ceiling grid 
if these areas are part of the air path and within the rated 
construction. [318:3.3] 

3.3.34 Gleam Zone. A defined space in which the concentration 
of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. [318:3.3] 

3.3.35 Closed System Use. See 3.3.207.1. 

3.3.36 Combustible. A material that, in the form in which it is 
used and under the conditions anticipated, will ignite and 
burn; a material that does not meet the definition of noncom- 
bustible or limited-combustible. [101:3.3] 

3.3.37* Combustible Bust. Any finely divided solid material 
that is 420 microns or smaller in diameter (material passing a 
U.S. No. 40 Standard Sieve) and presents a fire or explosion 
hazard when dispersed and ignited in air. [654:1.5] 

3.3.38* Combustible Fiber. Any material in a fibrous or shred- 
ded form that will readily ignite when heat sources are present. 

3.3.39 Combustible liquid. See 3.3.125.1. 

3.3.40 Combustible Refuse. All combustible or loose rub- 
bish, litter, or waste materials generated by an occupancy that 
are refused, rejected, or considered worthless and are dis- 
posed of by incineration on the premises where generated or 
periodically transported from the premises. 

3.3.41 * Combustible Waste. Combustible or loose waste mate- 
rial that is generated by an establishment or process and, if 
salvageable, is retained for scrap or reprocessing on the premises 
where generated or transported to a plant for processing. 

3.3.42 Combustion. A chemical process of oxidation that oc- 
curs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light in 
the form of either a glow or flame. 

3.3.43* Commoti Path of Travel. The portion of exit access 
that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths 
of travel to two exits are available. [101:3.3] 

3.3.44 Compartment. 

3.3.44.1* Fire Compartment. A space within a building that 
is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. [101:3.3] 

3.3.44.2* Smoke Compartment. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. [101:3.3] 

3.3.45 Condition, Existing. See 3.3.73. 

3.3.46 Construction Documents. Documents that consist of 
scaled design drawings and specifications for the purpose of 
construction of new facilities or modification to existing facili- 
ties. (See also 3.3.175, Shop Drawings.) 



3.3.47 Consumer Fireworks. See 3.3.91.1. 

3.3.48 Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales Area. See 3.3.11.3; 
Area, Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales. 

3.3.49 Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales Facility. A permanent 
or temporary building or structure, consumer fireworks retail 
sales stand, tent, canopy, or membrane structure that is used 
primarily for the retail display and sale of consumer fireworks 

to the public. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.50* Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales Stand. A temporary 
or permanent building or structure that has a floor area not 
greater than 800 ft 2 (74 m 2 ), other than tents, canopies, or 
membrane structures, that is used primarily for the retail dis- 
play and sale of consumer fireworks to the public. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.51 Container. A vessel, including cylinders, tanks, portable 
tanks, and cargo tanks, used for transporting or storing materials. 

3.3.51.1 ASME Container (or Tank). A container con- 
structed in accordance with the ASME Code. [58:1.7] 

3.3.51.2 Closed Container. A container as herein defined, so 
sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor 
vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures. [30A:1.2] 

3.3.51.3 Compressed Gas Container. A pressure vessel de- 
signed to hold compressed gas at an absolute pressure 
greater than 1 atmosphere at 68°F (20°C) that includes 
cylinders, containers, and tanks. [55:3.3] 

3.3.51.4 Cryogenic Fluids Container. A cryogenic vessel 
used for transportation, handling, or storage. 

3.3.51.5 Container (Flammable or Combustible Liquid). A 
vessel of 60 U.S. gal (227 L) or less capacity used for trans- 
porting or storing liquids. [30:1.6] 

3.3.51.6 IP-Gas Container. A vessel, including cylinders, 
tanks, portable tanks, and cargo tanks, used for the trans- 
porting or storing of LP-Gases. [58:1.6] 

3.3.52 Control Area. See 3.3.11.4. 

3.3.53 Cooking Fire. The noncommercial, residential burn- 
ing of materials not exceeding 3 ft (0.9 m) in diameter and 2 ft 
(0.6 m) in height, other than rubbish in which the fuel burned 
is contained in an outdoor fireplace, a barbecue grill, or a 
barbecue pit for the purpose of preparing food. 

3.3.54* Corrosive. A chemical that causes visible destruction 
of, or irreversible alterations in, materials by chemical action 
at the site of contact. 

3.3.55* Covered Fuse. A fuse that is protected against acci- 
dental ignition by contact with a spark, smoldering item, or 
small open flame. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.56 Crude Petroleum. Hydrocarbon mixtures that have a 
flash point below 150°F (65.6°C) and that have not been pro- 
cessed in a refinery. [30:1.6] 

3.3.57 Cryogenic Fluid. A fluid with a boiling point lower 
than -130°F (-90°C) at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia 
(101.325 kPa). [55:3.3] 

3.3.58 Cryogenic liquid. See 3.3.125.2. 

3.3.59 Cylinder. A portable compressed gas container, fabri- 
cated to or authorized for use by, the U.S. Department of Trans- 
portation (DOT) , or fabricated to Transport Canada (TC) or the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Rules for the 
Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels." [560:1.4] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



3.3.59.1 Cylinder Containment Vessel. A gastight recovery 
vessel designed so that a leaking compressed gas container 
can be placed within its confines, thereby encapsulating 
the leaking container. [55:3.3] 

3.3.60 Deflagration. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is less than the speed of sound in the unreacted 
medium. [68:1.4] 

3.3.61 Detectors. 

3.3.61.1 Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that con- 
sists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs 
from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspira- 
tion fan in the detector housing draws air from the pro- 
tected area back to the detector through air sampling 
ports, piping, or tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed 
for fire products. 

3.3.61.2* Fixed-Temperature Detector. A device that re- 
sponds when its operating element becomes heated to a 
predetermined level. [72:3.3] 

3.3.61.3 Heat Detector. Afire detector that detects either ab- 
normally high temperature or rate of temperature rise, or 
both. [72:3.3] 

3.3.61.4* Line-Type Detector. Adetector in which detection 
is continuous along a path. 

3.3.61.5 Smoke Detector. A device that detects visible or in- 
visible particles of combustion. [72:1.4] 

3.3.61.6 Spot-Type Detector. Adetector in which the detect- 
ing element is concentrated at a particular location. Typi- 
cal examples are bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detec- 
tors, certain pneumatic rate-of-rise detectors, certain 
smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors. [72:3.3] 

3.3.62 Detonation. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is greater than the speed of sound in the unre- 
acted medium. [68:1.4] 

3.3.63 Distillery. A plan tor that portion of a plant where liquids 
produced by fermentation are concentrated and where the con- 
centrated products are also mixed, stored, or packaged. [30:1.6] 

3.3.64 Distributor. Abusiness engaged in the sale or resale, or 
both of compressed gases or cryogenic fluids, or both. [55:3.3] 

3.3.65 DOT. U.S. Department of Transportation. 

3.3.66 Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms arranged for the 
use of one or more individuals living together, providing com- 
plete, independent living facilities, including permanent pro- 
visions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation. 
[107:3.3] 

3.3.67 Emergency. A fire, explosion, or hazardous condition 
that poses an immediate threat to the safety of life or damage 
to property. 

3.3.68 Emergency Relief Venting. An opening, construction 
method, or device that will automatically relieve excessive in- 
ternal pressure due to an exposure fire. [30:1.6] 

3.3.69 Excess Flow Control. A fail-safe system or approved 
means designed to shut off flow due to a rupture in pressur- 
ized piping systems. [55:3.3] 

3.3.70 Excess Flow Valve. A valve inserted into a compressed 
gas cylinder, portable tank, or stationary tank that is designed 
to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its prede- 
termined flow is exceeded. 



3.3.71* Exhausted Enclosure. An appliance or piece of equip- 
ment that consists of a top, a back, and two sides that provides 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors, 
and mists. [55:3.3] 

3.3.72* Existing. That which is already in existence on the 
date this edition of the Code goes into effect. [707:3.3] 

3.3.73 Existing Condition. A situation, circumstance, or physi- 
cal makeup of any structure, premise, or process that was ongo- 
ing or in effect prior to the adoption of this Code. [1141:2.1] 

3.3.74* Exit. That portion of a means of egress that is sepa- 
rated from all other spaces of a building or structure by con- 
struction or equipment as required to provide a protected way 
of travel to the exit discharge. [707:3.3] 

3.3.74. 1 * Horizontal Exit. A way of passage from one build- 
ing to an area of refuge in another building on approxi- 
mately the same level, or a way of passage through or 
around a fire barrier to an area of refuge on approximately 
the same level in the same building that affords safety from 
fire and smoke originating from the area of incidence and 
areas communicating therewith. [107:3.3] 

3.3.75 Exit Access. That portion of a means of egress that 
leads to an exit. [707:3.3] 

3.3.76 Exit Discharge. That portion of a means of egress be- 
tween the termination of an exit and a public way. [707:3.3] 

3.3.77 Explosion. The bursting or rupture of an enclosure or 
a container due to the development of internal pressure from 
a deflagration. [68:1.4] 

3.3.78* Explosive Material. Any chemical compound, mix- 
ture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to 
function by explosion. [5000:3.3] 

3.3.79 Facility, Hazardous Material Storage. See 3.3.110. 

3.3.80 Fire. 

3.3.80.1 Class A Fires. Fires in ordinary combustible mate- 
rials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics. 

[10:3.3] 

3.3.80.2 Class B Fires. Fires in flammable liquids, combus- 
tible liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints, 
solvents, lacquers, alcohols, and flammable gases. [10:3.3] 

3.3.80.3 Class C Fires. Fires that involve energized electri- 
cal equipment. [10:3.3] 

3.3.80.4 Class D Fires. Fires in combustible metals, such as 
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and po- 
tassium. [10:3.3] 

3.3.80.5 Class K Fires. Fires in cooking appliances that in- 
volve combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils 
and fats. [10:3.3] 

3.3.81 Fire, Recreational. See 3.3.167. 

3.3.82 Fire Alarm System. See 3.3.198.8. 

3.3.83 Fire Compartment See 3.3.44.1. 

3.3.84 Fire Door Assembly. Any combination of a fire door, a 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide 
a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. [80:1.4] 

3.3.85 Fire Hazard. Any situation, process, material, or con- 
dition that, on the basis of applicable data, can cause a fire or 
explosion or provide a ready fuel supply to augment the 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-29 



spread or intensity of the fire or explosion and that poses a 
threat to life or property. [914:3.2] 

3.3.86* Fine Hydrant A valved connection on a water supply 
system having one or more outlets and that is used to supply 
hose and fire department pumpers with water. [25:1.5] 

3.3.87 Fine Department Access Road. The road or other 
means developed to allow access and operational setup for 
fire-fighting and rescue apparatus. 

3.3.88 Fine Point The lowest temperature at which a liquid 
will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a 
test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method 
forFlash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup. [30:1.6] 

3.3.89 Fine Retamdlant A liquid, solid, or gas that tends to in- 
hibit combustion when applied on, mixed in, or combined 
with combustible materials. 



3.3.90 Fine Watch. The assignment of a person or persons to 
an area for the express purpose of notifying the fire depart- 
ment, the building occupants, or both of an emergency; pre- 
venting a fire from occurring; extinguishing small fires; or 
protecting the public from fire or life safety dangers. 

3.3.91* Fireworks. Any composition or device for the purpose 
of producing a visible or an audible effect by combustion, defla- 
gration, or detonation, and that meets the definition of Consumer 
Fireworks or Display Fireworks as set forth in this Code. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.91.1* Consumer Fireworks. Any small fireworks device 
designed primarily to produce visible effects by combustion 
or deflagration that complies with the construction, chemical 
composition, and labeling regulations of the U.S. Consumer 
Product Safety Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR 1500 and 
1507. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.91.2* Display Fireworks. Large fireworks articles de- 
signed to produce visible or audible effects for entertainment 
purposes by combustion, deflagration, or detonation. 

[1124:3.3] 

3.3.92 Flame Break. A solid material, without holes or other 
openings, used to retard the spread of flame. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.93 Hanae Spread. The propagation of flame over a sur- 
face. [101:3.3] 

3.3.94* Flame Spread Mating. The comparative performance 
of fire travel over the surface of a material when tested in 
accordance with the provisions of NFPA 255, Standard Method 
of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials 

3.3.95 Flammable Vapoirs. Flammable vapors are the concen- 
tration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 per- 
cent of their lower flammability limit (LFL). 

3.3.96* Flash Point. The minimum temperature of a liquid at 
which sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitible mixture 
with the air, near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel 
used, as determined by the appropriate test procedure and 
apparatus specified in 1.7.4 of NFPA 30. [30:1.7] 

3.3.97 Floor Area. 

3.3.97. 1 * Gross Floor Area. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the outside walls of the building under consid- 
eration with no deduction for hallways, stairs, closets, thick- 
ness of interior walls, columns, or other features. [101:3.3] 



3.3.97.2 Net Floor Area. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the outside walls, or the outside walls and fire 
walls of the building under consideration with deductions 
for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns, or other features. [101:3.3] 

3.3.98 Fugitive Emissions. Releases of flammable vapor that 
continuously or intermittently occur from process equipment 
during normal operations. These include leaks from pump 
seals, valve packing, flange gaskets, compressor seals, process 
drains, etc. [30:1.6] 

3.3.99 Galon. Gallon. U.S. Standard. 1 U.S. gal = 0.833; 
Imperial gal = 231 in. 3 = 3.785 L. [58:1.7] 

3.3.100 Garage. A building or a portion of a building in 
which one or more self-propelled vehicles carrying volatile 
flammable liquid for fuel or power are kept for use, sale, stor- 
age, rental, repair, exhibition, or demonstrating purposes, 
and all that portion of a building that is on or below the floor 
or floors in which such vehicles are kept and that is not sepa- 
rated therefrom by suitable cutoffs. [5000:3. 3] 

3.3.101* Gas. 

3.3.101.1 Compressed Gas. A material, or mixture of mate- 
rials, that (1) is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at an absolute 
pressure of 14.696 psia (101.325 kPa) and (2) that has a 
boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at an absolute pressure 
of 14.7 psia (101.325 kPa) and that is liquefied, nonlique- 
fied, or in solution, except those gases that have no other 
health or physical hazard properties are not considered to 
be compressed gases until the pressure in the packaging 
exceeds an absolute pressure of 40.6 psia (280 kPa) at 68°F 
(20°C). [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.1.1 Compressed Gas Mixtures. A mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the haz- 
ard properties of which are represented by the properties 
of the mixture as a whole. 

3.3.101.1.2 Compressed Gases in Solution. Nonliquefied 
gases that are dissolved in a solvent. 

3.3.101.1.3 Liquefied Compressed Gases. Gases that are 
contained in a packaging under the charged pressure and 
are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.101.1.4 Nonliquefied Compressed Gases. Gases, other 
than those in solution, that are contained in a packaging 
under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.101.2 Corrosive Gas. A gas that causes visible destruc- 
tion of or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemi- 
cal action at the site of contact. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.3* Flammable Gas. A material that is a gas at 68°F 
(20°C) or less at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia (101.325 
kPa), that is ignitable at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia 
(101.325 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by 
volume with air, or that has a flammable range at an abso- 
lute pressure of 14.7 psia (101.325 kPa) with air of at least 
12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.4 Flammable Liquefied Gas. A liquefied com- 
pressed gas that, when under a charged pressure, is par- 
tially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and is flam- 
mable. [55-.3.3] 



2003 Edition 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



3.3.101.5 Highly Toxic Gas. A chemical that has a median 
lethal concentration (LC 50 ) in air of 200 parts per million by 
volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less 
of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous in- 
halation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to 
albino rats weighing between 0.44 lb and 0.66 lb (200 g and 
300 g) each. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.6* Inert Gas. Any gas that is nonflammable, nonre- 
active, and noncontaminating. 

3.3.101.7 Irritant Gas. A chemical that is not corrosive, but 
that causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A gas is a skin irritant if, 
when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the meth- 
ods of 16 CFR 1500.41, for an exposure of 4 or more hours or 
by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical 
score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if 
so determined under the procedure listed in 16 CFR 1500.42, 
or other approved techniques. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.8 Liquefied Gas. A gas that, under its charged pres- 
sure, is partially liquid at 70°F (21°C). [30:1.6] 

3.3.101.9* Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas. A fluid in the liq- 
uid state that is composed predominandy of methane and 
that can contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, ni- 
trogen, or other components normally found in natural 
gas. [57:1.6] 

3.3.101.10 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas). Any material 
having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for 
commercial propane composed predominantly of the fol- 
lowing hydrocarbons, either by themselves or as mixtures: 
propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobu- 
tane), and butylenes. [58:1.7] 

3.3.101.11 Nonflammable Gas. A gas that does not meet 
the definition of a flammable gas. [55:1.4] 

3.3.101.12 Other Gas. A gas that is not a corrosive gas, 
flammable gas, highly toxic gas, oxidizing gas, pyrophoric 
gas, toxic gas, or unstable reactive gas with a hazard rating 
of Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 gas, that might be a nonflam- 
mable gas or inert gas. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.13 Oxidizing Gas. A gas that can support and ac- 
celerate combustion of other materials. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.14 Pyrophoric Gas. Agas with an autoignition tem- 
perature in air at or below 130°F (54.5°C). [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.15 Scavenged Gas. A residual process gas that is 
collected for treatment or release at a location remote 
from the site of use. 

3.3.101.16 Simple Asphyxiant Gas. A gas that does not pro- 
vide sufficient oxygen to support life and that has none of 
the other physical or health hazards. 

3.3.101.17 ToxicGas. A gas with a median lethal concentra- 
tion (LC 50 ) in air of more than 200 ppm, but not more than 
2000 ppm by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 mg/L, 
but not more than 20 mg/L of mist, fume, or dust, when ad- 
ministered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if 
death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
0.44 lb and 0.66 lb (200 g and 300 g) each. [55:3.3] 

3.3.101.18* Unstable Reactive Gas. Agas that, in the pure 
state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, 
decompose or condense, become self-reactive, or otherwise 



undergo a violent chemical change under conditions of 
shock, pressure, or temperature. [55:3.3] 

3.3.102* Gas Cabinet A fully enclosed, noncombustible en- 
closure used to provide an isolated environment for com- 
pressed gas cylinders in storage and use. [55:3.3] 

3.3.103 Gas Manufacturer/Producer. Abusiness that produces 
compressed gases or cryogenic fluids, or both, or fills portable or 
stationary gas containers, cylinders, or tanks. [55:3.3] 

3.3.104* Gas Room. A room designed for storage and use of 
compressed gases. [55:3.3] 

3.3.105 Ground Kettle. A container that could be mounted on 
wheels and is used for heating tar, asphalt, or similar substances. 

3.3.106 Handling. The deliberate movement of material by 
any means to a point of storage or use. 

3.3.107 Hazari of Contents. 

3.3.107.1 HighHazard. High hazard contents include ma- 
terials defined as hazardous materials in 3.3.130.2, whether 
stored, used or handled. 

3.3.107.1.1 High Hazard Level 1 Contents. High Hazard 
Level 1 contents include materials that present a detonation 
hazard, including but not be limited to: explosives; organic 
peroxides, unclassified detonable; oxidizers, Class 4; pyro- 
phoric materials, detonable; and unstable (reactive) materi- 
als, Class 3 detonable, and Class 4. 

3.3.107.1.2 High Hazard Level 2 Contents. High Hazard 
Level 2 contents include materials that present a deflagra- 
tion hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning, includ- 
ing but not be limited to: Class I, II or III-A flammable or 
combustible liquids which are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers or sys- 
tems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch 
(103.3kPa) gage; combustible dusts stored, used or gener- 
ated in a manner creating a severe fire or explosion hazard; 
flammable gases and flammable cryogenic liquids; organic 
peroxides, Class I; oxidizers, Class 3 which are used or 
stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed 
containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds 
per square inch (103.2kPa) gage; pyrophoric materials, 
nondetonable; unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, non- 
detonable; and water reactive materials, Class 3. 

3.3.107.1.3 High Hazard Level 3 Contents. High Hazard 
Level 3 contents include materials that readily support 
combustion or present a physical hazard, including but not 
be limited to: aerosols, Level 2 and Level 3; Class I, II or 
III-A flammable or combustible liquids which are used or 
stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized 
at less that 15 pounds per square inch (103.4kPa) gage; 
consumer fireworks, 1.4G; flammable solids, other than 
dusts classified as High Hazard Level 2, stored, used or gen- 
erated in a manner creating a high fire hazard; organic 
peroxides, Class II and Class III; oxidizers, Class 2; Oxidiz- 
ers, Class 3 which are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at less that 1 5 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gage; oxidizing gases and oxidiz- 
ing cryogenic liquids; unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2; 
and water-reactive materials, Class 2. 

3.3.107.1.4 High Hazard Level 4 Contents. High Hazard 
Level 4 contents include materials that are acute health 
hazards, including but not be limited to: corrosives, highly 
toxic materials, and toxic materials. 



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DEFINITIONS 



-31 



3.3.1 ©7. 1.5 High Hazard Level 5 Contents. High Hazard 
Level 5 contents include hazardous production materials 
(HPM) used in the fabrication of semiconductors or semi- 
conductor research and development. 

3.3. 107.2* Low Hazard. Contents that are of such low com- 
bustibility that no self-propagating fire therein can occur. 

[101:6.2] 

3.3.107.3* Ordinary Hazard. Contents that are likely to 
burn with moderate rapidity or to give off a considerable 
volume of smoke. [101:6.2] 

3.3.108* Hazard Rating. The numerical rating of the health, 
flammability, and self-reactivity, and other hazards of the ma- 
terial, including its reaction with water, specified in NFPA 704, 
Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for 
Emergency Response. [55:3.3] 

3.3.109 Hazardous Material. See 3.3.130.2. 

3.3.110 Hazardous Material Storage Facility. A building, a por- 
tion of a building, or exterior area used for the storage of 
hazardous materials in excess of exempt amounts. 

3.3.111 Hazardous Materials Storage Locker. A movable pre- 
fabricated structure, manufactured primarily at a site other than 
the final location of the structure and transported completely 
assembled or in a ready-to-assemble package to the final location. 
It is intended to meet local, state, and federal requirements for 
outside storage of hazardous materials. [30:1.6] 

3.3.112 Hazardous Reaction or Hazardous Chemical Reac- 
tion. Reactions that result in dangers beyond the fire prob- 
lems relating to flash point and boiling point of either the 
reactants or of the products. These dangers might include, but 
are not limited to, toxic effects, reaction speed (including 
detonation), exothermic reaction, or production of unstable 
or reactive materials. [30:1.6] 

3.3.113 Heliport. An identifiable area located on land, on 
water, or on a structure, that also includes any existing build- 
ings or facilities thereon, used or intended to be used for land- 
ing and takeoff of helicopters. The term heliport applies to all 
sites used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of 
helicopters. [418:1.3] 

3.3.114 Horizontal Exit. See 3.3.74.1. 

3.3. 115* Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (HDLH). A 
concentration of airborne contaminants, normally expressed 
in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter, that 
represents the maximum level from which a person could es- 
cape within 30 minutes without any escape-impairing symp- 
toms or irreversible health effects. 

3.3.116 Imminent Banger. A condition or practice in an occu- 
pancy or structure that poses a danger that could reasonably 
be expected to cause death, serious physical harm, or serious 
property loss. 

3.3.117 Incident Commander (IC). The person responsible 
for all decisions relating to the management of the incident. 
The incident commander is in charge of the incident site. This 
is equivalent to the on-scene incident commander. [472:1.2] 

3.3.118 Incidental Liquid Use or Storage. Use or storage as a 
subordinate activity to that which establishes the occupancy or 
area classification. [30:1.6] 

3.3.119 Indicating Valve. See 3.3.208.1. 



3.3.120 Initiating Bevice Circuit. A circuit to which automatic 
or manual initiating devices are connected where the signal re- 
ceived does not identify the individual device operated. [72:3.3] 

3.3.121 Inside Liquid Storage Area. See 3.3.11.8. 

3.3.122 Jurisdiction. A governmental unit or political divi- 
sion or a subdivision. 

3.3.123 Limit 

3.3.123.1 Ceiling Limit. The maximum concentration of an 
airborne contaminant to which a person might be exposed. 
The ceiling limits utilized are those published in 29 CFR 
1910.1000. [55:3.3] 

3.3.123.2* Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The maximum 
permitted 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of 
an airborne contaminant. 

3.3. 1 23.3* Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL). The concen- 
tration to which it is believed that workers can be exposed 
continuously for a short period of time without suffering 
from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or 
narcosis of a degree sufficient to increase the likelihood of 
accidental injury, impairment of self-rescue, or the material 
reduction of work efficiency, without exceeding the daily 
permissible exposure limit (PEL). [55:3.3] 

3.3.124* Limited Combustible. Refers to a building construc- 
tion material not complying with the definition of noncom- 
bustible (see 3.3. 131 of NFPA 101) that, in the form in which it is 
used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb 
(8141 kj/kg), where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, Stan- 
dard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials, and in- 
cludes (1) materials having a structural base of noncombustible 
material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of Vs in. 
(3.2 mm) that has a flame spread index not greater than 50; and 
(2) materials, in the form and thickness used, other than as de- 
scribed in (1), having neither a flame spread index greater than 
25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of 
such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting 
through the material on any plane would have neither a flame 
spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progres- 
sive combustion. [i01:3.3] 

3.3.125 Liquid. 

3.3.125.1 Combustible Liquid. A combustible liquid shall 
be defined as any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point at 
or above 100°F (37.8°C), as determined by the test proce- 
dures and apparatus set forth in 1.7.4 of NFPA30. Combus- 
tible liquids shall be classified as Class II or Class III as 
follows: (1) Class II Liquid — any liquid that has a flash 
point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C); 
(2) Class IIIA — any liquid that has a flash point at or above 
140°F (60°C), but below 200°F (93°C); (3) Class IIIB — any 
liquid that has a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C) . [30: 1 . 7] 

3.3.125.2 Cryogenic Liquid. A refrigerated liquid gas hav- 
ing a boiling point below -130°F (-90°C) at atmospheric 
pressure. [30:1.6] 

3.3.125.3 Flammable Liquid. Any liquid that has a closed- 
cup flash point below 100°F (37.8°C), as determined by the 
test procedures and apparatus set forth in 1.7.4 of NFPA 30. 
Flammable liquids are classified as Class I as follows: (a) Class I 
Liquid — any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point below 
100°F (37.8 C C) and a Reid vapor pressure not exceeding 
40 psia (2068.6 mm Hg) at 100°F (37.8°C) , as determined by 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



ASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test far Vapor Pressure of Petro- 
leum Products (Reid Method). Class I liquids are further classified 
as follows: (1) Class IA liquids — those liquids that have flash 
points below 73°F (22.8°C) and boiling points below 100°F 
(37.8°C); (2) Class IB liquids shall include those liquids that 
have flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and boiling points at or 
above 100°F (37.8°C); (3) Class IC liquids shall include those 
liquids — flash points at or above 73°F (22.8°C), but below 
lOOT (37.8"C). [30:1.7] 

3.3.125.4 Highly Volatile Liquid. A liquid with a boiling 
point of less than 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.125.5 Stable Liquid. Any liquid not defined as un- 
stable. [30:1.6] 

3.3.126 Loose House. A separate detached building in which 
unbaled combustible fibers are stored. 

3.3.127 Manual Fire Alarm Box. A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. [72:3.3] 

3.3.128 Manual Pull Station. See Manual Fire Alarm Box. 

3.3.129 Marine Vessel. Awater craft or other artificial contriv- 
ance used as a means of transportation in or on the water. 

3.3.130 Material. 

3.3.130.1 Compatible Material. A material that, when in 
contact with an oxidizer, will not react with the oxidizer or 
promote or initiate its decomposition. [430:1.5] 

3.3.130.2* Hazardous Material. A chemical or substance 
that is a physical hazard or health hazard as defined and 
classified in 60.1.5, whether the material is in usable or 
waste condition. 

3.3.130.3* Health Hazard Material. A chemical or sub- 
stance classified as a toxic, highly toxic, or corrosive mate- 
rial in accordance with the definitions set forth in this Code. 
[5000:3.3] 

3.3.130.4* Highly Toxic Material. Amaterial that produces a 
lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls into one of fol- 
lowing three categories: (1) A chemical that has a median le- 
thal dose (LD 50 ) of 50 mg/kg or less of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 
300 g each, (2) A chemical that has a median lethal dose 
(LD 50 ) of 200 mg/kg or less of body weight when adminis- 
tered by continuous contact for 24 hours, or less if death 
occurs within 24 hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits 
weighing between 2 kg and 3 kg each, (3) A chemical that has 
a median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) in air of 200 parts per 
million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 mg/L or less of 
mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhala- 
tion for 1 hour, or less if death occurs within 1 hour, to albino 
rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g each. Mixtures of these 
materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not 
warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basi- 
cally simple in application, any hazard evaluation which is re- 
quired for the precise categorization of this type of material 
must be performed by experienced, technically competent 
persons. 

3.3.130.5 Incompatible Material. Materials that, when in 
contact with each other, have the potential to react in a 
manner that generates heat, fumes, gases or by-products 
that are hazardous to life and property. [5000:3.3] 



3.3.130.6 Noncombustible Material. Amaterial that, in the 
form in which it is used and under the conditions antici- 
pated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release 
flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials 
that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test 
Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 
750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials. 
[102:2.2] 

3.3.130.7 Physical Hazard Material. A chemical or sub- 
stance classified as a combustible liquid, combustible fiber, 
explosive, flammable cryogen, flammable gas, flammable 
liquid, flammable solid, organic peroxide, oxidizer, oxidiz- 
ing cryogen, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive), or water- 
reactive material. [5000:3.3] 

3.3.130.8 Toxic Material. A material that produces a lethal 
dose or a lethal concentration within one of following 
three categories: (1) A chemical or substance that has a 
median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of more than 50 mg/kg but not 
more than 500 mg/kg of body weight when administered 
orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g 
each, (2) A chemical or substance that has a median lethal 
dose (LD 50 ) of more than 200 mg/kg but not more than 
1000 mg/kg of body weight when administered by continu- 
ous contact for 24 hours, or less if death occurs within 
24 hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing be- 
tween 2 kg and 3 kg each, (3) A chemical or substance that 
has a median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) in air more than 
200 parts per million but not more than 2000 parts per 
million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 mg/L but 
not more than 20 mg/L of mist, fume, or dust, when ad- 
ministered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour, or less if 
death occurs within 1 hour, to albino rats weighing be- 
tween 200 g and 300 g each. 

3.3.130.9 Unstable (Reactive) Material. Amaterial that, in 
the pure state or as commercially produced, vigorously 
polymerizes, decomposes, or condenses, becomes self- 
reactive, or otherwise undergoes a violent chemical change 
under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature. 

3.3.130.9.1* Class 1 Unstable (Reactive) Material. A mate- 
rial that, in itself, is normally stable but can become un- 
stable at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

3.3.130.9.2* Class 2 Unstable (Reactive) Material. A mate- 
rial that readily undergoes violent chemical change at el- 
evated temperatures and pressures. 

3.3.130.9.3* Class 3 Unstable (Reactive) Material. A mate- 
rial that, in itself, is capable of detonation or explosive de- 
composition or explosive reaction but requires a strong ini- 
tiating source or must be heated under confinement 
before initiation. 

3.3. 130.9.4* Class 4 Unstable (Reactive) Material. A material 
that, in itself, is readily capable of detonation or explosive 
decomposition or explosive reaction at normal tempera- 
tures and pressures. 

3.3.130.10 Water-Reactive Material. A material that ex- 
plodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause self- 
ignition or ignition of nearby combustibles upon exposure 
to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdi- 
vided into Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3. 



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DEFINITIONS 



1-33 



3.3.130.10.1 Class 1 Water-Reactive Material. Materials that 
can react with water with some release of energy, but not 
violently. 

3.3.130.10.2 Class 2 Water-Reactive Material. Materials that 
can form potentially explosive mixtures with water. 

3.3.130.10.3 Class 3 Water-Reactive Material. Materials that 
react explosively with water without requiring heat or con- 
finement. 

3.3.131 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Written or 
printed material concerning a hazardous material that is pre- 
pared in accordance with the provisions of OSHA 29 CFR 
1910.1200. 

3.3.132* Means of Egress. Acontinuous and unobstructed way 
of travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way 
consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1) the exit access, 
(2) the exit, and (3) the exit discharge. [101:3.3] 

3.3.133 Means of Escape. Away out of a building or structure 
that does not conform to the strict definition of means of egress 
but does provide an alternate way out. [101:3.3] 

3.3.134 Mezzanine. An intermediate level between the floor 
and the ceiling of any room or space. [101:3.3] 

3.3.135 Motor Vehicle fluid. A fluid that is a flammable, com- 
bustible, or hazardous material, such as crankcase fluids, fuel, 
brake fluids, transmission fluids, radiator fluids, and gear oil. 

3.3.136 Nesting. A method of securing cylinders upright in a 
tight mass using a contiguous three-point contact system 
whereby all cylinders in a group have a minimum of three 
contact points with other cylinders or a solid support structure 
(for example, a wall or railing). [55:3.3] 

3.3.137 Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTF). A tempera- 
ture of 70°F (21.1°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia 
(101.3 kPa)]. 

3.3.138 Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or por- 
tion thereof is used or intended to be used. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.1* Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A building 
or portion thereof used to provide services or treatment 
simultaneously to four or more patients that provides, on 
an outpatient basis, one or more of the following: ( 1 ) treat- 
ment for patients that renders the patients incapable of 
taking action for self-preservation under emergency condi- 
tions without the assistance of others; (2) anesthesia that 
renders the patients incapable of taking action for self- 
preservation under emergency conditions without the assis- 
tance of others; (3) emergency or urgent care for patients 
who, due to the nature of their injury or illness, are incapable 
of taking action for self-preservation under emergency condi- 
tions without the assistance of others [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.2* Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy (1) usedfora 
gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, 
entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting trans- 
portation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement 
building, regardless of occupant load. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.3 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. Abuildingin 
which the sales area includes the storage of combustible 
materials on pallets, in solid piles, or in racks in excess of 
12 ft (3.7 m) in storage height. [101:3.3] 



3.3.138.4* Business Occupancy. An occupancy used for ac- 
count and record keeping or the transaction of business 
other than mercantile. [101:3.3] 

3.3.1 38.5* Day-Care Home. A building or portion of a build- 
ing in which more than three but not more than 12 clients 
receive care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than 
their relative (s) or legal guardian (s), for less than 24 hours 
per day. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.6* Bay-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and super- 
vision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, for 
less than 24 hours per day. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.7* Detention and Correctional Occupancy. An occu- 
pancy used to house four or more persons under varied 
degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are 
mosdy incapable of self-preservation because of security 
measures not under the occupants' control. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.8 Detention and Correctional Use Condition. For ap- 
plication of the life safety in Section 20.7, the resident user 
category is divided into the five use conditions. 

3.3.138.8.1 Use Condition I — Free Egress. Free movement 
is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access 
or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress 
that meet the requirements of the Code. [101:22.1.4.1; 
101:23.1.4.1] 

3.3.138.8.2 Use Condition H — Zoned Egress. Free move- 
ment is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occu- 
pied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke 
compartments. [101:22.1.4.1; 101:23.1.4.1] 

3.3.138.8.3 Use Condition MI — Zoned Impeded Egress. Free 
movement is allowed within individual smoke compart- 
ments, such as within a residential unit comprised of indi- 
vidual sleeping rooms and a group activity space, with 
egress impeded by remote-controlled release of means of 
egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke 
compartment. [101:22.1.4.1; 101:23.1.4.1] 

3.3.138.8.4 Use Condition IV — Impeded Egress. Free move- 
ment is restricted from an occupied space. Remote- 
controlled release is provided to allow movement from all 
sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occupied areas 
within the smoke compartment to another smoke compart- 
ment. [101:22.1.4.1; 101:23.1.4.1] 

3.3.138.8.5 Use Condition V — Contained. Free movement 
is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled 
manual release at each door is provided to allow movement 
from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occu- 
pied areas within the smoke compartment to another 
smoke compartment. [101:22.1.4.1; 101:23.1.4.1] 

3.3.138.9* Dormitory. Abuilding or a space in a building in 
which group sleeping accommodations are provided for 
more than 16 persons who are not members of the same 
family in one room or a series of closely associated rooms 
under joint occupancy and single management, with or 
without meals, but without individual cooking facilities. 
[101:3.3] 

3.3.138.10* Educational Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or 
more persons for four or more hours per day or more than 
12 hours per week. [101:3.3] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



3.3.138.11* Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
purposes of medical or other treatment or care of four or 
more persons where such occupants are mostiy incapable 
of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, 
or because of security measures not under the occupants' 
control. [101:33] 

3.3.138.12 Hospital. A building or portion thereof used 
on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, 
or surgical care of four or more inpatients. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.13* Hotel. Abuilding or groups of buildings under 
the same management in which there are sleeping accom- 
modations for more than 16 persons and primarily used by 
transients for lodging with or without meals. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.14* Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
products are manufactured or in which processing, assem- 
bling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair 
operations are conducted. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.15* Limited Care Facility. Abuilding or portion of a 
building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing of four or 
more persons who are incapable of self-preservation because 
of age; physical limitations due to accident or illness; or limi- 
tations such as mental retardation/developmental disability, 
mental illness, or chemical dependency. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.16 Lodging or Rooming House. A building or por- 
tion thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family 
dwelling, that provides sleeping accommodations for a to- 
tal of 16 or fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, 
without personal care services, with or without meals, but 
without separate cooking facilities for individual occupants. 
[101:3.3] 

3.3.138.17* Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
the display and sale of merchandise. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.17.1 Class A Mercantile Occupancy. All mercantile 
occupancies having an aggregate gross area of more than 
30,000 ft 2 (2800 m ) or occupying more than three stories 
for sales purposes. [101:36.1.4.2.1] 

3.3. 1 38. 1 7.2 Class B Mercantile Occupancy. Class B — All 
mercantile occupancies of more than 3000 ft 2 (280 m 2 ), 
but not more than 30,000 ft 2 (2800 m 2 ), aggregate gross 
area and occupying not more than three stories for sales 
purposes. 

3.3.138.17.3 Class C Mercantile Occupancy. All mercantile 
occupancies of not more than 3000 ft 2 (280 m 2 ) gross area 
and used for sales purposes occupying on one story only. 
[101:36.1.4.2.1] 

3.3.138.18 Nursing Home. A building or portion of a build- 
ing used on a 24-hour basis for the housing and nursing care 
of four or more persons who, because of mental or physical 
incapacity, might be unable to provide for their own needs 
and safety without the assistance of another person. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.19 One- and Two-Family Dwelling. One- and two- 
family dwellings include buildings containing not more 
than two dwelling units in which each dwelling unit is occu- 
pied by members of a single family with not more than 
three outsiders, if any, accommodated in rented rooms. 
[101:24.1.1.1] 

3.3.138.20* Parking Structure. A building, structure, or 
portion thereof used for the parking, or storage, or both, of 
motor vehicles. [88A:3.3] 



3.3.138.20.1 Basement and Underground Parking Struc- 
tures. Parking structures that are located below grade. A 
basement parking structure has other occupancies above 
it; an underground parking structure has no occupancy 
other than parking above it. Basement and underground 
parking structures are considered as specific cases of en- 
closed parking structures. 

3.3.138.20.2 Enclosed Parking Structure. Any parking struc- 
ture that is not an open parking structure. [88A:3.3] 

3.3.138.20.3 Open Parking Structures. A parking structure 
that, at each parking level, has wall openings open to the 
atmosphere, for an area of not less than 1.4 ft 2 for each 
linear foot (0.4 m 2 for each linear meter) of its exterior 
perimeter. Such openings are distributed over 40 percent 
of the building perimeter or uniformly over two opposing 
sides. Interior walls lines and column lines are at least 
20 percent open, with openings distributed to provide ven- 
tilation. [88A:3.3] 

3.3.138.21 Repair Garages. 

3.3.138.21.1 Major Repair Garage. A building or portions 
of a building where major repairs, such as engine over- 
hauls, painting, body and fender work, and repairs that 
require draining of the motor vehicle fuel tank are per- 
formed on motor vehicles, including associated floor space 
used for offices, parking, or showrooms. 

3.3.138.21.2 Minor Repair Garage. A building or portions 
of a building used for lubrication, inspection, and minor 
automotive maintenance work, such as engine tune-ups, 
replacement of parts, fluid changes (e.g., oil, antifreeze, 
transmission fluid, brake fluid, air conditioning refriger- 
ants, etc.), brake system repairs, tire rotation, and similar 
routine maintenance work, including associated floor 
space used for offices, parking, or showrooms.. 

3.3.138.22* Residential Board and Care Occupancy. Abuild- 
ing or portion thereof that is used for lodging and board- 
ing of four or more residents, not related by blood or mar- 
riage to the owners or operators, for the purpose of 
providing personal care services. [101:3.3] 

3.3.138.23 Residential Occupancy. An occupancy that pro- 
vides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than 
health care or detention and correctional. [101:3.3] 

3.3. 1 38.24 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

3.3.138.24.1 Fleet Vehicle Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. A 
motor fuel dispensing facility at a commercial, industrial, 
governmental, or manufacturing property where motor fu- 
els are dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that 
are used in connection with the business or operation of 
that property by persons within the employ of such busi- 
ness or operation. [30A:3.1] 

3.3.138.24.2 Marine Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. A mo- 
tor fuel dispensing facility at or adjacent to shore, a pier, a 
wharf, or a floating dock where motor fuels are dispensed 
into the fuel tanks of marine craft. [30A:3.1] 

3.3.138.24.3 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. That portion 
of a property where motor fuels are stored and dis- 
pensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of mo- 
tor vehicles or marine craft or into approved containers, 
including all equipment used in connection therewith. 
[30A:3.1] 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-35 



3.3.138.24.4* Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility Located Inside a 
Building. That portion of a motor fuel dispensing facility 
located within the perimeter of a building or building 
structure that also contains other occupancies. [30A:3.1] 

3.3.138.25* Storage Occupancy. An occupancy used prima- 
rily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, 
products, vehicles, or animals. [101:3.3] 

3.3.139 Occupant Load. The total number of persons that 
might occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time. 
[101:3.3] 

3.3.140 Open System Use. See 3.3.207.2. 



3.3.141 Operating or Process Unit (Vessel). The equipment in 
which a unit operation or unit process is conducted. (See also 
3.3.203, Unit Operation or Unit Process.) [30:1.6] 

3.3.142 Operating Pressure. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

3.3.143 Operations. A general term that includes, but is not 
limited to, the use, transfer, storage, and processing of liquids. 

[30:1.6] 

3.3.144 Organic Peroxide. Any organic compound having a 
double oxygen or peroxy (-O-O-) group in its chemical struc- 
ture. [432:1.5] 

3.3.144.1* Organic Peroxide Formulation. A pure organic 
peroxide or a mixture of one or more organic peroxides 
with one or more other materials in various combinations 
and concentrations. [432:1.5] 

3.3.144.2 Organic Peroxide Storage Area. See 3.3.11.12. 

3.3.145 QSHA. The Occupational Safety and Health Admin- 
istration of the U.S. Department of Labor. [55:1.4] 

3.3.146* Oxidizer. Any material that readily yields oxygen or 
other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or ini- 
tiate combustion of combustible materials. [430:1.5] 

3.3.146.1 Classification of Oxidizers. For the purpose of 
this Code, oxidizers are classified according to the system 
listed in (a) through (d) of Section 1.6 of NFPA 430 shown 
in 70.2.2. The classification is based on the technical com- 
mittee's evaluation of available scientific and technical 
data, actual experience, and its considered opinion. Classi- 
fication refers to the pure oxidizer. Gross contamination 
can cause oxidizers of all classes to undergo exothermic or 
explosive reaction, particularly if they also are subjected to 
confinement and heating. (See Oxidizer. See Annex B for oxi- 
dizer classifications. ) 

3.3.147 Patch Kettle. Any pot or container with a capacity of 
less than 6 gal (22.7 L) used for preheating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for the repair of roofs, streets, floors, 
pipes, or similar objects. 

3.3.148 Permissible Exposure limit. (PEL). See 3.3.123.2. 

3.3.149 Permit. A document issued by the authority having 
jurisdiction for the purpose of authorizing performance of a 
specified activity. 

3.3.150 Peroxide-Foraming (Chemical. A chemical that, when 
exposed to air, forms explosive peroxides that are shock sensi- 
tive, pressure sensitive, or heat sensitive. 

3.3.151* Personal Care. The care of residents who do not 
require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
[101:3.3] 



3.3.152 Pesticide. Any substance or mixture of substances in- 
tended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any 
pest or for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. 

[434:1.5] 

3.3.153 Physical Hazard. A chemical for which there is scien- 
tifically valid evidence that the chemical is an organic peroxide or 
oxidizer. 

3.3.154 Planned Building Groups. Multiple structures con- 
structed on a parcel of land, excluding farmland, under the 
ownership, control, or development by an individual, a corpo- 
ration, a partnership, or a firm. [1141:2.1] 

3.3.155* Prepackaged Fireworks Merchandise. A consumer 
fireworks device or group of consumer fireworks devices that 
has been packaged within an unperforated container or pack- 
aging material by the manufacturer, distributor, or seller for 
retail display and sale as a unit. [1124:3.3] 

3.3.156 Primary Containment Primary containment is the 
first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of 
that container which comes into immediate contact on its in- 
ner surface with the material being contained. 

3.3.157 Private Building. See 3.3.22.6. 

3.3.158 Process or Processing. An integrated sequence of op- 
erations. The sequence can be inclusive of both physical and 
chemical operations, unless the term is modified to restrict it 
to one or the other. The sequence can involve, but is not lim- 
ited to, preparation, separation, purification, or change in 
state, energy content, or composition. [30:1.6] 

3.3.159 Process Unit (Vessel). See 3.3.141. 

3.3.160 Professional Engineer. An individual technically and 
legally qualified to practice the profession of engineering. 

3.3.161 Proprietary Information. Information regarding 
compounds or ingredients used in a process or production 
that do not qualify as trade secrets but that provide an industry 
or business with a competitive advantage. 

3.3.162 Protection for Exposures. Fire protection for struc- 
tures on property adjacent to liquid storage. Fire protection 
for such structures shall be acceptable when located either 
within the jurisdiction of any public fire department or adja- 
cent to plants having private fire brigades capable of providing 
cooling water streams on structures on property adjacent to 
liquid storage. [30:1.6] 

3.3.163 Public Way. A street, alley, or other similar parcel of 
land essentially open to the outside air deeded, dedicated, or 
otherwise permanendy appropriated to the public for public 
use and having a clear width and height of not less than 1 20 in. 
(3050 mm). [101:3.3] 

3.3.164 Pywiphoric. A chemical that spontaneously ignites in 
air at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.5°C). 

3.3.165* Rack. Any combination of vertical, horizontal, and 
diagonal members that supports stored materials. [230:3.3] 

3.3.165.1 Double-Sow Racks. Two single-row racks placed 
back-to-back having a combined width up to 12 ft (3.7 m), 
with aisles of at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) on each side. [13:3.10] 

3.3.165.2* Movable Racks. Racks on fixed rails or guides. 
[13:3.10] 

3.3.165.3 Multiple-Row Racks. Racks greater than 12 ft 
(3.7 m) wide or single- or double-row racks, separated by 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



aisles less than 3.5 ft (1.1 m) wide having an overall width 
greater than 12 ft (3.7 m). [13:3.10] 

3.3.165.4* Portable Racks. 

place. [13:3.10] 



Racks that are not fixed in 



3.3.165.5 Closed System Use. See 3.3.207.1. 

3.3.166 Ramp. A walking surface that has a slope steeper 
than 1 in 20. [701:3.3] 

3.3.167 Recreational Fire. The noncommercial burning of 
materials other than rubbish for pleasure, religious, ceremo- 
nial, cooking, or similar purposes in which the fuel burned is 
not contained in an incinerator, a barbecue grill, or a barbe- 
cue pit, and the total fuel area is not exceeding 3 ft (0.9 m) in 
diameter and 2 ft (0.6 m) in height. 

3.3.168 Refinery. A plant in which flammable or combustible 
liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petro- 
leum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources. [30:1.6] 

3.3.169 Relocatable Power Tap. A device for indoor use con- 
sisting of an attachment plug on one end of a flexible cord 
and two or more receptacles on the opposite end, and has 
overcurrent protection. 

3.3.170 SafetyCan. A listed container, of not more than 5 gal 
(18.9 L) capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover 
and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure 
when subjected to fire exposure. [30:1.6] 

3.3.171 Sales Display Area. See 3.3.11.12. 

3.3.172 Salvage Vehicle. A vehicle that is dismantled for parts 
or awaiting destruction. 

3.3.173 Self-Closing. Equipped with an approved device that 
ensures closing after opening. [101:3.3] 

3.3.174 Separation of Hazards. Physically separated by a 
specified distance, construction, or appliance. [55:3.3] 

3.3.175 Shop Drawings. Scaled working drawings, equipment 
cutsheets, and design calculations. (See definition of Construction 
Documents in NFPA 1031.) [1031:2.1] 

3.3.176 Signal. 

3.3.176.1 Alarm Signal. A signal indicating an emergency 
that requires immediate action, such as a signal indicative 
of fire. [72:3.3] 

3.3.176.2 Fire Alarm Signal. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, 
automatic fire detector, waterflow switch, or other device in 
which activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire 
signature. [72:3.3] 

3.3.177 Simple Asphyxiant Gas. See 3.3.101.16. 

3.3.178 Smoke Alarm. A single or multiple station alarm re- 
sponsive to smoke. [72:3.3] 

3.3.179* Smoke Barrier. A continuous membrane, or a mem- 
brane with discontinuities created by protected openings, 
where such membrane is designed and constructed to restrict 
the movement of smoke. [I0/:3.3] 

3.3.180 Smoke Compartment. See 3.3.44.2. 



3.3.181* Smoke Partition. Acontinuous membrane that is de- 
signed to form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. 
[101:3.3] 

3.3.182 Snioldng. The use or carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, 
cigarette, tobacco, or any other type of smoking substance. 

3.3.183 SmokingArea. See 3.3.11.13. 

3.3.184 Solid. 

3.3.184.1* Combustible Particulate Solid. Any combustible 
solid material comprised of distinct particles or pieces, re- 
gardless of size, shape, or chemical composition. [654:1.7] 

3.3.184.2* Flammable Solid. Asolid substance, other than a 
substance defined as a blasting agent or explosive, that is 
liable to cause fire resulting from friction or retained heat 
from manufacture, that has an ignition temperature below 
212°F (110°C), or which burns so vigorously or persistently 
when ignited that it creates a serious hazard. 

3.3.185 Special Use. See 3.3.207.3. 

3.3.186 Spray Area. See 3.3.11.14. 

3.3.187 Spray Booth. A power-ventilated structure that en- 
closes a spray application operation or process, and confines 
and limits the escape of the material being sprayed, including 
vapors, mists, dusts, and residues that are produced by the 
spraying operation and conducts or directs these materials to 
an exhaust system. Spray booths are manufactured in a variety 
of forms, including automotive refinishing, downdraft, open- 
face, traveling, tunnel, and updraft booths. This definition is 
not intended to limit the term "spray booth" to any particular 
design. The entire spray booth is considered part of the spray 
area. A spray booth is not a spray room. [33:1.6] 

3.3.188 Spray Room. A power-ventilated fully-enclosed room 
used exclusively for open spraying of flammable or combus- 
tible materials. The entire spray room is considered part of the 
spray area. Aspray booth is not a spray room. [33:1.6] 

3.3.189 Standard Cubic Foot (scf). One cubic foot of gas at 
70°F (21 °C) and an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia (101.325 kPa). 

[55:3.3] 

3.3.190 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). Atempera- 
ture of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi or 
760mmHg). 

3.3.191 Standpipe System. See 3.3.198.11. 

3.3.192 Storage. 

3.3.192.1 Detached Storage. Storage in a separate building 
or in an outside area located away from all structures. 

3.3.192.2 High-Piled Storage. Solid-piled, palletized, rack 
storage, bin box, and shelf storage in excess of 12 ft (3.7 m) 
in height. [13:1.4] 

3.3.192.3 Isolated Storage. Storage in a different storage 
room, or in a separate and detached building located at a 
safe distance. 

3.3.192.4 Segregated Storage. Storage located in the same 
room or inside area that is physically separated by distance 
from incompatible materials. 

3.3.193 Story. The portion of a building located between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above. [5000:3.3] 



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3.3.193.1* Occupiable Story. Astory occupied by people on 
a regular basis. [101:3.3] 

3.3.194 Street. A public thoroughfare that has been dedi- 
cated for vehicular use by the public and can be used for ac- 
cess by fire department vehicles. [101:3.3] 

3.3.195* Street Floor. Astory or floor level accessible from the 
street or from outside a building at ground level, with the floor 
level at the main entrance located not more than three risers 
above or below ground level and arranged and utilized to 
qualify as the main floor. [101:3.3] 

3.3.196* Structure. That which is built or constructed. [101:3.3] 

3.3.197 Summarily Abate. To immediately judge a condition 
to be a fire hazard to life or property and to order immediate 
correction of such condition. 

3.3.198 System. Several items of equipment assembled, 
grouped, or otherwise interconnected for the accomplish- 
ment of a purpose or function. 

3.3.198.1 Automatic Fire-Extinguishing System. Any system 
that is designed and installed to detect a fire and subse- 
quently discharge an extinguishing agent without human 
activation or direction. [1141:2.1] 

3.3.198.2 Bulk Oxygen System. A bulk oxygen system is an 
assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, 
pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, 
and interconnecting piping, that has a storage capacity of 
more than 20,000 ft* (566 m 3 ) of oxygen (NTP) including 
unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen 
system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pres- 
sure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers may 
be stationary or movable, and the oxygen may be stored as 
gas or liquid. [50:1.3] 

3.3.198.3 Central Station Fire Alarm System. A system or 
group of systems in which the operations of circuits and 
devices are transmitted automatically to, recorded in, 
maintained by, and supervised from a listed central station 
that has competent and experienced servers and operators 
who, upon receipt of a signal, take such action as required 
by this Code. Such service is to be controlled and operated 
by a person, firm, or corporation whose business is the fur- 
nishing, maintaining, or monitoring of supervised fire 
alarm systems. [72:1.4] 

3.3.198.4* Compressed Gas System. An assembly of equip- 
ment designed to contain, distribute, or transport com- 
pressed gases. [55:3.3] 

3.3.198.5 Continuous Gas Detection System. A gas detection 
system in which the instrument is maintained in continu- 
ous operation and the interval between sampling of any 
point does not exceed 30 minutes. [55:3.3] 

3.3.198.6 Cylinder Containment System. A gastight recovery 
system comprised of equipment or devices that can be 
placed over a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby 
stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking 
container. [55:3.3] 

3.3.198.7 Dedicated Smoke Control System. A system that is 
intended for the purpose of smoke control only, which 
are separate systems of air moving and distribution 
equipment that do not function under normal building 
operating conditions. 



3.3. 198.8 Fire Alarm System. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system that consists of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire 
alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate 
the appropriate response to those signals. [72:1.4] 

3.3.198.9 Fire Protection System. Any fire alarm device or 
system or fire extinguishing device or system, or their combi- 
nation, that is designed and installed for detecting, control- 
ling, or extinguishing a fire or otherwise alerting occupant, or 
the fire department, or both, that a fire has occurred. 
[1141:2.1] 

3.3.198.10 Nondedicated Smoke Control System. A smoke 
control system that shares components with some other 
system (s), such as the building H\AC system, which 
changes its mode of operation to achieve the smoke con- 
trol objective. 

3.3.198.11 Standpipe System. An arrangement of piping, 
valves, hose connections, and allied equipment installed in 
a building or structure, with the hose connections located 
in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams 
or spray patterns through attached hose and nozzles, for 
the purpose of extinguishing a fire, thereby protecting a 
building or structure and its contents in addition to pro- 
tecting the occupants. This is accomplished by means of 
connections to water supply systems or by means of pumps, 
tanks, and other equipment necessary to provide an ad- 
equate supply of water to the hose connections. [14:1.4] 

3.3.198.12 Treatment System. An assembly of equipment 
capable of processing a hazardous gas and reducing the gas 
concentration to a predetermined level at the point of dis- 
charge from the system to the atmosphere. [55:3.3] 

3.3.198.13 Vapor Processing System. A system designed to 
capture and process vapors displaced during transfer or 
filling operations by use of mechanical or chemical means. 
Examples are systems using blower-assist for capturing va- 
pors and refrigeration, absorption, and combustion sys- 
tems for processing vapors. [30:1.6] 

3.3.198.14 Vapor Recovery System. Asystem designed to cap- 
ture and retain, without processing, vapors displaced during 
transfer or filling operations. Examples are balanced-pressure 
vapor displacement systems and vacuum-assist systems with- 
out vapor processing. [30:1.6] 

3.3.199 Tank. 

3.3.199.1 Aboveground Storage Tank. A horizontal or verti- 
cal tank that is listed and intended for fixed installation, 
without backfill, above or below grade and is used within 
the scope of its approval or listing. [30A:3.1] 

3.3.199.2 Aboveground Tank. A tank that is installed above 
grade, at grade, or below grade without backfill. [30:1.6] 

3.3.199.3 ASME Tank. See 3.3.13. 

3.3.199.4 Portable Tank. Any closed vessel having a liquid 
capacity over 60 U.S. gal (227 L) and not intended for fixed 
installation. This includes intermediate bulk containers 
(IBCs) as defined and regulated by the U.S. Department of 
Transportation. [30:1.6] 

3.3.199.5 Protected Aboveground Tank. An aboveground 
storage tank that is listed in accordance with UL 2085, Stan- 
dard for Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combus- 
tible Liquids, or an equivalent test procedure that consists of a 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



primary tank provided with protection from physical damage 
and fire-resistive protection from exposure to a high-intensity 
liquid pool fire. [30:1.6] 

3.3.199.6* Secondary Containment Tank. A tank that has an 
inner and an outer wall with an interstitial space (annulus) 
between the walls and that has a means for monitoring the 
interstitial space for a leak. [30:1.6] 

3.3.199.7 Stationary Tank. A packaging designed primarily 
for stationary installations not intended for loading, un- 
loading, or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its 
normal operation in the process of use. [55:3.3] 

3.3.199.8 Storage Tank. Any vessel having a liquid capacity 
that exceeds 60 gal (227 L), is intended for fixed installa- 
tion, and is not used for processing. [30:1.6] 

3.3.200 Temporary Wring. Approved wiring for power and 
lighting during a period of construction, remodeling, mainte- 
nance, repair, or demolition, and decorative lighting, carnival 
power and lighting, and similar purposes. 

3.3.201 Toxic Material. See 3.3.130.8. 

3.3.202 Unauthorized Discharge. A release or emission of ma- 
terials in a manner that does not conform to the provisions of 
this Code or applicable public health and safety regulations. 

3.3.203 Unit Operation or Unit Process. A segment of a physi- 
cal or chemical process that might or might not be integrated 
with other segments to constitute the manufacturing sequence. 
[30:1.6] 

3.3.204 Unit Process. See 3.3.203. 

3.3.205 Unit (Vessel), Operating or Process. See 3.3.141. 

3.3.206 Unstable (Reactive) Material. See 3.3.130.9. 

3.3.207 Use. 

3.3.207.1* Closed System Use. Use of a solid or liquid haz- 
ardous material in a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by 
the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system 
and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations and all uses of compressed gases. 

3.3.207.2* Open System Use. Use of a solid or liquid hazard- 
ous material in a vessel or system that is continuously open 
to the atmosphere during normal operations and where 
vapors are liberated or the product is exposed to the atmo- 
sphere during normal operations. 

3.3.207.3 Special Use. A use that includes, but is not lim- 
ited to, events or occurrences during which life safety- 
threatening situations or fire hazards exist or are likely to 
exist as determined by the AHJ. 

3.3.208 Valve. 

3.3.208.1 Indicating Valve. A valve that has components 
that show if the valve is open or closed. Examples are out- 
side screw and yoke (OS&Y) gate valves and underground 
gate valves with indicator posts. 

3.3.208.2 Reduced Flow Valve. A valve equipped with a re- 
stricted flow orifice that is designed to reduce the maxi- 
mum flow from the valve under full flow conditions. 

3.3.208.3 Valve Outlet Cap or Plug. A removable device that 
forms a gastight seal on the outlet to the control valve that 



is provided on a source containing a compressed gas or 
cryogenic fluid. [55:3.3] 

3.3.208.4 Valve Protection Cap. A rigid, removable cover 
provided for container valve protection during handling, 
transportation, and storage. [55:3.3] 

3.3.208.5 Valve Protection Device. A device attached to the 
neck ring or body of a cylinder for the purpose of protect- 
ing the cylinder valve from being struck or from being 
damaged by the impact resulting from a fall or an object 
striking the cylinder. [55:3.3] 

3.3.209* Vapor Pressure. The pressure, measured in pounds 
per square inch, absolute (psia), exerted by a liquid, as deter- 
mined by ASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure 
of Petroleum Products (Reid Method). [30:1.7] 

3.3.210 Vapor Processing System. See 3.3.198.13. 

3.3.211 Vapor Recovery System. See 3.3.198.14. 

3.3.212 Warehouses. 

3.3.212.1 General-Purpose Warehouse. A separate, de- 
tached building or portion of a building used only for 
warehousing-type operations. 

3.3.212.2 Liquid Warehouse. A separate, detached build- 
ing or attached building used for warehousing-type opera- 
tions for liquids. [30:1.6] 

3.3.213 Water Capacity. The amount of water, in either 
pounds or gallons, at 60°F (15.6°C) required to fill a container 
liquid full of water. [58:1.6] 

3.3.214 Wlldland/Urban Interface. An area where improved 
property and wildland fuels meet at a well-defined boundary. 
[1144:3.3] 

3.3.215 Written Notice. A notification in writing delivered in 
person to the individual or parties intended, or delivered at, 
or sent by certified or registered mail to, the last residential or 
business address of legal record. 

3.4 Special Performance-Based Definitions. 

3.4.1 Alternative Calculation Procedure. A calculation proce- 
dure that differs from the procedure originally employed by 
the design team but that provides predictions for the same 
variables of interest. [202:3.3] 

3.4.2 Analysis. 

3.4.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis. An analysis performed to deter- 
mine the degree to which a predicted output will vary given 
a specified change in an input parameter, usually in rela- 
tion to models. [202:3.3] 

3.4.2.2 Uncertainty Analysis. An analysis performed to deter- 
mine the degree to which a predicted value will vary. [202:3.3] 

3.4.3 Data Conversion. The process of developing the input 
data set for the assessment method of choice. [202:3.3] 

3.4.4 Design Fire Scenario. See 3.4.10. 

3.4.5* Design Specifications. Building characteristics and 
other conditions that are under the control of the design 
team. [202:3.3] 

3.4.6 Design Team. A group of stakeholders including, but 
not limited to, representatives of the architect, client, and any 
pertinent engineers and other designers. [202:3.3] 



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3.4.7* Exposure Fire. A fire that starts at a location that is 
remote from the area being protected and grows to expose 
that which is being protected. [101:3.3] 

3.4.8* Fire Model. A structured approach to predicting one 
or more effects of a fire. [101:3.3] 

3.4.9* Ere Scenario. A set of conditions that defines the devel- 
opment of fire, the spread of combustion products throughout a 
building or portion of a building, the reactions of people to fire, 
and the effects of combustion products. [101:3.3] 

3.4.10 Fire Scenario (Design). Afire scenario used for evalua- 
tion of a proposed design. [101:3.3] 

3.4.11* Fuel Load. The total quantity of combustible contents 
of a building, space, or fire area. [101:3.3] 

3.4.12 Incapacitation. A condition under which humans do 
not function adequately and become unable to escape unten- 
able conditions. [101:3.3] 

3.4.13 Input Data Specification. Information required by the 
verification method. [101:3.3] 

3.4.14 Occupant Characteristics. The abilities or behaviors of 
people before and during a fire. [101:3.3] 

3.4.15* Performance Criteria. Threshold values on measure- 
ment scales that are based on quantified performance objec- 
tives. [101:3.3] 

3.4.16* Proposed Design. A design developed by a design 
team and submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for 
approval. [101:3.3] 

3.4.17 Safe Location. A location remote or separated from 
the effects of a fire so that such effects no longer pose a threat. 

[101:3.3] 

3.4.18 Safety Factor. A factor applied to a predicted value to 
ensure that a sufficient safety margin is maintained. [101:3.3] 

3.4.19 Safety Margin. The difference between a predicted 
value and the actual value where a fault condition is expected. 

[101:3.3] 

3.4.20 Sensitivity Analysis. See 3.4.2.1. 

3.4.21 Stakeholder. An individual, or representative of same, 
having an interest in the successful completion of a project. 
[101:3.3] 

3.4.22 Uncertainty Analysis. See 3.4.2.2. 

3.4.23 Verification Method. A procedure or process used to 
demonstrate or confirm that the proposed design meets the 
specified criteria. [101:3.3] 



Chapter 4 General Reqeiremeinits 

4.1* Goals and Objectives. 

4.1.1* Goals. The goals of this Code shall be to provide a rea- 
sonable level of safety, property protection, and public welfare 
from the hazards created by fire, explosion, and other hazard- 
ous conditions. 

4.1.2* Objectives. To achieve the goals stated in 4.1.1, the 
goals and objectives of 4.1.3 through 4.1.5 shall be satisfied. 



4.1.3* Safety. This Code shall provide for life safety by reduc- 
ing the probability of injury or death from fire, explosions, or 
events involving hazardous materials. 

4.1.3.1 Safety from Fire. 

4.1.3.1.1* Safety-froni-Fire Goals. The fire safety goals of this 
Code shall be as follows: 

(1) To provide an environment for the occupants in a build- 
ing or facility and for the public near a building or facility 
that is reasonably safe from fire and similar emergencies 

(2) To protect fire fighters and emergency responders 

4.1.3.1.2 Safety-froni-Fire Objectives. 

4.1.3.1.2.1 Buildings and facilities shall be designed, con- 
structed, and maintained to protect occupants who are not 
intimate with the initial fire development for the amount of 
time needed to evacuate, relocate, or defend in place. 

4.1.3.1.2.2* Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable safety for fire fighters and emergency re- 
sponders during search and rescue operations. 

4.1.3.1.2.3 Buildings shall be designed, located, and con- 
structed to reasonably protect adjacent persons from injury or 
death as a result of a fire. 

4.1.3.1.2.4 Buildings shall be designed, located, and con- 
structed to provide reasonable access to the building for emer- 
gency responders. 

4.1.3.1.2.5* Operations shall be conducted at facilities in a 
safe manner that will minimize, reduce, control, or mitigate 
the risk of fire injury or death for the operators, while protect- 
ing the occupants not intimate with initial fire development 
for the amount of time needed to evacuate, relocate, or de- 
fend in place. 

4.1.3.2 Safety During Building Use. 

4.1.3.2.1* Safety-During-Buiding-Use Goal. The safety-during- 
building-use goal of this Code shall be to provide an environ- 
ment for the occupants of the building that is reasonably safe 
during the normal use of the building. 

4.1.3.2.2 Safety-During-Building-Use Objectives. 

4.1.3.2.2.1 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
reduce the probability of death or injury of persons from fall- 
ing during normal use of the building. 

4.1.3.2.2.2 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide for reasonably safe crowd movement during emer- 
gency and non-emergency conditions. 

4.1.3.2.2.3 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable life safety for occupants and workers dur- 
ing construction and demolition. 

4.1.3.2.2.4 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable notification to occupants of fire and other 
emergency situations. 

4.1.3.2.2.5 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable signage and lighting to identify hazards, 
exits, means of egress, and other building safety features. 

4.1.3.3 Safety from Hazardous Materials. 

4.1.3.3.1 Safety-froni-Hazardows-Materials Goal. The safety- 
from-hazardous-materials goal of this Code shall be to provide 
an environment for the occupants in a building or facility and 



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to those adjacent to a building or facility that is reasonably safe 
from exposures to adverse affects from hazardous materials 
present therein. 

4.1.3.3.2 Safety-from-Hazardous-Materials Objectives. 

4.1.3.3.2.1 The storage, use, or handling of hazardous mate- 
rials in a building or facility shall be accomplished in a manner 
that provides a reasonable level of safety for occupants and for 
those adjacent to a building or facility from health hazards, 
illness, injury, or death during normal storage, use, or handling 
operations and conditions. 

4.1.3.3.2.2* The storage, use, or handling of hazardous mate- 
rials in a building or facility shall be accomplished in a manner 
that provides a reasonable level of safety for occupants and for 
those adjacent to a building or facility from illness, injury, or 
death due to the following conditions: 

(1) An unplanned release of the hazardous material 

(2) Afire impinging upon the hazardous material or the in- 
volvement of the material in a fire 

(3) The application of an external force on the hazardous 
material that is likely to result in an unsafe condition 

4.1.4 Property Protection. 

4.1.4.1 Property Protection Goal. The property protection 
goal of this Code shall be to limit damage created by a fire, explo- 
sion, or event associated with hazardous materials to a reasonable 
level to the building or facility and adjacent property. 

4.1.4.2 Property Protection Objectives. 

4. 1 .4.2. 1 * Prevention of Ignition. The facility shall be designed, 
constructed, and maintained, and operations associated with the 
facility shall be conducted, to prevent unintentional explosions 
and fires that result in failure of or damage to adjacent compart- 
ments, emergency life safety systems, adjacent properties, adja- 
cent outside storage, and the facility's structural elements. 

4.1.4.2.2* Fire Spread and Explosions. In the event that a fire 
or explosion occurs, the building or facility shall be designed, 
constructed, and maintained, and operations associated with 
the facility shall be conducted and protected, to reasonably 
reduce the impact of unwanted fires and explosions on the 
adjacent compartments, emergency life safety systems, adja- 
cent properties, adjacent outside storage, and the facility's 
structural elements. 

4.1.4.2.3 Structural Integrity. The facility shall be designed, 
constructed, protected, and maintained, and operations associ- 
ated with the facility shall be conducted, to provide a reasonable 
level of protection for the facility, its contents, and adjacent prop- 
erties from building collapse due to a loss of structural integrity 
resulting from a fire. 

4.1.4.2.4 Hazardous Materials. The facility shall be designed, 
constructed, and maintained, and operations associated with 
the facility shall be conducted, to provide reasonable property 
protection from damage resulting from fires, explosions, and 
other unsafe conditions associated with the storage, use, and 
handling of hazardous materials therein. 

4.1.5 Public Welfare. 

4.1.5.1* Public Welfare Goal. The public welfare goal of this 
Code shall be to ensure that buildings and facilities that pro- 
vide a public welfare role for a community shall continue to 



function for their intended purpose following a fire or hazard- 
ous material related event. 

4.1.5.2* Public Welfare Objective. Buildings and facilities that 
provide a public welfare role for a community shall be de- 
signed, constructed, maintained, and operated to provide rea- 
sonable assurance of continued function following the impact 
of fire or hazardous material related event. 

4.2 Assumptions. 
4.2.1* Single Fire Source. 

4.2.1.1 The fire protection methods of this Code shall assume 
that there will not be multiple simultaneous fire incidents. 

4.2.1.2 The single Fire source assumption shall not preclude 
the evaluation of multiple design fire scenarios as required by 
Section 5.4. 

4.2.2* Single Hazardous Material Release. 

4.2.2.1 The protection methods of this Code shall assume that 
there will not be multiple simultaneous unauthorized releases 
of hazardous materials from different locations. 

4.2.2.2 The single hazardous material release assumption 
shall not preclude the evaluation of multiple design scenarios 
as required by Section 5.4. 

4.2.3* Incidents Impinging on Hazardous Materials. The pro- 
tection methods of this Code shall assume that a fire, explosion, 
hazardous materials release, or external force that creates a dan- 
gerous condition has the potential to impinge on hazardous ma- 
terials being stored, handled, or used in the building or facility 
under normal conditions. (See Section 5.4 for performance-based de- 
sign scenarios.) 

4.3 Compliance Options. Compliance with the goals and ob- 
jectives of Section 4.1 shall be provided in accordance with 
either of the following: 

(1) The prescriptive-based provisions per 4.3.1 

(2) The performance-based provisions per 4.3.2 

4.3.1 Prescriptive-Based Option. 

4.3.1.1 A prescriptive-based option shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 10 through 
Chapter 73 of this Code. 

4.3.1.2 Where specific requirements contained in Chapter 20 
for occupancies differ from general requirements contained 
in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 10 through 
Chapter 73, the requirements of Chapter 20 shall govern. 

4.3.2 Performance-Based Option. 

4.3.2.1 A performance-based option shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 1 through Chapter 5 of this Code. 

4.3.2.2 Prescriptive requirements shall be permitted to be 
used as part of the performance approach, if they assist the 
performance features to meet the overall goals and objectives 
of this Code. 

4.4 Fundamental Requirements. 

4.4.1 Multiple Safeguards. 

4.4.1.1 The design of every building or structure intended 
for human occupancy shall be such that reliance for property 
protection and safety to life does not depend solely on any 
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4.4.1.2 Additional safeguard (s) shall be provided for prop- 
erty protection and life safety in the event that any single safe- 
guard is ineffective due to inappropriate human actions, 
building failure, or system failure. 

4.4.2 Appropriateness of Safeguards. Every building or struc- 
ture shall be provided with means of egress and other safeguards 
of the kinds, numbers, locations, and capacities appropriate to 
the individual building or structure, with due regard to the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Characteristics of the occupancy 

(2) Capabilities of the occupants 

(3) Number of persons exposed 

(4) Fire protection available 

(5) Capabilities of response personnel 

(6) Height and type of construction of the building or structure 

(7) Other factors necessary to provide occupants with a rea- 
sonable degree of safety 

(8) Other factors necessary to protect the building and con- 
tents from damage 

4.4.3 Means of Egress. 

4.4.3.1 Unobstructed Egress. 

4.4.3.1.1 In every occupied building or structure, means of 
egress from all parts of the building shall be maintained free 
and unobstructed. 

4.4.3.1.2 No lock or fastening devise shall be permitted that 
prevents free escape from the inside of any building other 
than in health care occupancies and detention and correc- 
tional occupancies where staff are continually on duty and 
effective provisions are made to remove occupants in case of 
fire or other emergency. 

4.4.3.1.3 Means of egress shall be accessible to the extent 
necessary to ensure reasonable safety for occupants having im- 
paired mobility. 

4.4.3.2 Awareness of Egress System. 

4.4.3.2.1 Every exit shall be clearly visible, or the route to 
reach every exit shall be conspicuously indicated. 

4.4.3.2.2 Each means of egress, in its entirety, shall be ar- 
ranged or marked so that the way to a place of safety is indi- 
cated in a clear manner. 

4.4.3.2.3 Lighting. Where artificial illumination is needed in a 
building or structure, means of egress that require artificial 
illumination shall be included in the lighting design. 

4.4.4* Occupant Notification. In every building or structure of 
such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire itself might 
not provide adequate occupant warning, fire alarm systems 
shall be provided where necessary to warn occupants of the 
existence of fire. 

4.4.5 Vertical Openings. Every vertical opening between the 
floors of a building shall be suitably enclosed or protected, as 
necessary, to accomplish/achieve the following: 

(1) Afford reasonable safety to occupants while using the 
means of egress by preventing spread of fire, smoke, or 
fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor to 
allow occupants to complete their use of the means of 
egress 

(2) Limit damage to the buildings and its contents 



4.4.6 System Design/Installation. Any fire protection system, 
building service equipment, feature of protection, or safeguard 
provided for life safety shall be designed, installed, and approved 
in accordance with applicable NFPA codes and standards. 

4.5 General Requirements. 

4.5.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). 

4.5.1.1 The AHJ shall determine whether the provisions of 
this Code are met. 

4.5.1.2 Any requirements that are essential for the safety of 
building occupants and are not specifically provided for by 
this Code shall be determined by the AHJ. 

4.5.1.3 Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety 
is provided, any requirement shall be permitted to be modi- 
fied if its application would be hazardous under normal occu- 
pancy conditions in the judgment of the AHJ. 

4.5.2 Historic Buildings. The provisions of this Code shall be 
permitted to be modified by the AHJ for buildings or structures 
identified and classified as historic buildings or structures where 
it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety is provided. 

4.5.3 Provisions in Excess of Code Requirements. Nothing in 
this Code shall be construed to prohibit a better type of building 
construction, an additional means of egress, or an otherwise safer 
condition than that specified by the minimum requirements of 
this Code. 

4.5.4 Conditions for Occupancy. No new construction or exist- 
ing building shall be occupied in whole or in part in violation of 
the provisions of this Code unless the following conditions exist: 

( 1 ) A plan of correction has been approved. 

(2) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(3) No serious life safety hazard exists as judged by the AHJ. 

4.5.5 Warrant of Fitness. 

4.5.5.1 Where compliance with this Code is effected by means 
of a performance-based design, the owner shall annually cer- 
tify compliance with the conditions and limitations of the de- 
sign by submitting a warrant of fitness acceptable to the AHJ. 

4.5.5.2 The warrant of fitness shall attest that the building 
features, systems, and use have been inspected and confirmed 
to remain consistent with design specifications outlined in 
the documentation required by Section 5.7 and that they 
continue to satisfy the goals and objectives specified in Sec- 
tion 4.1. (See Chapters.) 

4.5.6 Construction, Repair, and Inipirovement Operations. 

4.5.6.1 Buildings or portions of buildings shall be permitted 
to be occupied during construction, repair, alterations, or ad- 
ditions only where required means of egress and required fire 
protection features are in place and continuously maintained 
for the portion occupied or where alternative life safety mea- 
sures and building protection measures acceptable to the AHJ 
are in place. 

4.5.6.2 Escape Facilities. 

4.5.6.2.1 In buildings under construction, adequate escape 
facilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of con- 
struction workers. 



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4.5.6.2.2 Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walkways, 
stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved means 
or devices arranged in accordance with the general principles 
of the Code insofar as they can reasonably be applied to build- 
ings under construction. 

4.5.6.3 Flammable, hazardous, or explosive substances or 
equipment for repairs or alterations shall be permitted in a 
building while the building is occupied if the condition of use 
and safeguards provided do not create any additional danger 
or impediment to egress beyond the normally permissible 
conditions in the building and is such that materials are safe- 
guarded when the building is unoccupied. 

4.5.7* Changes of Occupancy. 

4.5.7.1 In any building or structure, whether or not a physical 
alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classifica- 
tion to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, 
building, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements 
of this Code that apply to new construction for the proposed 
new use, except as follows: 

(1) Where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the proposed occupancy 
or change in use is not more hazardous than the existing 
use, based on life safety and fire risk, the AHJ shall be permit- 
ted to approve such change of occupancy provided compli- 
ance with the requirements of this Code for buildings of like 
occupancy or use are specifically incorporated to safeguard 
the life, health, and welfare of persons. 

(2) Change of tenants or ownership shall not be construed to be 
a change of occupancy classification where the nature of use 
and assigned occupancy classification remain the same. 

4.5.7.2 Where specifically permitted elsewhere in the Code, 
existing construction features shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in use in conversions. 

4.5.8 Maintenance and Testing. 

4.5.8.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, sys- 
tem, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other 
feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this 
Code, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be 
continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA 
requirements or as directed by the AHJ. 

4.5.8.2* Existing life safety features obvious to the public, if not 
required by the Code, shall be either maintained or removed. 

4.5.8.3 Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to 
ensure its maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified 
elsewhere in this Code or as directed by the AHJ. 

4.5.8.4 Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervi- 
sion of a responsible person who shall ensure that testing and 
maintenance are made at specified intervals in accordance 
with applicable NFPA standards, manufacturer's instructions, 
performance-based operations and maintenance manual, or 
as directed by the AHJ. 



Chapter 5 Perf ormance-Based Option 

5.1* General. 

5.1.1 Application. The requirements of this chapter shall ap- 
ply to facilities designed to the performance-based option per- 
mitted by Section 4.3. 



5.1.2 Goals and Objectives. The performance-based design 
shall meet the goals and objectives of this Code in accordance 
with Section 4.1 and Section 4.2. 

5.1.3* Approved Qualifications. The performance-based de- 
sign shall be prepared by a person with qualifications accept- 
able to the AHJ. 

5.1.4* Plan Submittal Documentation. When a performance- 
based design is submitted to the AHJ for review and approval, 
the owner shall document, in an approved format, each per- 
formance objective and applicable scenario, including any cal- 
culation methods or models used in establishing the proposed 
design's fire and life safety performance. 

5.1.5* Independent Review. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
require an approved, independent third party to review the 
proposed design and provide an evaluation of the design to 
the AHJ at the expense of the owner. 

5.1.6 Sources of Data. Data sources shall be identified and 
documented for each input data requirement that is required 
to be met using a source other than a required design sce- 
nario, an assumption, or a facility design specification. 

5.1.6.1 The degree of conservatism reflected in such data 
shall be specified, and a justification for the source shall be 
provided. 

5.1.6.2 Copies of all references relied upon by the 
performance-based design to support assumptions, design fea- 
tures, or any other part of the design shall be made available to 
the AHJ if requested. 

5.1.7 Final Determination. The AHJ shall make the final de- 
termination as to whether the performance objectives have 
been met. 

5.1.8* Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual. An ap- 
proved Operations and Maintenance Manual shall be pro- 
vided by the owner to the AHJ and the fire department, and 
shall be maintained at the facility in an approved location. 

5.1.9* Information Transfer to the Fire Service. Where a 
performance-based design is approved and used, the designer 
shall ensure that information regarding the operating proce- 
dures of the performance-based designed fire protection sys- 
tem is transferred to the owner and to the local fire service for 
inclusion in the pre-fire plan. 

5.1.10* Design Feature Maintenance. 

5.1.10.1 The design features required for the facility to meet 
the performance goals and objectives shall be maintained by 
the owner and be readily accessible to the AHJ for the life of 
the facility. 

5.1.10.2 The facility shall be maintained in accordance with 
all documented assumptions and design specifications. 

5.1.10.2.1 Any proposed changes or variations from the ap- 
proved design shall be approved by the AHJ prior to the actual 
change. 

5.1.10.2.2 Any approved changes to the original design shall 
be maintained in the same manner as the original design. 

5.1.11* Annual Certification. Where a performance-based de- 
sign is approved and used, the property owner shall annually cer- 
tify that the design features and systems have been maintained in 
accordance with the approved original performance-based de- 
sign and assumptions and any subsequent approved changes or 
modifications to the original performance-based design. 



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5.1.12 Hazardous Materials. 

5.1.12.1 Performance-based designs for facilities containing 
high hazard contents shall identify the properties of hazard- 
ous materials to be stored, used, or handled and shall provide 
adequate and reliable safeguards to accomplish the following 
objectives, considering both normal operations and possible 
abnormal conditions: 

(1) Minimize the potential occurrence of unwanted re- 
leases, fire, or other emergency incidents resulting from 
the storage, use, or handling of hazardous materials 

(2) Minimize the potential failure of buildings, equipment, 
or processes involving hazardous materials by ensuring 
that such buildings, equipment, or processes are reliably 
designed and are suitable for the hazards present 

(3) Minimize the potential exposure of people or property 
to unsafe conditions or events involving an unintended 
reaction or release of hazardous materials 

(4) Minimize the potential for an unintentional reaction that 
results in a fire, explosion, or other dangerous condition 

(5) Provide a means to contain, treat, neutralize, or other- 
wise handle plausible releases of hazardous materials to 
minimize the potential for adverse impacts to persons or 
property outside of the immediate area of a release 

(6) Provide appropriate safeguards to minimize the risk of 
and limit damage and injury that might result from an 
explosion involving hazardous materials that present ex- 
plosion hazards 

(7) Detect hazardous levels of gases or vapors that are danger- 
ous to health and alert appropriate persons or mitigate the 
hazard when the physiological warning properties for such 
gases or vapors are inadequate to warn of danger prior to 
personal injury 

(8) Maintain power to provide for continued operation of 
safeguards and important systems that are relied upon to 
prevent or control an emergency condition involving 
hazardous materials 

(9) Maintain ventilation where ventilation is relied upon to 
minimize the risk of emergency conditions involving 
hazardous materials 

(10) Minimize the potential for exposing combustible haz- 
ardous materials to unintended sources of ignition and 
for exposing any hazardous material to fire or physical 
damage that can lead to endangerment of people or 
property 

5.1.12.2 A process hazard analysis and off-site consequence 
analysis shall be conducted when required by the AHJ to ensure 
that people and property are satisfactorily protected from poten- 
tially dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials. The 
results of such analyses shall be considered when determining 
active and passive mitigation measures used in accomplishing the 
objectives of 4.1.3.3.2 and 4.1.4.2. 

5.1.12.3 Written procedures for pre-start-up safety reviews, 
normal and emergency operations, management of change, 
emergency response, and accident investigation shall be devel- 
oped prior to beginning operations at a facility designed in 
accordance with Section 5.1. Such procedures shall be devel- 
oped with the participation of employees. 

5.1.13 Special DelKnitioinis. A list of special terms used in this 
chapter shall be as follows: 

(1) Design Fire Scenario. (See 3.4.10.) 

(2) Design Specifications. (See 3.4.5.) 



(3 

(4: 

(5 
(6 
(7 
(8. 

o: 

(10 
(11 
(12 
(13 
(14 
(15 
(16 
(17 



Design Team. (See 3.4.6.) 
Exposure Fire. (See 3.4. 7.) 
Fire Model. (See 3.4.8.) 
Fire Scenario. (See 3.4.9.) 
Fuel Load. (See 3.4.11.) 
Input Data Specification. (See 3.4.13.) 
Occupant Characteristics. (See 3.4.14.) 
Performance Criteria. (See 3.4.15.) 
Proposed Design. (See 3.4.16.) 
Safety Factor. (See 3.4. 18.) 
Safety Margin . (See 3. 4.19.) 
Sensitivity Analysis. (See 3.4.2.1.) 
Stakeholder. (See 3.4.21.) 
Uncertainty Analysis. (See 3.3.22.) 
Verification Method. (See 3.4.23.) 



5.2 Performance Criteria. 

5.2.1 General. A design shall meet the objectives specified 
in Section 4.1 if, for each required design scenario, assump- 
tion, and design specification, the performance criteria of 

5.2.2 are met. 

5.2.2* Specific Performance Criteria. 

5.2.2.1* Fire Conditions. No occupant who is not intimate 
with ignition shall be exposed to instantaneous or cumulative 
untenable conditions. 

5.2.2.2* Explosion Conditions. The facility design shall pro- 
vide an acceptable level of safety for occupants and for indi- 
viduals immediately adjacent to the property from the effects 
of unintentional detonation or deflagration. 

5.2.2.3* Hazardous Materials Exposure. The facility design 
shall provide an acceptable level of safety for occupants and 
for individuals immediately adjacent to the property from the 
effects of an unauthorized release of hazardous materials or 
the unintentional reaction of hazardous materials. 

5.2.2.4* Property Protection. The facility design shall limit the 
effects of all required design scenarios from causing an unac- 
ceptable level of property damage. 

5.2.2.5* Public Welfare. For facilities that serve a public wel- 
fare role as defined in 4.1.5, the facility design shall limit the 
effects of all required design scenarios from causing an unac- 
ceptable interruption of the facility's mission. 

5.2.2.6 Occupant Protection from Untenable Conditions. 
Means shall be provided to evacuate, relocate, or defend in 
place occupants not intimate with ignition for sufficient time 
so that they are not exposed to instantaneous or cumulative 
untenable conditions from smoke, heat, or flames. 

5.2.2.7 Emergency Responded Protection. Buildings shall be 
designed and constructed to reasonably prevent structural 
failure under fire conditions for sufficient time to enable fire 
fighters and emergency responders to conduct search and res- 
cue operations. 

5.2.2.8 Occupant Protection from Structural Failure. Build- 
ings shall be designed and constructed to reasonably prevent 
structural failure under fire conditions for sufficient time to 
protect the occupants. 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements. 

5.3.1 Systems and Features. All fire protection systems and 
features of the building shall comply with applicable NFPA 
standards for those systems and features. 



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5.3.2 Electrical Systems. Electrical systems shall comply with 
applicable NFPA standards for those systems. 

5.3.3 General. The design shall comply with the following re- 
quirements in addition to the performance criteria of Section 5.2 
and the methods of Section 5.4 through Section 5.7: 

(1) Fundamental requirements in Secdon 10.1 

(2) Fire drills in Section 10.6 

(3) Smoking in Section 10.10 

(4) Open outdoor fires, incinerators, and outdoor fireplaces 
in Section 10.11 

(5) Fire department access in Section 18.2 

Exception: A performance-based design shall be permitted subject to 
acceptance by the AH] where local conditions do not permit compliance 
with Section 18.2. 

(6) Access to structures or areas in Section 10.12 

(7) Fire protection markings in Section 10.13 

(8) Vacant buildings and premises in Section 10.14 

(9) Combustible vegetation in Section 10.15 

(10) Safeguards during building construction, alteration, 
and demolition operations in Chapter 16 

5.3.4 Means of Egress. The design shall comply with the fol- 
lowing NFPA 101 requirements in addition to the perfor- 
mance criteria of Section 5.2 and the methods of Section 5.4 
through Section 5.7: 

(1) Changes in level in means of egress: 7.1.7 of NFPA 101 

(2) Guards: 7.1.8 of NFPA 101 

(3) Doors: 7.2.1 of NFPA 101 

(4) Stairs: 7.2.2 of NFPA 1 01 

Exception: The provisions of 7.2.2.5.1, 7.2.2.5.2, 7.2.2.6.2, 
7.2.2.6.3, and 7.2.2.6.4 of NFPA 101 shall be exempted. 

(5) Ramps: 7.2.5 of NFPA 101 

Exception: The provisions of 7.2.5.3.1, 7.2.5.5, and 7.2.5.6.1 of 
NFPA 101 shall be exempted. 

(6) Fire escape ladders: 7.2.9 of NFPA 101 

(7) Alternating tread devices: 7.2.11 of NFPA 101 

(8) Capacity of means of egress: Section 7.3 of NFPA 101 

Exception: The provisions of 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 of NFPA 101 shall be 
exempted. 

(9) Impediments to egress: 7.5.2 of NFPA 101 

(10) Illumination of means of egress: Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 

(11) Emergency lighting: Section 7.9 of NFPA 101 

(12) Marking of means of egress: Section 7.10 of NFPA 101 

5.3.5 Equivalency. Equivalent designs for the features covered 
in the retained prescriptive requirements mandated by 5.3.1 
through 5.3.4 shall be addressed in accordance with the 
equivalency provisions of Section 1 .4. 

5.4* Design Scenarios. 

5.4.1 General. 

5.4.1.1 The proposed design shall be considered to meet the 
goals and objectives if it achieves the performance criteria for 
each required design scenario. The AHJ shall approve the pa- 
rameters involved with required design scenarios. 

5.4.1.2* Design scenarios shall be evaluated for each required 
scenario using a method acceptable to the AHJ and appropriate 
for the conditions. Each scenario shall be as challenging and re- 
alistic as any that could realistically occur in the building. 



5.4.1.3* Scenarios selected as design scenarios shall include, 
but not be limited to, those specified in 5.4.2 through 5.4.5. 

5.4.1.3.1 Design fire scenarios demonstrated by the design 
team to the satisfaction of the AHJ as inappropriate for the 
building use and conditions shall not be required to be evalu- 
ated fully. 

5.4.1.3.2 Fire Design Scenario 8 (see 5.4.2.8) shall not be re- 
quired to be applied to fire protection systems or features for 
which both the level of reliability and the design performance in 
the absence of the system or feature are acceptable to the AHJ. 

5.4.1.4 Each design scenario used in the performance-based 
design proposal shall be translated into input data specifica- 
tions, as appropriate for the calculation method or model. 

5.4.1.5 Any design scenario specifications that the design 
analyses do not explicitly address or incorporate and that are, 
therefore, omitted from input data specifications shall be 
identified, and a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of 
that omission shall be performed. 

5.4.1.6 Any design scenario specifications modified in input 
data specifications, because of limitations in test methods or 
other data generation procedures, shall be identified, and a 
sensitivity analysis of the consequences of the modification 
shall be performed. 

5.4.2 Required Design Scenarios — Fire. 

5.4.2.1* Fire Design Scenario 1. Fire Design Scenario 1 in- 
volves an occupancy-specific design scenario representative of 
a typical fire for the occupancy. 

5.4.2.1.1 This design scenario shall explicidy account for the 
following: 

(1) Occupant activities 

(2) Number and location 

(3) Room size 

(4) Furnishings and contents 

(5) Fuel properties and ignition sources 

(6) Ventilation conditions 

5.4.2.1.2 The first item ignited and its location shall be ex- 
plicidy defined. 

5.4.2.2* Fire Design Scenario 2. Fire Design Scenario 2 in- 
volves an ultrafast-developing fire in the primary means of 
egress with interior doors open at the start of the fire. This 
design scenario shall address the concern regarding a reduc- 
tion in the number of available means of egress. 

5.4.2.3* Fire Design Scenario 3. Fire Design Scenario 3 in- 
volves a fire that starts in a normally unoccupied room that 
can potentially endanger a large number of occupants in a 
large room or other area. This design scenario shall address 
the concern regarding a fire starting in a normally unoccu- 
pied room and migrating into the space that can, potentially, 
hold the greatest number of occupants in the building. 

5.4.2.4* Fire Design Scenario 4. Fire Design Scenario 4 in- 
volves a fire that originates in a concealed wall- or ceiling- 
space adjacent to a large occupied room. This design scenario 
shall address the concern regarding a fire originating in a con- 
cealed space that does not have either a detection system or 
suppression system and then spreading into the room within 
the building that can, potentially, hold the greatest number of 
occupants. 



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5.4.2.5* Fire Design Scenario 5. Fire Design Scenario 5 in- 
volves a slowly developing fire, shielded from fire protection 
systems, in close proximity to a high occupancy area. This de- 
sign scenario shall address the concern regarding a relatively 
small ignition source causing a significant fire. 

5.4.2.6* Fire Design Scenario 6. Fire Design Scenario 6 in- 
volves the most severe fire resulting from the largest possible 
fuel load characteristic of the normal operation of the build- 
ing. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding 
a rapidly developing fire with occupants present. 

5.4.2.7* Fire Design Scenario 7. Fire Design Scenario 7 in- 
volves an outside exposure fire. This design scenario shall ad- 
dress the concern regarding a fire starting at a location remote 
from the area of concern and either spreading into the area, 
blocking escape from the area, or developing untenable con- 
ditions within the area. 

5.4.2.8* Fire Design Scenario 8. Fire Design Scenario 8 in- 
volves a fire originating in ordinary combustibles in a room or 
area with each passive or active fire protection system or fea- 
ture independently rendered ineffective. This set of design 
scenarios shall address concerns regarding each fire protec- 
tion system or fire protection feature, considered individually, 
being unreliable or becoming unavailable. This scenario shall 
not be required to be applied to fire protection systems or 
features for which both the level of reliability and the design 
performance in the absence of the system are acceptable to 
theAHJ. 

5.4.3 Required Design Scenarios — Explosion. 

5.4.3.1* Explosion Design Scenario 1. 

5.4.3.1.1 Explosion Design Scenario 1 is the detonation or 
deflagration of explosive materials being manufactured, 
stored, handled, or used in a facility. 

5.4.3.1.2 Explosion Design Scenario 1 shall address the 
concern regarding safety of individuals not intimate with 
the explosion and property protection of adjacent proper- 
ties and buildings. 

5.4.4* Required Design Scenarios — Hazardous Materials. 

5.4.4.1 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 1. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 1 involves an unauthorized release 
of hazardous materials from a single control area. This design 
scenario shall address the concern regarding the spread of 
hazardous conditions from the point of release. 

5.4.4.2 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 2. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 2 involves an exposure fire on a 
location where hazardous materials are stored, used, handled, 
or dispensed. This design scenario shall address the concern 
regarding how a fire in a facility affects the safe storage, han- 
dling, or use of hazardous materials. 

5.4.4.3 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 3. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 3 involves the application of an ex- 
ternal factor to the hazardous material that is likely to result in 
a fire, explosion, toxic release, or other unsafe condition. This 
design scenario shall address the concern regarding the initia- 
tion of a hazardous materials event by the application of heat, 
shock, impact, or water onto a hazardous material being 
stored, used, handled, or dispensed in the facility. 

5.4.4.4* Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4. 

5.4.4.4.1 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4 involves an 
unauthorized discharge with each protection system indepen- 



dently rendered ineffective. This set of design hazardous ma- 
terials scenarios shall address concern regarding each protec- 
tion system or protection feature, considered individually, 
being unreliable or becoming unavailable. 

5.4.4.4.2* Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4 shall not be 
required to be applied to protection systems or features for 
which both the level of reliability and the design performance 
in the absence of the system are acceptable to the AHJ. 



5.4.5 Required 
Use. 



Jesign Scenarios Safety During Building 



5.4.5.1* Building Use Design Scenario 1. Building Use Design 
Scenario 1 involves an event in which the maximum occupant 
load is in the assembly building and an emergency event occurs 
blocking the principal exit/entrance to the building. This design 
scenario shall address the concern of occupants having to take 
alternative exit routes under crowded conditions. 

5.4.5.2 Building Use Design Scenario 2. Building Use Design 
Scenario 2 involves a fire in an area of a building undergoing 
construction or demolition while the remainder of the build- 
ing is occupied. The normal fire suppression system in the 
area undergoing construction or demolition has been taken 
out of service. This design scenario shall address the concern 
regarding the inoperability of certain building fire safety fea- 
tures during construction and demolition in a partially occu- 
pied building. 

5.5 Evaluation of Proposed Designs. 

5.5.1 General. 

5.5.1.1 A proposed design's performance shall be assessed 
relative to each performance objective in Section 4.1 and each 
applicable scenario in Section 5.4, with the assessment con- 
ducted through the use of appropriate calculation methods. 

5.5.1.2 The choice of assessment methods shall require the 
approval of the AHJ. 

5.5.2 Use. The design professional shall use the assessment 
methods to demonstrate that the proposed design will achieve 
the goals and objectives, as measured by the performance cri- 
teria in light of the safety margins and uncertainty analysis, for 
each scenario, given the assumptions. 

5.5.3 Input Data. 
5.5.3.1 



5.5.3.1.1 Input data for computer fire models shall be ob- 
tained in accordance with ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for 
Data for Fire Models. 

5.5.3.1.2 Data for use in analytical models that are not 
computer-based fire models shall be obtained using appropriate 
measurement, recording, and storage techniques to ensure the 
applicability of the data to the analytical method being used. 

5.5.3.2 Data Requirements. A complete listing of input data 
requirements for all models, engineering methods, and other 
calculation or verification methods required or proposed as 
part of the performance-based design shall be provided. 

5.5.3.3 Uncertainty and Conservatism of Data. Uncertainty in 
input data shall be analyzed and, as determined appropriate 
by the AHJ, addressed through the use of conservative values. 

5.5.4 Output Data. The assessment methods used shall accu- 
rately and appropriately produce the required output data 



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from input data based on the design specifications, assump- 
tions, and scenarios. 

5.5.5 Validity. Evidence shall be provided confirming that the 
assessment methods are valid and appropriate for the pro- 
posed facility, use, and conditions. 

5.6* Safety Factors. Approved safety factors shall be included 
in the design methods and calculations to reflect uncertainty 
in the assumptions, data, and other factors associated with the 
performance-based design. 

5.7 Documentation Requirements. 

5.7.1* General. 

5.7.1.1 All aspects of the design, including those described in 

5.7.2 through 5.7.14, shall be documented. 

5.7.1.2 The format and content of the documentation shall 
be acceptable to the AHJ. 

5.7.2* Technical References and Resources. 

5.7.2.1 The AHJ shall be provided with sufficient documenta- 
tion to support the validity, accuracy, relevance, and precision 
of the proposed methods. 

5.7.2.2 The engineering standards, calculation methods, and 
other forms of scientific information provided shall be appro- 
priate for the particular application and methodologies used. 

5.7.3 Facility Design Specifications. All details of the pro- 
posed facility design that affect the ability of the facility to 
meet the stated goals and objectives shall be documented. 

5.7.4 Performance Criteria. Performance criteria, with sources, 
shall be documented. 

5.7.5 Occupant Characteristics. Assumptions about occupant 
characteristics shall be documented. 

5.7.6 Design Scenarios. Descriptions of design hazards sce- 
narios shall be documented. 

5.7.7 Input Data. Input data to models and assessment meth- 
ods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented. 

5.7.8 Output Data. Output data from models and assessment 
methods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented. 

5.7.9 Safety Factors. Safety factors utilized shall be docu- 
mented. 

5.7.10 Prescriptive Requirements. Retained prescriptive re- 
quirements shall be documented. 

5.7.11* Modeling Features. 

5.7. 11 . 1 Assumptions made by the model user, and descriptions 
of models and methods used, including known limitations, shall 
be documented. 

5.7.11.2 Documentation shall be provided that the assess- 
ment methods have been used validly and appropriately to 
address the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios. 

5.7. 1 2 Evidence of Modeler Capability. The design team's rel- 
evant experience with the models, test methods, databases, 
and other assessment methods used in the performance-based 
design proposal shall be documented. 

5.7.13 Performance Evaluation. The performance evaluation 
summary shall be documented. 



5.7.14 Use of Performance-Based Design Option. Design 
proposals shall include documentation that provides anyone 
involved in ownership or management of the facility with all of 
the following notification: 

(1) The facility was approved as a performance-based design 
with certain specified design criteria and assumptions. 

(2) Any remodeling, modification, renovation, change in use, 
or change in the established assumptions will require a 
re-evaluation and re-approval. 



Chapter 6 Reserved 

Chapter 7 Reserved 

Chapter 8 Reserved 

Chapter 9 Reserved 

Chapter 10 General Fire Safety 

10.1 Fundamental Requirements. 

10.1.1 Every new and existing building or structure shall be 
constructed, arranged, equipped, maintained, and operated 
in accordance with this Codeso as to provide a reasonable level 
of life safety, property protection, and public welfare from the 
actual and potential hazards created by fire, explosion, and 
other hazardous conditions. 

10.1.2* Life Safety Code. Every new and existing building 
shall comply with this Code and NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code 9 . 

10.1.3 Building Code. Where a building code has been 
adopted, all new construction shall comply with this Code and 
with the building code adopted by the AHJ. 

10.1.4 Any person who deliberately, or through negligence, 
sets fire to or causes the burning of any combustible material 
in such a manner as to endanger the safety of any person or 
property shall be deemed to be in violation of this Code. 

10.1.5 The AHJ shall have the authority to prohibit any or all 
open flames or other sources of ignition where circumstances 
make such conditions hazardous. 

10.2 Owner/Occupant Responsibilities. 

10.2.1 The owner, operator, or occupant shall be responsible 
for compliance with this Code. 

10.2.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to require the owner, op- 
erator, or occupant to provide tests or test reports, without 
expense to the AHJ, as proof of compliance with the intent of 
this Code. 

10.2.3 The owner, operator, or occupant of a building that is 
deemed unsafe by the AHJ shall abate, through corrective ac- 
tion approved by the AHJ, the condition causing the building 
to be unsafe either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition, or 
other corrective action approved by the AHJ. 



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10.2.4 The owner, operator, or occupant, or any person in 
control of a building or premises shall keep records of all 
maintenance, inspections, and testing of fire protection sys- 
tems, fire alarm systems, smoke control systems, emergency 
evacuation and relocation drills, emergency plans, emergency 
power, elevators, and other equipment as required by the AHJ. 

10.2.5 All records required to be kept shall be maintained 
until their useful life has been served, as required by law, or as 
required by the AHJ. 

10.3 Occupancy. 

10.3.1 No new construction or existing building shall be 
occupied in whole or in part in violation of the provisions of 
this Code. 

10.3.2 Existing buildings that are occupied at the time of 
adoption of this Code shall remain in use provided that the 
following conditions are met: 

(1) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(2) No condition deemed hazardous to life or property exists 
that would constitute an imminent danger. 

10.3.3* Buildings or portions of buildings, except for routine 
maintenance or repair, shall not be occupied during construc- 
tion, repair, or alteration without the approval of the AHJ if 
required means of egress are impaired or required fire protec- 
tion systems are out of service. 

10.3.4* Changes of Occupancy. 

10.3.4.1 In any building or structure, whether or not a physical 
alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classification 
to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, build- 
ing, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements of this 
Code or NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, that apply to new construc- 
tion for the proposed new use or, where specifically permitted 
elsewhere in this Code or NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code , existing 
construction features shall be permitted to be continued in use 
in conversions. [101:4.6.11] 

10.3.4.2 Occupancy and subclassifications, as defined, shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. 

10.4 Maintenance and Testing. Also see 4.5.7. 

10.4.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, 
condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other fea- 
ture is required for compliance with the provisions of this 
Code, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be 
continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA 
requirements or as directed by the AHJ. 

10.4.2* Any nonrequired system that creates an unsafe or haz- 
ardous condition shall be removed. 

10.4.3* Existing fire and life safety features obvious to the pub- 
lic, if not required by this Code, shall be either maintained or 
removed. 

10.4.4 Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to 
ensure its maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified 
elsewhere in this Code or as directed by the AHJ. 

10.4.5 Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervi- 
sion of a responsible person who shall ensure that testing and 
maintenance are made at specified intervals in accordance 
with applicable NFPA standards or as directed by the AHJ. 
[101:4.6.12.4] 



10.5 Building Evacuation. 

10.5.1 No person shall fail to leave a building when notified 
to do so when directed to leave by the AHJ as a result of a 
known or perceived emergency. 

10.5.2* No person shall fail to leave any overcrowded premises 
when told to do so by the AHJ. 

10.6* Fire Drills. 

10.6.1 Where Required. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills conforming to the provisions of this Code shall be con- 
ducted as specified by the provisions of Chapter 20 of this Code 
or Chapters 10 through 71 of NFPA 10 1®, Life Safety Code®, or 
by appropriate action of the AHJ. Drills shall be designed in 
cooperation with the local authorities. [101:4.7.1] 

10.6.2* Brill Frequency. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills, where required by Chapter 20 of this Code or Chapters 
10 through 71 of NFPA 10 f, LifeSafety Code®, or the AHJ, shall 
be held with sufficient frequency to familiarize occupants with 
the drill procedure and to establish conduct of the drill as a 
matter of routine. Drills shall include suitable procedures to 
ensure that all persons subject to the drill participate. 
[101:4.7.2] 

10.6.3 Competency. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
ducting of drills shall be assigned only to competent persons 
qualified to exercise leadership. 

10.6.4 Orderly Evacuation. When conducting drills, emphasis 
shall be placed on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. 
[101:4.7.3] 

10.6.5* Simulated Conditions. Drills shall be held at expected 
and unexpected times and under varying conditions to simu- 
late the unusual conditions that can occur in an actual emer- 
gency. [101:4.7.4] 

10.6.6 Relocation Ainea. Drill participants shall relocate to a 
predetermined location and remain at such location until a 
recall or dismissal signal is given. [101:4.7.5] 

10.6.7 A written record of each drill shall be completed by the 
person responsible for conducting the drill and maintained in 
an approved manner. [101:4.7.6] 

10.7 Reporting of Fires and Other Emnergencies. 

10.7.1 Fire Reporting. 

10.7.1.1 The person discovering any unwanted fire, regardless 
of magnitude, shall immediately notify the fire department. 

10.7.1.2 Facilities that have established on-premises fire- 
fighting organizations and have coordinated and arranged 
procedures approved by the AHJ shall not need to notify the 
fire department. 

10.7.1.3* The owner, manager, occupant, or any person in 
control of such building or premises, upon discovery of an 
unwanted fire or evidence of there having been an unwanted 
fire even though it has apparently been extinguished, shall 
immediately cause notice of the existence of such fire, circum- 
stances of same, and the location thereof to be given to the fire 
department. 

10.7.1.4 No person shall make, issue, post, or maintain any 
regulation or order, written or verbal, that would require any 
person to take any unnecessary delaying action prior to report- 
ing a fire to the fire department. 

10.7.2 Notification of unauthorized discharge of hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 60. 



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10.7.3 No person shall deliberately or maliciously turn in an 
alarm of fire when in fact that person knows that no fire exists. 

10.7.4 It shall be a violation of this Code for any person to 
willfully make any false, fraudulent, misleading, or unfounded 
report or statement or to willfully misrepresent any fact with 
the intention of misleading any fire department personnel or 
that interferes with the operation of the fire department. 

10.8 Tampering with Fire Safety Equipment. 

10.8.1 No person shall render any portable or fixed fire- 
extinguishing system or device or any fire warning system 
inoperative or inaccessible. 

10.8.1.1 As necessary during emergencies, maintenance, drills, 
prescribed testing, alterations, or renovations, portable or fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems or devices or any fire warning system 
shall be permitted to be made inoperative or inaccessible. 

10.8.2 No person shall render a system or device inoperative 
during an emergency unless by direction of the incident com- 
mander. 

10.8.3 No person, except a person authorized by the AHJ, shall 
remove, unlock, destroy, or tamper with in any manner any 
locked gate, door, or barricade; chain; enclosure; sign; tag; or 
seal that has been required by the AHJ pursuant to this Code. 

10.9 Emergency Plans. 

10.9.1 Where Required. Emergency plans shall be provided 
for high-rise, health care, ambulatory health care, residential 
board and care, assembly, day care centers, special amusement 
buildings, detention and correctional occupancies, under- 
ground and windowless structures, facilities storing or han- 
dling materials covered by Chapter 20, or where required by 
the AHJ. 

10.9.2* Plan Requirements. Emergency plans shall be devel- 
oped in accordance with NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/ 
Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs, and 
shall include the procedures for reporting of emergencies; 
occupant and staff response to emergencies; the type and cov- 
erage of building fire protection systems; and other items 
required by the AHJ. 

10.9.2.1 Review. When required, emergency plans shall be 
submitted to the AHJ for review. 

10.9.2.2 Maintenance. Emergency plans shall be reviewed and 
updated annually. Revised plans shall be submitted for review 
and updates shall be provided whenever changes are made in 
the occupancy or physical arrangement of the building or fire 
protection systems or features. 

10.9.3 The owner shall provide floor plans to the fire depart- 
ment in a manner approved by the AHJ and the fire department. 

10.10 Smoking. 

10.10.1 Where smoking is considered a fire hazard, the AHJ 
shall be authorized to order the owner in writing to post "No 
Smoking" signs in conspicuous, designated locations where 
smoking is prohibited. 

10.10.2 In areas where smoking is permitted, noncombus- 
tible ashtrays shall be provided. 



10.10.3 Removal or destruction of any required "No Smok- 
ing" sign shall be prohibited. 

10.10.4 Smoking or depositing any lighted or smoldering 
substance in a place where required "No Smoking" signs are 
posted shall be prohibited. 

10.11 Open Fires, Incinerators, and Cornmeircial Fireplaces. 

10.11.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

10.11.1.1 Permits shall not be required for cooking and rec- 
reational fires. 

10.11.1.2 Where burning is conducted on public property or 
the property of someone other than the permit applicant, the 
permit applicant shall demonstrate that permission has been 
obtained by the appropriate government agency, the owner, 
or the owner's authorized agent. 

10.11.1.3 When limits for atmospheric conditions or hours 
restrict burning, such limits shall be designated in the permit 
restrictions. 

10.11.1.4 Instructions or stipulations of permit shall be ad- 
hered to. 

10.11.2 Open Fires. 

10.11.2.1 Permitted open fires shall be located not less than 
50 ft (15 m) from any structure. 

10.11.2.2 Burning hours shall be prescribed by the AHJ. 

10.11.2.3 Recreational fires shall not be located within 25 ft 
(7.6 m) of a structure or combustible material unless con- 
tained in an approved manner. 

10.11.2.4 Conditions that could cause a fire to spread to 
within 25 ft (7.6 m) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to 
ignition. 

10.11.3 Open fires and cooking fires shall be constantly at- 
tended by a competent person until such fire is extinguished. 
This person shall have a garden hose connected to the water 
supply or other fire-extinguishing equipment readily available 
for use. 

10.11.4 The AHJ shall have the authority to prohibit any or all 
open fires when atmospheric conditions or local circumstances 
make such fires hazardous. 

10.11.5 During that period of the year declared by the AHJ to 
be the dry season, it shall be unlawful to set fires to any brush 
or forest-covered land. 

10.11.6 On such occasions when the chief executive of the 
jurisdiction declares a dry season and establishes special regu- 
lations on the use of any form of fire or smoking material, the 
AHJ shall have the authority to assist in the enforcement of 
such regulations. 

10.11.7 For other than one- and two-family dwellings, no hi- 
bachi, gas-fired grill, charcoal grill, or other similar devices 
used for cooking, heating, or any other purpose, shall be used 
or kindled on any balcony or under any overhanging portion 
or within 10 ft (3 m) of any structure. Listed electric ranges, 
grills, or similar electrical apparatus shall be permitted. 

10.11.8 Every commercial incinerator and commercial bar- 
becue fireplace shall be equipped and maintained with a 
spark arrestor and shall be maintained in good condition, 
working order, and repair at all times. 



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10.11.9 Discontinuance. The AHJ shall be authorized to re- 
quire any fire to be immediately discontinued if the fire is 
determined to constitute a hazardous condition. 

10.12* Access to Structures or Areas. 



10.12.1 Access Box(es). The AHJ shall have the authority to 
require an access box(es) to be installed in an accessible loca- 
tion where access to or within a structure or area is difficult 
because of security. 

10.12.2 Access to Gated Subdivisions or Developments. The 
AHJ shall have the authority to require fire department access 
be provided to gated subdivisions or developments through 
the use of an approved device or system. 

10.12.3 Access Maintenance. The owner or occupant of a 
structure or area, with required fire department access as 
specified in 10.12.1 or 10.12.2, shall notify the AHJ when the 
access is modified in a manner that could prevent fire depart- 
ment access. 

10.13 Etc Protection Markings. 

10.13.1 Premises Identification. 

10.13.1.1 New and existing buildings shall have approved ad- 
dress numbers placed in a position to be plainly legible and 
visible from the street or road fronting the property. 

10.13.1.2 Address numbers shall contrast with their back- 
ground. 

10.13.1.3 Address numbers shall be arabic numerals or al- 
phabet letters. 

10.13.2 Sfaaftways to Be Marked. 

10.13.2.1 Every outside opening accessible to the fire depart- 
ment that opens directly on any hoistway or shaftway commu- 
nicating between two or more floors in a building shall be 
plainly marked with the a sign in accordance with 10.13.2.2. 

10.13.2.2 Shaftway signs shall be in red letters at least 6 in. 
(15.2 cm) high on a white background stating "SHAFTWAY". 

10.13.2.3 Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be 
readily discernible from the outside of the building. 

10.13.3* Stairway Marking. 

10.13.3.1 Stairs serving five or more stories shall be provided 
with special signage within the enclosure at each floor land- 
ing. The signage shall indicate the floor level, the terminus of 
the top and bottom of the stair enclosure, and the identifica- 
tion of the stair enclosure. The signage also shall state the 
floor level of, and the direction to, exit discharge. The signage 
shall be located inside the enclosure approximately 60 in. 
(1525 mm ) above the floor landing in a position that is visible 
when the door is in the open or closed position. The signage 
shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101 8 , Life 
Safety Cod?. The floor level designation shall also be tactile in 
accordance with ICC/ANSI Al 1 7. 1 , American National Standard 
for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. [101:7.2.2.5.4.1] 

10.13.3.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an 
upward direction to reach the level of exit discharge, special 
signs with directional indicators showing the direction to the 
level of exit discharge shall be provided at each floor level 
landing from which upward direction of travel is required, 
unless otherwise provided in 10.13.3.2(A) and 10.13.3.2(B) 
and the following also shall apply: 



(1) Such signage shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2 of 
NFPA 101. 

(2) Such signage shall be visible when the door is in the open 
or closed position. [101:7.2.2.5.4.2] 

(A) The requirement of 10.13.3.2 shall not apply where signs 
required by 10.13.3.1 are provided. [101:7.2.2.5.4.2(A)] 

(B) The requirement of 10.13.3.2 shall not apply to stairs 
extending not more than one story below the level of exit 
discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious. 
[I0!:7.2.2.5.4.2(B)] 

10.13.3.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall or 
on a separate sign securely attached to the wall. [101:7.2.2.5.4.3] 

10.13.3.4 Letters and numerals shall be of bold type and of 
contrasting color to the background. 

10.13.3.5 The stairway identification letter shall be located at 
the top of the sign in minimum 1 in. (25 mm) high lettering 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7. 2.2.5 .4.4] 

10.13.3.6 Roof access or the lack thereof shall be designated 
by a sign that reads ROOF ACCESS or NO ROOF ACCESS and 
located under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall 
be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) high and shall be in accor- 
dance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.2.5.4.5] 

10.13.3.7 The floor level number shall be located in the 
middle of the sign in minimum 5 in. (125 mm) high numbers 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.13.3.7.1 Mezzanine levels shall have the letter "M" or 
other appropriate identification letter preceding the floor 
number. [101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.13.3.7.2 Basement levels shall have the letter "B" or other 
appropriate identification letter preceding the floor number. 
[101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.13.3.8 The lower and upper terminus of the stairway shall 
be placed at the bottom of the sign in minimum 1 in. (2.5 cm) 
high bold block lettering. 

These signs shall be maintained in an approved 



10.13.3.9 
manner. 



10.13.3.10 Existing approved signs shall be permitted. 

10.14 Vacant Buildings and Premises. 

10.14.1 Every person owning or having charge or control of 
any vacant building or premises shall remove all combustible 
storage, waste, refuse, and vegetation and shall lock, barri- 
cade, or otherwise secure all windows, doors, and other open- 
ings to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons. 

10.14.1.1 The requirement of 10.14.1 shall not apply to vaca- 
tion or resort facilities or buildings used on a seasonal basis or 
the temporary vacancy of a building for tenant change or re- 
modeling purposes. 

10.14.2 All fire protection systems shall be maintained in ser- 
vice in vacant buildings. 

10.14.2.1* With the approval of the AHJ, fire protection and 
fire alarms systems in vacant buildings shall be permitted to be 
removed from service. 



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10.14.3 The AHJ shall have the authority to require an in- 
spection and test of any fire protection system or fire alarm 
system that has been out of service for 30 days or more before 
restored back into service. 

10.15 Combustible Vegetation. 

10.15.1 Combustible vegetation, including natural cut 
Christmas trees, shall be in accordance with Table 10.15.1. 

Table 10.15.1 Provisions for Christmas Trees by Occupancy 

Cut Tree Cut Tree 

Permitted Permitted 

with Without 

Automatic Automatic Balled 

No Trees Sprinkler Sprinkler Tree 

Occupancy Permitted Systems Systems Permitted 



Ambulatory 
health 
care 








X 


Apartment 
buildings 




Within 
unit 


Within 
unit 


X 


Assembly 


X 








Board and 
care 


X 








Business 




X 




X 


Day-care 




X 




X 


Detention 
and 
correctional 


X 








Dormitories 


X 








Educational 


X 








Health 

care 








X 


Hotels 


X 








Industrial 




X 


X 


X 


Lodging 
and 
rooming 




X 




X 


Mercantile 




X 




X 


One and 
two 
family 




X 


X 


X 


Storage 




X 


X 


X 



10.15.2 In any occupancy, limited quantities of combustible 
vegetation shall be permitted where the AHJ determines that 
adequate safeguards are provided based on the quantity and 
nature of the combustible vegetation. 



10.15.3* Provisions for Flame Resistance or Fire Retardance. 

10.15.3.1 Artificial vegetation and artificial Christmas trees 
shall be labeled or otherwise identified or certified by the 
manufacturer as being flame retardant or flame resistive. 

10.15.3.2 Such flame resistance or flame retardance shall be 
demonstrated by each individual decorative vegetation item, 
including any decorative lighting, in an approved manner. 

10.15.4 Vegetation and Christmas trees shall not obstruct cor- 
ridors, exit ways, or other means of egress. 

10.15.5 Only listed electrical lights and wiring shall be used 
on natural or artificial combustible vegetation, natural or arti- 
ficial Christmas trees, and other similar decorations. 

10.15.6 Electrical lights shall be prohibited on metal artificial 
trees. 

10.15.7 Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kero- 
sene heaters, and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or 
near combustible vegetation, Christmas trees, or other similar 
combustible materials. 

10.15.8 Combustible vegetation and natural cut Christmas 
trees shall not be located near heating vents or other fixed or 
portable heating devices that could cause it to dry out prema- 
turely or to be ignited. 

10.15.9 Provisions for Natural Cut Trees. 

10.15.9.1 Where a natural cut tree is permitted, the bottom 
end of the trunk shall be cut off with a straight fresh cut at least 
Vi in. (13 mm) above the end prior to placing the tree in a 
stand to allow the tree to absorb water. 

10.15.9.2 The tree shall be placed in a suitable stand with water. 

10.15.9.3 The water level shall be maintained above the fresh 
cut and checked at least once daily. 

10.15.9.4* The tree shall be removed from the building imme- 
diately upon evidence of dryness. 

10.15.10 Exterior Vegetation. 

10.15.10.1 Cut or uncut weeds, grass, vines, and other vegeta- 
tion shall be removed when determined by the AHJ to be a fire 
hazard. 

10.15.10.2 When the AHJ determines that total removal of 
growth is impractical due to size or environmental factors, ap- 
proved fuel breaks shall be established. 

10.15.10.3 Designated areas shall be cleared of combustible 
vegetation to establish the fuel breaks. 

10.16 Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and Fairs. 

10.16.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

10.16.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to regulate all outdoor 
events such as carnivals and fairs as it pertains to access for emer- 
gency vehicles; access to fire protection equipment; placement of 
stands, concession booths, and exhibits; and the control of haz- 
ardous conditions dangerous to life and property. 

10.16.3 Life Safety Evaluation. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
order a life safety evaluation in accordance with 12.4.1 of 
NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. 



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10.16.4 Standby Fire Personnel. The AHJ shall be permitted 
to require standby fire personnel where potentially hazardous 
conditions exist due to the type of performance, display, ex- 
hibit, activity, or the number of persons present. 

10.16.5 Portable Fine Extinguishers. A minimum of one por- 
table fire extinguisher shall be provided for each concession 
stand where required by the AHJ in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.6. 

10.16.6 Smoke Alarms. A minimum of one single station 
smoke alarm shall be located in all stock or equipment trailers 
when they are used for sleeping purposes. 

10.16.7 Electrical Equipment. Electrical equipment and in- 
stallations shall comply with Section 11.1. 

10.16.8 Cooking. Concession stands utilized for cooking shall 
have a minimum of 10 ft (3 m) of clearance on two sides and shall 
not be located within 10 ft (3 m) of amusement rides or devices. 

10.16.9 Communications. Where required by the AHJ, a 
method of notifying the fire department in the event of an 
emergency shall be provided. 

10.16.9.1 Methods of notifying the fire department shall consist 
of a telephone, an alarm system connected to the fire depart- 
ment or other approved agency, or other approved means. 

10.16.9.2 Methods of notifying the fire department shall be 
readily available to the public. 

10.16.10 Internal Combustion Power Sources. 

10.16.10.1 Fueling. Fuel tanks shall be of adequate capacity to 
permit uninterrupted operation during normal operating hours. 

10.16.10.2 Refueling. Refueling shall be conducted only 
when not in use. 

10.16.10.3 Protection. Internal combustion power sources 
shall be isolated from contact with the public by either physi- 
cal guards, fencing, or an enclosure. 

10.16.10.4 Fire Extinguishers. A minimum of one portable 
fire extinguisher with a rating of not less than 2-A:10-B:C shall 
be provided. 

10.17 Outside Storage. 

10.17.1 Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be 
located within 10 ft (3 m) of a property line. 

10.17.2 The separation distance shall be allowed to be re- 
duced to 3 ft (0.9 m) for storage not exceeding 6 ft (1.8 m) in 
height. 

10.17.3 The separation distance shall be allowed to be re- 
duced where the AHJ determines that no hazard to the adjoin- 
ing property exists. 

10.17.4 Combustible material shall not be stored beneath a 
building or structure unless specifically constructed or pro- 
tected for this purpose. 

10.17.5* Exterior Roofs or Canopies. 

10.17.5.1* Unless the requirements of 10.17.5.2 or 10.17.5.3 
are met, sprinklers shall be installed under exterior roof or 
canopies exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width. [13:8.14.7.1] 



10.17.5.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted where 
the canopy or roof is of noncombustible or limited combus- 
tible construction. [13:8.14.7.2]. 

10.17.5.3 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from 
exterior exit corridors when the exterior walls of the corridor 
are at least 50 percent open and when the corridor is entirely 
of noncombustible construction. [13:8.14.7.3] 

10.17.5.4* Sprinklers shall be installed under roofs or cano- 
pies over areas where combustibles are stored and handled. 

[13:8.14.7.4] 

10.17.6 Combustible storage in the open shall not exceed 
20 ft (6.1m) in height. 

10.18 Parade Floats. 

10.18.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

10.18.2 Decorative Material. Decorative material on parade 
floats shall be noncombustible or flame retardant. 

10.18.3 Fire Protection. Motorized parade floats and towing 
apparatus shall be provided with a minimum 2 A:10-B:C-rated 
portable fire extinguisher readily accessible to the operator. 

10.19 Powered Industrial Trucks. Powered industrial trucks 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion and NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial 
Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, 
Maintenance, and Operation. 



Chapter 11 Building Services 

11.1 Electrical Fire Safety. 

11.1.1 Section 11.1 shall apply to new, existing, permanent, or 
temporary electrical appliances, equipment, fixtures, or wiring. 

11.1.1.1 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in use provided the lack of conformity does not present an 
imminent hazard danger. 

11.1.2 All electrical appliances, fixtures, equipment, or wir- 
ing shall be installed and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code 9 . 

11.1.3 Permanent wiring shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®. 

11.1.4 Permanent wiring abandoned in place shall be tagged 
or otherwise identified at its termination and junction points 
as "Abandoned in Place" or removed from all accessible areas 
and insulated from contact with other live electrical wiring or 
devices. 

11.1.5 Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for 
permanent wiring. 



11 . 1 .5. 1 Multiplug Adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as multi- 
plug extension cords, cube adapters, strip plugs, and other de- 
vices, shall be listed and used in accordance with their listing. 

11.1.5.2 Relocatable Power Taps. 

11.1.5.2.1 Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or 
grounded type with overcurrent protection and shall be listed. 



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11.1.5.2.2 The relocatable power taps shall be directly con- 
nected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

11.1.5.2.3 Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend 
through walls, ceilings, or floors; under doors or floor cover- 
ings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage. 

11.1.5.3 Extension Cords. 

11.1.5.3.1 Extension cords shall be plugged direcdy into an 
approved receptacle, power tap, or multiplug adapter and 
shall, except for approved multiplug extension cords, serve 
only one portable appliance. 

11.1.5.3.2 The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be 
less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied 
by the cord. 

11.1.5.3.3 The extension cords shall be maintained in good 
condition without splices, deterioration, or damage. 

11.1.5.3.4 Extension cords shall be grounded when servicing 
grounded portable appliances. 

11.1.5.3.5 Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be af- 
fixed to structures; extend through walls, ceilings, or floors, or 
under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental 
or physical damage. 

11.1.6 Temporary Wiring. 

11.1.6.1 Except as modified in 11.1.6, all other requirements of 
this Code and NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, for permanent 
wiring shall apply to temporary installations. [70:527.2 (A)] 

11.1.6.2 Approval. Temporary wiring methods shall be ac- 
ceptable only if approved based on the conditions of use 
and any special requirements of the temporary installation. 
[70:527.2(B)] 

11.1.6.3 During the Period of Construction. Temporary elec- 
trical power and lighting installations shall be permitted during 
the period of construction, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or 
demolition of buildings, structures, equipment, or similar activi- 
ties. [70:527.3(A)] 

11.1.6.4 90 Days. Temporary electrical power and lighting in- 
stallations shall be permitted for a period not to exceed 
90 days for holiday decorative lighting and similar purposes. 
[70:527.3(B)] 

11.1.6.5 Emergencies and Tests. Temporary electrical power 
and lighting installations shall be permitted during emergen- 
cies and for tests, experiments, and developmental work. 
[70:527.3(C)] 

11.1.6.6 Removal. Temporary wiring shall be removed imme- 
diately upon completion of construction or purpose for which 
the wiring was installed. [70:527.3 (D)] 

11.2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. 

11.2.1 Heating, Ventilating Ductwork, and Related Equip- 
ment. Air conditioning, heating, ventilating ductwork, and re- 
lated equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 90A, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, 
or NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating 
and Air-Conditioning Systems as applicable, unless approved exist- 
ing installation shall be permitted to be continued in service. 
[201:9.2.1] 

11.2.2 Ventilating or Heat-Producing Equipment. Ventilating 
or heat-producing equipment shall be in accordance with 



NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, NFPA 211, Stan- 
dard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances; 
NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, 
NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, or NFPA 70, National Electrical 
Code 9 , as applicable, unless approved existing installations shall 
be permitted to be continued in service. [202:9.2.2] 

11.2.3 Commercial Cooking Equipment. Commercial cooking 
equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 96, Standard for Ven- 
tilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, 
unless such installation are approved existing installations, which 
shall be permitted to be continued in service. [202:9.2.3] 

11.2.4 Ventilating Systems in Laboratories Using Chemicals. 
Ventilating systems in laboratories using chemicals shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Chapter 26 and NFPA 45, Standard 
on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, or NFPA 99, 
Standard for Health Care Facilities, as appropriate. [202:9.2.4] 

11.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. 

11.3.1 Fire Fighters' Emergency Operations. 

11.3.1.1 All new elevators shall conform to the fire fighters' 
emergency operations of ASME/ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for El- 
evators and Escalators. [202:9.4.3.1] 

11.3.1.2 All existing elevators having a travel distance of 25 ft 
(7620 mm) or more above or below the level that best serves 
the needs of emergency personnel for fire fighting or rescue 
purposes shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency opera- 
tions requirements of ASME/ANSI A17. 3, Safety Code for Exist- 
ing Elevators and Escalators. [202:9.4.3.2] 

11.3.2 Number of Cars. The number of elevator cars permitted 
in a hoistway shall be in accordance with 8.2.5.9 of NFPA 101. 
[202:9.4.4] 

11.3.3* Elevator Machine Rooms. Elevator machine rooms that 
contain solid-state equipment for elevators, other than existing 
elevators, having a travel distance exceeding 50 ft (15 m) above 
the level of exit discharge or exceeding 30 ft (9150 mm) below 
the level of exit discharge shall be provided with independent 
ventilation or air-conditioning systems required to maintain tem- 
perature during fire fighters' operations for elevator operation 
(see 11.3.2 and 11.3.3). The operating temperature shall be estab- 
lished by the elevator equipment manufacturer's specifications. 
When standby power is connected to the elevator, the machine 
room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to 
standby power. [202:9.4.5] 

11.3.4 Elevator Testing. Elevators shall be subject to periodic 
inspections and tests as specified in ASME/ANSI Al 7.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. All elevators equipped with fire 
fighters' emergency operations in accordance with 11.3.1.1 
and 11.3.1.2 shall be subject to a monthly operation with a 
written record of the findings made and kept on the premises 
as required by ASME/ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and 
Escalators. [202:9.4.6] 

11.3.5 Openings. Conveyors, elevators, dumbwaiters, and 
pneumatic conveyors serving various stories of a building shall 
not open to an exit. [202:9.4.7] 

11.4 Utilities. Equipment using fuel gas and related gas pip- 
ing shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 54, NationalFuel 
Gas Code, or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

11.4.1 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in service, subject to approval by the AHJ. 



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11.5 Heating Appliances. 

11.5.1 General. 

11.5.1.1 The installation of stationary oil-burning equipment 
and appliances including, but not limited to, industrial-, 
commercial-, and residential-type steam, hot water, or warm 
air heating plants; domestic-type range burners and space 
heaters; portable oil-burning equipment, and all accessory 
equipment and control systems, whether electric, thermo- 
static, or mechanical, and all electrical wiring connected to 
oil-fired equipment and to the installation of oil storage and 
supply systems connected to oil-fired equipment shall comply 
with Section 11.5 and NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of 
Oil-Burning Equipmen I. [31:1.1.1] 

11.5.1.2 Section 11.5 shall also apply to those multi-fueled 
appliances in which fuel oil is one of the optional fuels. 
[31:1.1.3] 

11.5.1.3* Section 11.5 shall not apply to internal combustion 
engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not specifically covered 
in NFPA 31. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are 
covered in this standard.) [31:1.1.4] 

11.5.1.4 The installation of gas-fired heating appliances shall 
comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code. 
(See Chapter 69 for LP-Gasfuel supply and storage installations.) 

11.5.1.5 All heating appliances shall be approved or listed. 

11.5.1.6 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

11.5.1.7 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment used in 
connection with oil-burning appliances or equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 11.1 and NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code®. [31:4.4.1] 

11.5.1.8 The grade of fuel oil used in an oil burner shall be 
that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the 
manufacturer. Crankcase oil, used oil, or oil containing gaso- 
line shall not be used. (For use of oil fuels other than those 
described in this paragraph, see Section 1.3 of NFPA 31, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment.) 

Exception: Where acceptable to the AHJ, an oil-burning appliance de- 
signed to burn crankcase oil or used oil shall be permitted to be used only in 
commercial or industrial occupancies. Oil-burning appliances intended 
for firing crankcase oils shall be listed for use with crankcase oils. (See 
Chapter 12 of NFPA 31 for appliances intended for firing used oil.) The 
appliances shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers' in- 
structions and with the terms of its listing. (See Section 4. 6 of NFPA 31.) 
[31A.5.1] 

11.5.2 Kerosene Bummers and Oil Stoves. 

11.5.2.1 Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped 
with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of 
the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the 
event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be consid- 
ered a primary safety control. 

11.5.2.2 A conversion range oil burner shall be equipped 
with a thermal (heat-actuated) valve in the oil supply line, lo- 
cated in the burner compartment of the stove. 

11.5.2.3 Only listed kerosene heaters shall be used. The fol- 
lowing safeguards shall apply: 

(1) Provide adequate ventilation. 

(2) Do not place on carpeting. 



(3) Keep 3 ft (0.9 m) away from combustible furnishings or 
drapes. 

(4) Use only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene. 

(5) Allow to cool before refueling. 

11.5.3 Portable Electric Heater. 

11.5.3.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to prohibit use of portable 
electric heaters in occupancies or situations where such use or 
operation would present an undue danger to life or property. 

11.5.3.2 Portable electric heaters shall be designed and lo- 
cated so that they cannot be easily overturned. 

11.5.3.3 All portable electric heaters shall be listed. 

11.5.4 Vents. All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for 
conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, 
furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing 
devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, and NFPA 211, 
Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning 
Appliances. 

11.6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

11.6.1 Enclosure. 

11.6.1.1 Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be sepa- 
rately enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 8.2 of NFPA 101. [707:9.5.1.1] 

11.6.1.2 Inlet openings serving chutes shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 8.2 of NFPA 101. [702:9.5.1.2] 

11.6.1.3 The doors of chutes specified in 11.6.1.2 shall open 
only to a room that is designed and used exclusively for access- 
ing the chute opening. [102:9.5.1.3] 

11 .6. 1 .4 The room used for accessing the chute opening shall 
be separated from other spaces in accordance with Section 8.4 
of NFPA 101. [702:9.5.1.4] 

11.6.1.5 The requirements of 11.6.1.1 through 11.6.1.4 shall 
not apply where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Existing installations having properly enclosed service 
chutes and properly installed and maintained service 
openings shall be permitted to have inlets open to a cor- 
ridor or normally occupied space. 

(2) Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be permitted to 
open into rooms not exceeding 400 ft 2 (37 m 2 ) that are 
used for storage, provided that the room is protected by 
automatic sprinklers. [202:9.5.1.5] 

11.6.2 Installation and Maintenance. Rubbish chutes, laundry 
chutes, and incinerators shall be installed and maintained in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and 
Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, unless approved existing 
installations shall be permitted to be continued in service. 
[702:9.5.2] 

11.7 Stationary Generators and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.1 Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines In- 
stallation. Stationary generator sets shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 37, Standard for the Installation and Use of Sta- 
tionary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines and NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code®. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



11.7.2 Emergency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.2.1 General. Stationary generators for emergency use or 
standby power required by this Code, the building code, or 
other codes and standards shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.2.2 Acceptance. Newly installed stationary generators for 
emergency use or for standby power for fire protection sys- 
tems and features shall demonstrate the capacity of the energy 
converter, with its controls and accessories, to survive without 
damage from common and abnormal disturbances in actual 
load circuits by any of the following means: 

(1) By tests on separate prototype models 

(2) By acceptance tests on the system components as per- 
formed by the component suppliers 

(3) By listing for emergency service as a completely factory- 
assembled and factory-tested apparatus 

11.7.3 Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby 
Power System Installation. Stored electrical energy systems re- 
quired by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes 
and standards shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 111, 
Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power 
Systems and NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®. 

11.7.4 Maintenance and Testing. 

11.7.4.1 Stationary generators used for standby power shall 
be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 37, Stan- 
dard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines 
and Gas Turbines. 

11.7.4.2 Stationary generators required by this Code, the 
building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emer- 
gency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.4.3 Stored electrical energy systems required by this 
Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 111, Standard on 
Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.8* Smoke Control. 

11.8.1 Smoke control systems shall have an approved mainte- 
nance and testing program to ensure operational integrity. 

11.8.2 All smoke control systems and devices shall be main- 
tained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced 
or repaired where defective. 

11.8.3 The AHJ shall be notified when any smoke control 
system is out of service for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour 
period and again upon restoration of service of such systems. 

11.8.4 The AHJ shall be permitted to require the building to be 
evacuated, or an approved fire watch to be provided for all por- 
tions left unprotected by the fire protection system shutdown un- 
til the fire protection system has been returned to service. 

11.9 Emergency Command Center. Where required, emer- 
gency command centers shall comply with Section 11.9. 

11.9.1 The location, design, and fire department access of 
the emergency command center shall be approved by the fire 
department. 

11.9.2 The emergency command center shall be separated 
from the remainder of the building by a fire barrier having a 
fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 



11.9.3 The emergency command center room shall be a 
minimum of 96 ft 2 (8.9 m 2 ) with a minimum dimension of 8 ft 
(2.4 m). 

11.9.4 The following shall be provided in the emergency 
command center: 

(1) The fire department communication unit 

(2) A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system 

(3) Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan 
and detailing the building core means of egress, fire pro- 
tection systems, fire-fighting equipment, and fire depart- 
ment access 

(4) Work table 

11.9.5 Where otherwise required, the following devices or func- 
tions shall be provided within the emergency command center: 

( 1 ) The emergency voice/alarm communication system unit 

(2) Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit 

(3) Annunciator visually indicating the location of the eleva- 
tors and whether they are operational 

(4) Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems 

(5) Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously 

(6) Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels 

(7) Emergency and standby power status indicators 

(8) Fire pump status indicators 

(9) Generator supervision devices and manual start and 
transfer features 

(10) Public address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this Code 

(11) Controls required for smoke control 

11.9.6 Emergency Command Center Acceptance Testing. De- 
vices, equipment, components, and sequences shall be indi- 
vidually tested in accordance with appropriate standards and 
manufacturers' documented instructions. 



Chapter 12 Features of Fire Protection 

12.1 General. This chapter shall apply to new, existing, per- 
manent, or temporary buildings. 

12.2 Construction. 

12.2.1* Where required by this Code, a type of building con- 
struction shall comply with NFPA 220, Standard on Types of 
Building Construction. 

12.2.2 Fire safety construction features for new and existing 
occupancies shall comply with this Code and the referenced 
edition of NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. 

12.3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies. 

12.3.1 The design and construction of fire walls and fire barrier 
walls that are required to separate buildings or subdivide a build- 
ing to prevent the spread of fire shall comply with Section 12.3 
and NFPA 221 , Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walk. 

12.3.2 Maintenance of Fire-Resistive Construction. 

12.3.2.1 Required fire-resistive construction, including fire 
barriers, fire walls, exterior walls due to location on property, 
fire-resistive requirements based on type of construction, 
draft-stop partitions, and roof coverings, shall be maintained 



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and shall be properly repaired, restored, or replaced where 
damaged, altered, breached, penetrated, removed, or improp- 
erly installed. 

12.3.2.2 Where required fire-rated gypsum wallboard walls or 
ceilings are damaged to the extent that through openings ex- 
ist, the damaged gypsum wallboard shall be replaced or re- 
turned to the required level of fire resistance using a listed 
repair system or using materials and methods equivalent to 
the original construction. 

1 2.4 Fire Doors and Windows. 

12.4.1 The installation and maintenance of assemblies and 
devices used to protect openings in walls, floors, and ceilings 
against the spread of fire and smoke within, into, or out of 
buildings shall comply with Section 12.4 and NFPA 80, Stan- 
dard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. 

12.4.2 The fire performance evaluation of these assemblies 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 251 , Standard Methods of Tests 
of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials, for hori- 
zontal access doors; NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, for fire doors and shutters; and NFPA 257, Stan- 
dard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies, for fire 
windows and glass block. 

12.4.3* Section 12.4 shall not apply to incinerator doors, 
record room doors, and vault doors. 

12.4.4 For requirements on the installation of hoistway doors 
for elevators and dumbwaiters, see the applicable sections of 
ASME/ ANSI Al 7.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, or 
CAN 35.B44, Safety Code for Elevators. Requirements for hori- 
zontally sliding, vertically sliding, and swinging doors as used 
in this Code do not apply to hoistway doors for elevators and 
dumbwaiters. 

12.4.5 Section 12.4 shall not cover fire-resistant glazing mate- 
rials and horizontally sliding accordion or folding assemblies 
fabricated for use as walls and tested as wall assemblies in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests ofFireEndur- 
ance of Building Construction and Materials. The AHJ shall be 
consulted for the design and installation of such materials and 
assemblies. 

12.5 Interior Finish. Interior finish in buildings and struc- 
tures shall meet the requirements of NFPA 101®, Life Safety 
Code®, and this Code. 

12.6 Fur nis hings, Contents, Decorations, and Treated Fin- 
ishes. Furnishings, contents, decorations, and treated finishes 
in buildings and structures shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 101 , Life Safety Code' 3 ', and this Code. 

12.7 Fire Barriers. 

12.7.1 General. Fire barriers used to provide enclosure, sub- 
division, or protection under this Code shall be classified in 
accordance with one of the following fire resistance ratings: 

(1) 2-hour fire resistance rating 

(2) 1-hour fire resistance rating 
(3)*V2-hourfire resistance rating [101:8.3.1] 

12.7.2 Walls. 

12.7.2.1 The fire-resistive materials, assemblies, and systems 
used shall be limited to those permitted in this Code and this 
chapter. [101:8.3.2.1] 



12.7.2.2 The construction materials and details for fire- 
resistive assemblies and systems for walls described shall com- 
ply with all other provisions of this Code, except as modified 
herein. [101:8.3.2.2] 

12.7.2.3 Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical con- 
struction shall be evaluated from both directions and assigned 
a fire resistance rating based on the shorter duration obtained 
in accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire 
Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. When the wall 
is tested with the least fire-resistive side exposed to the fur- 
nace, the wall shall not be required to be subjected to tests 
from the opposite side. [101:8.3.2.3] 

12.7.3 Fire Doors and Windows. 

12.7.3.1 Wall openings required to have a fire protection rat- 
ing by the table in 12.7.4.2 shall be protected by approved, 
listed, labeled fire door assemblies and fire window assemblies 
and their accompanying hardware, including all frames, clos- 
ing devices, anchorage, and sills in accordance with the re- 
quirements of NFPA80, Standard for Fire Doors andFire Windows, 
except as otherwise specified in this Code. [101:8.3.3.1] 

12.7.3.2* Fire protection ratings for products required to 
comply with 8.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall be as determined and 
reported by a nationally recognized testing agency in accor- 
dance with NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door As- 
semblies, or NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass 
Block Assemblies. [101:8.3.3.2] 

(A) Fire protection-rated glazing shall be evaluated under posi- 
tive pressure in accordance with NFPA 257. [101:8.3.3.2(A) ] 

(B) All products required to comply with 8.3.3.2 of NFPA 101 
shall bear an approved label. [101:8.3.3.2 (B)] 

12.7.3.3 Unless otherwise specified, fire doors shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8 of 
NFPA 101. [101:8.3.3.3] 

12.7.3.4 Floor fire door assemblies, shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire 
Door Assemblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor 
Systems, and shall achieve a fire resistance rating not less than 
the assembly being penetrated. Floor fire doors assemblies 
shall be listed and labeled. [101:8.3.3.4] 

12.7.3.5 Fire protection-rated glazing shall be permitted in 
fire barriers having a required fire resistance rating of 1 hour 
or less and shall be of an approved type with the appropriate 
fire protection rating for the location in which the barriers are 
installed. [101:8.3.3.5] 

12.7.3.6* Glazing in fire window assemblies, other than in ex- 
isting fire window installations of wired glass and other fire- 
rated glazing material, shall be of a design that has been tested 
to meet the conditions of acceptance of NFPA 257, Standard on 
Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies. Fire protection- 
rated glazing in fire door assemblies, other than in existing 
fire-rated door assemblies, shall be of a design that has been 
tested to meet the conditions of acceptance of NFPA 252, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies. [101:8.3.3.6] 

12.7.3.7 Wired glass of l A in. (6 mm) in thickness and labeled 
for fire protection purposes shall be permitted to be used in 
approved opening protectives provided the maximum size 
specified by the listing is not exceeded. Other glazing materi- 
als that have been tested and labeled to indicate the type of 



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opening to be protected for fire protection purposes shall be 
permitted to be used in approved opening protectives in ac- 
cordance with their listing, with the maximum sizes tested. 
[207:8.3.3.7] 

12.7.3.8 Nonsymmetrical fire protection-rated glazing sys- 
tems shall be tested with each face exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be that of the shortest 
duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compli- 
ance with NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass 
Block Assemblies. [702:8.3.3.8] 

12.7.3.9 The total combined area of glazing in fire-rated win- 
dow assemblies and fire-rated door assemblies used in fire 
barriers shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the fire 
barrier that is common with any room, unless the installation 
meets one of the following criterion: 

(1) The installation is an existing fire window installation of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing material in ap- 
proved metal frames 

(2) The installation is an existing fire window installations of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing materials in ap- 
proved frames. 

(3) The fire protection-rated glazing material is installed in 
approved existing frames. [707:8.3.3.9] 

12.7.4 Opening Protectives. 

12.7.4.1 Every opening in a fire barrier shall be protected to 
limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke 
from one side of the fire barrier to the other. [707:8.3.4.1] 

12.7.4.2* The fire protection rating for opening protectives in 
fire barriers, fire-rated smoke barriers, and fire-rated smoke par- 
titions shall be in accordance with Table 12.7.4.2. [707:8.3.4.2] 

12.7.4.3 Existing fire door assemblies having a 3 /4-hour fire 
protection rating shall be permitted to continue to be used in 
vertical openings and in exit enclosures in lieu of the 1-hour 
rating required by Table 12.7.4.2. [707:8.3.4.3] 

12.7.4.4 Where a 20-minute fire protection-rated door is re- 
quired in existing buildings, an existing 1% in. (44 mm) solid- 
bonded wood-core door, an existing steel-clad (tin-clad) wood 
door, or an existing solid-core steel door with positive latch 
and closer shall be permitted, unless otherwise specified by 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [202:8.3.4.4] 

12.7.5 Penetrations. The provisions of 12.7.5 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through- 
penetrations and membrane penetrations in fire walls, fire bar- 
rier walls, and fire resistance-rated horizontal assemblies. The 
provisions of 12.7.5 shall not apply to approved, existing materi- 
als and methods of construction used to protect existing 
through-penetrations and existing membrane penetrations in 
fire walls, fire barrier walls, or fire resistance-rated horizontal 
assemblies, unless otherwise required by Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [202:8.3.5] 

12.7.5.1 Firestop Systems and Devices Required. Penetra- 
tions for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, tubes, combustion 
vents and exhaust vents, wires, and similar items to accommo- 
date electrical, mechanical, plumbing and communications 
systems that pass through a wall, floor or floor/ceiling assem- 
bly constructed as a fire barrier, shall be protected by a firestop 
system or device. The firestop system or device shall be tested 
in accordance with ASTM E-814 or ANSI/UL 1479 at a mini- 
mum positive pressure differential of 0.01 in. water column 
(2.5 Pa) between the exposed and the unexposed surface of 
the test assembly. [207:8.3.5.1] 



Table 12.7.4.2 Minimum Fire Protection Ratings for 
Opening Protectives in Fire Resistance— Rated Assemblies 





Walls and 


Fire Door 


Fire Window 




Partitions 


Assemblies 


Assemblies 


Component 


(far) 


(hr) 


(hr) 


Elevator 


2 


VA 


NP 


hoistways 


1 


1 


NP 


Vertical 


2 


Wi 


NP 


shafts 


1 


1 


NP 


(including 


y 2 


!/ 3 


NP 


stairways, 








exits, and 








refuse 








chutes) 








Fire barriers 


2 


VA 


NP 




i 


% 


% 


Horizontal 


2 


l'/2 


NP 


exits 








Exit access 


1 


Vi 


% 


corridors 1 


Vi 


Vs 


Va 


Smoke 


1 


Vs 


% 


barriers 1 








Smoke 


Vi 


Vi 


Vs 


partitions 1,2 









Note: NP = not permitted. 

1 Fire doors are not required to have a hose stream test per NFPA 252. 

2 For residential board and care, see 32.2.3.1.1 and 33.2.3.1.1 of NFPA 

101. 

Source: Table 8.3.4.2 of NFPA 101. 



12.7.5.1.1 The requirements of 12.7.5.1 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by any one of the following: 

(1) Where penetrations are tested and installed as part of an 
assembly tested and rated in accordance with the 
NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of 
Building Construction and Materials 

(2) Where penetrations through floors are enclosed in a shaft 
enclosure designed as a fire barrier 

(3) Where concrete, grout, or mortar has been used to fill the 
annular spaces around cast-iron, copper, or steel piping 
that penetrates one or more concrete or masonry fire 
resistance-rated assemblies and both of the following cri- 
teria are also met: 

(a) The nominal diameter of each penetrating item shall 
not exceed 6 in. (150 mm), and the opening size shall 
not exceed 1 ft 2 (0.09 m 2 ). 

(b) The thickness of the concrete, grout, or mortar shall 
be the full thickness of the assembly 

(4) Where firestopping materials are used with the penetrat- 
ing items in 12.7.5.1.1(1) through 12.7.5.1.1(3) and both 
of the following criteria are also met: 

(a) The penetration shall be limited to only one floor. 

(b) The firestopping material shall be capable of prevent- 
ing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ig- 
nite cotton waste when subjected to the time- 
temperature fire conditions of NFPA 251 under a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 in. water 
column (2.5 N/m ) at the location of the penetration 
for the time period equivalent to the required fire resis- 
tance rating of the assembly penetrated. [202:8.3.5.1.1] 



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1 2.7.5. 1 .2 The maximum nominal diameter of the following 
penetrating items shall be not greater than 4 in. (100 mm), 
and the aggregate area of all penetrating items shall not ex- 
ceed 100 in. 2 (64,520 mm 2 ) in any 100 ft*(9.3 m 2 ) of floor or 
wall area: 

(1) Steel, ferrous, or copper cables 

(2) Cable or wire with steel jackets 

(3) Cast-iron, steel, or copper pipes 

(4) Steel conduit or tubing [101:8.3.5.1.2] 

12.7.5.1.3 Firestop systems and devices shall have an F rating 
of at least 1 hour, but not less than the required fire-resistive 
rating of the fire barrier penetrated. [101:8.3.5.1.3] 

12.7.5.1.4 Penetrations in fire-rated horizontal assemblies 
shall be required to have a T rating of at least 1 hour, but not 
less than the rating of the horizontal assembly, and shall not 
be required for the following: 

(1) Floor penetrations contained within the cavity of a wall 
assembly 

(2) Penetrations through floors or floor assemblies where the 
penetration is not in direct contact with combustible ma- 
terial [101:8.3.5.1.4] 

12.7.5.2 Sleeves. Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to 
penetrate the wall or floor, the sleeve shall be securely set in 
the wall or floor, and the space between the item and the 
sleeve shall be filled with a material that complies with 
12.7.5.1. [101:8.3.5.2] 

12.7.5.3 Insulation and Coverings. Insulation and coverings 
for penetrating items shall not pass through the wall or floor 
unless the insulation or covering has been tested as part of the 
firestop system or device. [101:8.3.5.3] 

1 2.7.5.4 Transmission of Vibrations. Where designs take trans- 
mission of vibrations into consideration, any vibration isola- 
tion shall meet one of the following conditions: 

(1 ) It shall be provided on either side of the wall or floor. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. [101:8.3.5.4] 

12.7.5.5 Transitions. 

12.7.5.5.1 Where piping penetrates a fire resistance-rated 
wall or floor assembly, combustible piping shall not connect to 
noncombustible piping within 36 in. (915 mm) of the firestop 
system or device without demonstration that the transition will 
not reduce the fire resistance rating, except for previously ap- 
proved installations. [101:8.3.5.5.1] 

12.7.5.5.2 Unshielded couplings shall not be used to connect 
noncombustible piping to combustible piping unless it can be 
demonstrated that the transition complies with the fire- 
resistive requirements of 12.7.5.5. [101:8.3.5.5.2] 

12.7.5.6 Membrane Penetrations. 

12.7.5.6.1 Membrane penetrations for cables, cable trays, con- 
duits, pipes, tubes, combustion vents and exhaust vents, wires, 
and similar items to accommodate electrical, mechanical, 
plumbing, and communications systems that pass through a 
membrane of a wall, floor or floor/ ceiling assembly constructed 
as a fire barrier shall be protected by a firestop system or device 
and shall comply with 12.7.5.1 through 12.7.5.5.2. [101:8.3.5.6.1] 

12.7.5.6.2 The firestop system or device shall be tested in 
accordance with ASTM E-814 or ANSI/UL 1479 at a mini- 
mum positive pressure differential of 0.01 in. water column 



(2.5 N/m 2 ) between the exposed and the unexposed sur- 
face of the test assembly, unless one of the following is met: 

(1) Membrane penetrations of ceilings that are not an inte- 
gral part of a fire resistance-rated floor/ ceiling or roof/ 
ceiling assembly shall be permitted. 

(2) Membrane penetrations of steel, ferrous, or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes, or combustion vents or exhaust vents 
shall be permitted where the annular space is protected 
with an approved material, and the aggregate area of the 
openings does not exceed 0.7 ft 2 (0.06 m 2 ) in any 100 ft 2 
(9.3 m 2 ) of ceiling area. 

(3) Electrical outlet boxes and fittings shall be permitted, 
provided that such devices are listed for use in fire 
resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

(4) The annular space created by the membrane penetration 
of a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the 
space is covered by a metal escutcheon plate. 
[101:8.3.5.6.2] 

12.7.5.6.3 Where walls or partitions are required to have a 
fire resistance rating of not less than 1-hour, recessed fixtures 
shall be installed in the wall or partition in such a manner that 
the required fire resistance is not reduced, unless one of the 
following is met: 

(1) Any steel electrical box not exceeding 0.1 ft 2 (0.01 m 2 ) 
shall be permitted where the aggregate area of the open- 
ings provided for the boxes does not exceed 0.7 ft 2 
(0.06 m 2 ) in any 100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ) of wall area, and, where 
outlet boxes are installed on opposite sides of the wall, the 
boxes shall be separated by one of the following: 

(a) Horizontal distance of not less than 24 in. (610 mm ) 

(b) Horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the 
wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose 
loose-fill, rock wool, or slag wool insulation 

(c)*Solid fireblocking 

(d) Other listed materials and methods 

(2) Membrane penetrations for any listed electrical outlet 
box made of any material shall be permitted, provided 
that such boxes have been tested for use in fire resistance- 
rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the 
instructions included in the listing. 

(3) The annular space created by the membrane penetration of 
a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the space is 
covered by a metal escutcheon plate. [101:8.3.5.6.3] 

12.7.5.7 Openings for Air-Handling Ductwork. Openings in 
fire barriers for air-handling ductwork or air movement shall be 
protected in accordance with 9.2.1 of NFPA 101. [101:8.3.5.7] 

12.8 Smoke Partitions. 

12.8.1 Where required elsewhere in this Code, smoke parti- 
tions shall be provided to limit the transfer of smoke. 
[101:8.4.1] 

12.8.2 Continuity. The following shall apply to smoke parti- 
tions: 

(1) They shall extend from the floor to the underside of the 
floor or roof deck above, through any concealed spaces, 
such as those above suspended ceilings, and through in- 
terstitial structural and mechanical spaces. 



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(2) They shall be permitted to extend from the floor to the 
underside of a monolithic or suspended ceiling system 
where the following conditions are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) Asmoke-tightjoint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiling. 

(c) The space above the ceiling is not used as a plenum. 
(3) Smoke partitions enclosing hazardous areas shall be per- 
mitted to terminate at the underside of a monolithic or 
suspended ceiling system where the following conditions 
are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) Asmoke-tightjoint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiling. 

(c) Where the space above the ceiling is used as a ple- 
num, return grilles from the hazardous area into the 
plenums are not permitted. [101:8.4.2] 

12.8.3 Opening Protectives. 

12.8.3.1 Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with 7.2.1 
through 7.2.1.8 of NFPA 101. [101:8.4.3.1] 

12.8.3.2 Doors shall comply with the provisions of 7.2.1 of 
NFPA 101. [101:8.4.3.2] 

12.8.3.3 Doors shall not include louvers. [101:8.4.3.3] 

12.8.3.4* Door clearances shall be in accordance with 
NFPA80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. [101:8.4.3.4] 

12.8.3.5 Doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in 
accordance with 7.2.1.8 of NFPA 101. [101:8.4.3.5] 

12.8.4 Penetrations. The provisions of 12.8.4 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect 
through-penetrations and membrane penetrations of smoke 
partitions. [101:8.4.4] 

12.8.4.1 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electri- 
cal, mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that 
pass through a smoke partition shall be protected by a system 
or material that is capable of limiting the transfer of smoke. 
[101:8.4.4.1] 

12.8.4.2 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the smoke partition. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. [101:8.4.4.2] 

12.8.5 Joints. 

12.8.5.1 The provisions of 12.8.5 shall govern the materials 
and methods of construction used to protect joints in between 
and at the perimeter of smoke partitions or, where smoke par- 
titions meet other smoke partitions, the floor or roof deck 
above, or the outside walls. The provisions of 12.8.5 shall not 
apply to approved existing materials and methods of construc- 
tion used to protect existing joints in smoke partitions, unless 
otherwise required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101. [101:8.4.5.1] 

12.8.5.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke par- 
titions shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [101:8.4.5.2] 



12.8.6 Air-Transfer Openings. 

12.8.6.1 General. The provisions of 12.8.6 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect air- 
transfer openings in smoke partitions. [101:8.4.6.1] 

12.8.6.2* Smoke Dampers. Air-transfer openings in smoke 
partitions shall be provided with approved smoke dampers 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555S to limit the transfer of smoke. [101:8.4.6.2] 

12.8.6.3 Smoke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature ratings 
shall be not less than 2500°F (1390°C ). [101:8.4.6.3] 

12.8.6.4 Smoke Detectors. Dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors installed in accordance with NFPA 75r, National Fire Alarm 
Code®. [101:8.4.6.4] 

12.9 Smoke Barriers. 

12.9.1* General. Where required by Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide building spaces for the purpose of restricting the 
movement of smoke. [101:8.5.1] 

12.9.2* Continuity. 

12.9.2.1 Smoke barriers required by this Code shall be con- 
tinuous from an outside wall to an outside wall, from a floor to 
a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier, or a com- 
bination thereof. [101:8.5.2.1] 

12.9.2.2 Smoke barriers shall be continuous through all con- 
cealed spaces, such as those found above a ceiling, including 
interstitial spaces. [101:8.5.2.2] 

12.9.2.3 A smoke barrier required for an occupied space be- 
low an interstitial space shall not be required to extend 
through the interstitial space, provided that the construction 
assembly forming the bottom of the interstitial space provides 
resistance to the passage of smoke equal to that provided by 
the smoke barrier. [101:8.5.2.3] 

12.9.3 Fire Barrier Used as Smoke Barrier. A fire barrier shall 
be permitted to be used as a smoke barrier, provided that it 
meets the requirements of 12.9.3 through 12.9.4. [101:8.5.3] 

12.9.4 Doors. 

12.9.4.1* Doors in smoke barriers shall close the opening leav- 
ing only the minimum clearance necessary for proper operation 
and shall be without undercuts, louvers, or grilles. [101:8.5.3.1] 

12.9.4.2* Where required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 701, doors in smoke barriers shall comply with the 
requirements of 8.2.2.4 of NFPA 101. [101:8.5.3.2] 

1 2.9.4.3 Latching hardware shall not be required on doors in 
smoke barriers where permitted by Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101. [101:8.5.3.3] 

12.9.4.4* Doors in smoke barriers shall be self-closing or 
automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8 of NFPA 101 and 
shall comply with the provisions of 7.2.1 of NFPA 101. 
[101:8.5.3.4] 

12.9.4.5 Fire window assemblies shall comply with 8.3.3 of 
NFPA 101. [101:8.5.3.5] 

12.9.5 Ducts and Air-Transfer Openings. The provisions of 
12.9.5 shall govern the materials and methods of construction 



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used to protect ducts and air-transfer openings in smoke bar- 
riers. [101:8.5.4.1] 

12.9.5.1 Smoke Dampers. Where a smoke barrier is pen- 
etrated by a duct or air-transfer opening, a smoke damper 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555S shall be installed. Where a smoke barrier is also con- 
structed as a fire barrier, a combination fire/smoke damper 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555 and UL 555S shall be installed. [101:8.5.4.2] 

12.9.5.2 Snioke Bamper Exemptions. Smoke dampers shall 
not be required under any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where specifically exempted by provisions in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Where ducts or air-transfer openings are part of an engi- 
neered smoke control system 

(3) Where the air in ducts continues to move and the air- 
handling system installed is arranged to prevent recircu- 
lation of exhaust or return air under fire emergency con- 
ditions 

(4) Where the air inlet or outlet openings in ducts are limited 
to a single smoke compartment 

(5) Where ducts penetrate floors that serve as smoke barriers 
[101:8.5.4.3] 

12.9.5.3 Installation. 

12.9.5.3.1 Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating ductwork, 
and related equipment, including smoke dampers and combi- 
nation fire and smoke dampers, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air- 
Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. [ 101:8.5.4.4. 1 ] 

12.9.5.3.2 The equipment specified in 12.9.5.3.1 shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the requirements of 12.9.5.3, the 
manufacturer's installation instructions, and the equipment 
listing. [101:8.5.4.4.2] 

12.9.5.4 Access and Identification. Access to the dampers 
shall be provided for inspection, testing, and maintenance. 
The access openings shall not reduce the fire resistance rating 
of the fire barrier assembly. [101:8.5.4.5] 

12.9.5.5 Smoke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature rat- 
ings shall be not less than 2500°F (1390°C). [101:8.5.4.6] 

12.9.5.6 Smoke Detectors. 

12.9.5.6.1 Required smoke dampers in ducts penetrating 
smoke barriers shall close upon detection of smoke by approved 
smoke detectors in accordance with NFPA 7f, National Fire Alarm 
Code®, unless one of the following conditions exists: 

( 1 ) The ducts penetrate smoke barriers above the smoke bar- 
rier doors and the door release detector actuates the 
damper. 

(2) Approved smoke detector installations are located within 
the ducts in existing installations. [101:8.5.4.7.1] 

12.9.5.6.2 Where a duct is provided on one side of the smoke 
barrier, the smoke detectors on the duct side shall be in accor- 
dance with 12.9.5.6.1. [101:8.5.4.7.2] 

12.9.5.6.3 Required smoke dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors in accordance with NFPA 72 s , National Fire Alarm Code®. 
[101:8.5.4.7.3] 



12.9.6 Penetrations and Miscellaneous Openings in Floors 
and Smoke Barriers. 

12.9.6.1 The provisions of 12.9.6 shall govern the materials 
and methods of construction used to protect through- 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of smoke barriers. 
[101:8.5.5.1] 

12.9.6.2 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electri- 
cal, mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that 
pass through a wall, floor, or floor/ceiling assembly con- 
structed as a smoke barrier, or through the ceiling membrane 
of the roof/ceiling of a smoke barrier assembly, shall be pro- 
tected by a system or material capable of restricting the trans- 
fer of smoke. [101:8.5.5.2] 

1 2.9.6.3 Where a smoke barrier is also constructed as a fire bar- 
rier, the penetrations shall be protected in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 8.4 of NFPA 101 to limit the spread of 
fire for a time period equal to the fire resistance rating of the 
assembly and 12.9.6 to restrict the transfer of smoke, unless the 
requirements of 12.9.6.4 are met. [101:8.5.5.3] 

12.9.6.4 Where sprinklers penetrate a single membrane of a 
fire resistance-rated assembly in buildings equipped through- 
out with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system, non- 
combustible escutcheon plates shall be permitted, provided 
that the space around each sprinkler penetration does not 
exceed Vi in. (13 mm), measured between the edge of the 
membrane and the sprinkler. [101:8.5.5.4] 

12.9.6.5 Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to pen- 
etrate the smoke barrier, the sleeve shall be securely set in the 
smoke barrier, and the space between the item and the sleeve 
shall be filled with a material capable of restricting the transfer 
of smoke. [101:8.5.5.5] 

12.9.6.6 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the fire barrier. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. [101:8.5.5.6] 

12.9.7 Joints. 

12.9.7.1 The provisions of 12.9.7 shall govern the materials 
and methods of construction used to protectjoints in between 
and at the perimeter of smoke barriers or, where smoke barri- 
ers meet other smoke barriers, the floor or roof deck above, or 
the outside walls. The provisions of 12.9.7 shall not apply to 
approved, existing materials and methods of construction 
used to protect existingjoints in smoke barriers, unless other- 
wise required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:8.5.6.1] 

12.9.7.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke bar- 
riers shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [101:8.5.6.2] 

12.9.7.3 Joints made within or between smoke barriers shall 
be protected with a smoke-tight joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [101:8.5.6.3] 

12.9.7.4 Smoke barriers that are also constructed as fire bar- 
riers shall be protected with ajoint system that is designed and 
tested to resist the spread of fire for a time period equal to the 
required fire resistance rating of the assembly and restrict the 
transfer of smoke. [101:8.5.6.4] 



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12.9.7.5 Testing of the joint system in a smoke barrier that 
also serves as fire barrier shall be representative of the actual 
installation suitable for the required engineering demand 
without compromising the fire resistance rating of the assem- 
bly or the structural integrity of the assembly. [101:8.5.6.5] 



Chapter 13 Fire Protection Systems 

13.1 General. 

13.1.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to require that con- 
struction documents for all fire protection systems be submit- 
ted for review and approval and a permit be issued prior to the 
installation, rehabilitation, or modification. (For additional in- 
formation concerning construction documents, see Section 1. 14. ) Fur- 
ther, the AHJ shall have the authority to require that full ac- 
ceptance tests of the systems be performed in the authority's 
presence prior to final system certification. 

13.1.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

13.1.2 The property owner shall be responsible for the proper 
testing and maintenance of the equipment and systems. 

13.1.3 Obstructions shall not be placed or kept near fire hy- 
drants, fire department inlet connections, or fire protection 
system control valves in a manner that would prevent such 
equipment or fire hydrants from being immediately visible 

and accessible. 

13.1.4 Aminimum clear space shall be maintained to permit 
access to and operation of fire protection equipment, fire de- 
partment inlet connections, or fire protection system control 
valves, as approved by the AHJ. The fire department shall not 
be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to 
fire protection equipment. 

13.1.5 Detailed records documenting all systems and equip- 
ment testing and maintenance shall be kept by the property 
owner and shall be made available upon request for review by 
the AHJ. 

13.1.6 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.7 and 
10.3.2. 

13.1.7 All fire protection systems and devices shall be main- 
tained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced 
or repaired where defective. 

13.1.8 The AHJ shall be notified when any fire protection 
system is out of service and on restoration of service. 

13.1.9 When a fire protection system is out of service for 
more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the AHJ shall be per- 
mitted to require the building to be evacuated or an approved 
fire watch to be provided for all portions left unprotected by 
the fire protection system shutdown until the fire protection 
system has been returned to service. 

13.1.10 In the event of a failure of a fire protection system or 
an excessive number of accidental activations, the AHJ shall be 
permitted to require an approved fire watch until the system is 
repaired. 

13.1.11* For occupancies of an especially hazardous nature or 
where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazard 
of the occupancy, or where access for fire apparatus is unduly 
difficult, or where the size or configuration of the building or 



contents limits normal fire suppression efforts, the AHJ shall 
have the authority to require additional safeguards consisting 
of additional fire safety equipment, more than one type of fire 
safety equipment, or special systems suitable for the protec- 
tion of the hazard involved. 

13.2 Standpipe Systems. 

13.2.1 General. The design and installation of standpipe sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems. 

13.2.2 Where Required. 

13.2.2.1 Where required by this Code or the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 2, standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with 13.2.1. 

13.2.2.2 New buildings shall be equipped with a Class I stand- 
pipe system installed in accordance with the provisions of Sec- 
tion 13.2 and NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe 
and Hose Systems, where any of the following conditions exist: 

(1) More than three stories above grade 

(2) More than 50 ft (15 m) above grade and containing inter- 
mediate stories or balconies 

(3) More than one story below grade 

(4) More than 20 ft (6.1 m) below grade 

13.2.2.3 High-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by 
a Class I standpipe system in accordance with Section 13.2. 
[101:11.8.2.2] 

13.2.2.4* Regular stages over 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in area and all 
legitimate stages shall be equipped with IV2 in. (38 mm) hose 
lines for first aid fire fighting at each side of the stage. 
[101:12.4.5.12.1; 101:13.4.5.12.1] 

13.2.2.4.1 Hose connections shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, unless 
Class II or Class III standpipes in accordance with NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems are 
used. [101:12.4.5.12.2; 101:13.4.5.12.2] 

13.2.2.5 New and Existing Detention and Correctional Facili- 
ties. Standpipe and hose systems shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 9.7.4.2 of NFPA 101 as follows, unless otherwise 
permitted by 13.2.2.5.1: 

(1) Class I standpipe systems shall be provided for any build- 
ing over two stories in height. 

(2) Class III standpipe and hose systems shall be provided for 
all nonsprinklered buildings over two stories in height. 
[101:22.3.5.5.2; 101:23.3.5.5.2] 

13.2.2.5.1 The requirements of 13.2.2.5 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Formed hose, 1 in. (25 mm) in diameter, on hose reels 
shall be permitted to provide Class II service. 

(2) Separate Class I and Class II systems shall be permitted in 
lieu of a Class III system. [101:22.3.5.6; 101:23.3.5.6 ] 

13.2.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.2.3.1 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. 

13.2.3.2 The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the 
standpipe system and keeping it in good working condition. 



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13.2.3.3 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Mainte- 
nance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

13.2.3.4 Existing Systems. Where an existing standpipe sys- 
tem, including yard piping and fire department connection, is 
modified, the new piping shall be tested in accordance with 
9.4.1 of NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and 
Hose Systems. [14:9.4.3] 

13.3 Automatic Sprinklers. 

13.3.1 General. 

13.3.1.1* Automatic sprinklers shall be installed and maintained 
in full operating condition in the occupancies specified in this 
Code or in the codes or standards referenced in Chapter 2. 

13.3.1.2 Installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems; NFPA 13R, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupan- 
cies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, orNFPA13D, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, as appropriate. 

13.3.1.3 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.7 
and 10.3.2. 

13.3.1.4 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers 
for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be con- 
nected direcdy to a domestic water supply system having a capac- 
ity sufficient to provide 0.15 gal/min/ft 2 (6.1 L/min/m 2 ) of 
floor area throughout the entire enclosed area. An indicating 
shutoff valve, supervised in accordance withl3.3.1.7 or NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall be installed in 
an accessible, visible, location between the sprinklers and the 
connection to the domestic water supply. [101:9. 7.1.2] 

13.3.1.5* In areas protected by automatic sprinklers, auto- 
matic heat-detection devices required by other sections of this 
Code shall be permitted to be omitted. [101:9.7.1.3] 

13.3.1.6 Automatic sprinkler systems installed to make use of 
an alternative permitted by this Code shall be considered re- 
quired systems and shall meet the provisions of this Code that 
apply to required systems. [101:9.7.1.4] 

13.3.1.7 Supervision. 

13.3.1.7.1* Supervisory Signals. Where supervised automatic 
sprinkler systems are required by another section of this Code, 
supervisory attachments shall be installed and monitored for 
integrity in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm 
Code 9 , and a distinctive supervisory signal shall be provided to 
indicate a condition that would impair the satisfactory opera- 
tion of the sprinkler system. System components and param- 
eters that shall be monitored shall include, but shall not be 
limited to, control valves, fire pump power supplies and run- 
ning conditions, water tank levels and temperatures, tank 
pressure, and air pressure on dry-pipe valves. Supervisory sig- 
nals shall sound and shall be displayed either at a location 
within the protected building that is constandy attended by 
qualified personnel or at an approved, remotely located re- 
ceiving facility. [101:9.7.2.1] 

13.3.1.7.2 Alarm Signal Transmission. Where supervision of 
automatic sprinkler systems is provided in accordance with 
another provision of this Code, waterflow alarms shall be trans- 



mitted to an approved, proprietary alarm receiving facility, a 
remote station, a central station, or the fire department. Such 
connection shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:9.7.2.2] 

13.3.2 Where Required. 

13.3.2.1 Where required by this Codeor the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 2, automatic sprinkler systems 
shall be installed in accordance with 13.3.1. 

13.3.2.2 Basements exceeding 2500 ft 2 (232.3 m 2 ) in new 
buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

13.3.2.3 New fire stations shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic fire sprinkler systems. 

13.3.2.4 New Assembly Occupancies. 

13.3.2.4.1 Buildings containing assembly occupancies with 
occupant loads of more than 300 shall be protected by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3 of this Code as follows (see also 12.1.6, 
12.2.6, 12.3.2, and 12.3.6 of NFPA 101): 

( 1 ) Throughout the story containing the assembly occupancy 

(2) Throughout all stories below the story containing the as- 
sembly occupancy 

(3) In the case of an assembly occupancy located below the 
level of exit discharge, throughout all stories intervening 
between that story and the level of exit discharge, includ- 
ing the level of exit discharge [101:12.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.4.2 The requirements of 13.3.2.4.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies used primarily for worship with 
fixed seating that are not part of a multiple occupancy 
protected as a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14 of NFPA 101) 

(2)*Assembly occupancies consisting of a single multipurpose 
room of less than 12,000 ft 2 (1115 m 2 ) that are not used for 
exhibition or display and are not part of a mixed occupancy 

(3) Gymnasiums, skating rinks, and swimming pools used ex- 
clusively for participant sports with no audience facilities 
for more than 300 persons 

(4) In the following locations in stadia and arenas: 

(a) Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 

(b) Over the seating areas 

(c) Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 

(5) In the following areas in unenclosed stadia and arenas: 

(a) In press boxes less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(b) In storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) if en- 
closed with not less than Thour fire resistance-rated 
construction 

(c) In enclosed areas underneath grandstands that com- 
ply with 12.4.8.5 of NFPA 101 [101:12.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.4.3 Where another provision of Chapter 12 of NFPA 101 
requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall 
be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101. 
[101:12.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.4.4 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in compli- 
ance with Section 13.3. [101:12.4.5.10] 



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13.3.2.4.4.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the 
stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing 
rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. 
[101:12.4.5.10.1] 

13.3.2.4.4.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 
1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) or less in area and 50 ft (15 m) or less in 
height where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a single 
main curtain, and a single backdrop. [101:12.4.5.10.2] 

13.3.2.4.4.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage ar- 
eas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used 
exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside 
with % in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. [101:12.4.5.10.3] 

13.3.2.5 Existing Assembly Occupancies. 

13.3.2.5.1 Any assembly occupancy used or capable of being 
used for exhibition or display purposes shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3 where the exhibition or display 
area exceeds 15,000 ft 2 (1400 m 2 ). [101:13.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.5.2 The sprinklers specified by 13.3.2.5.1 shall not be 
required where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) In stadia and arenas: 

(a) Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 

(b) Over the seating areas 

(c) Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 

(2) In the following areas in unenclosed stadia and arenas: 

(a) Press boxes less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(b) Storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) if enclosed 
with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply 
with 13.4.8.5 of NFPA 101 [101:13.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.5.3 Where another provision of this chapter requires an 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be installed 
in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101. [101:13.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.5.4 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in compliance with 
Section 13.3. [101:13.4.5.10] 

13.3.2.5.4.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the 
stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing 
rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. 
[101:13.4.5.10.1] 

13.3.2.5.4.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 1000 ft 2 
(93 m 2 ) or less in area where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a single 
main curtain, and a single backdrop. [101:13.4.5.10.2] 

13.3.2.5.4.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage ar- 
eas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used 



exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside 
with Vs in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. [101:13.4.5.10.3] 

13.3.2.6 New Educational Occupancies. 

13.3.2.6.1 Every portion of educational buildings below the 
level of exit discharge shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [101:14.3.5.1]. 

13.3.2.6.2 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [101:14.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.6.3 Where another provision of Chapter 14 of 
NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprin- 
kler system shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1 (1) of 
NFPA 101. [101:14.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.7 Existing Educational Occupancies. 

13.3.2.7.1 Where student occupancy exists below the level of 
exit discharge, every portion of such floor shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3. [101:15.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.7.2 Where student occupancy does not exist on floors 
below the level of exit discharge, such floors shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction or shall be protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[101:15.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.7.3 Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be re- 
quired where student occupancy exists below the level of exit 
discharge, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The approval of the AHJ shall be required. 

(2) Windows for rescue and ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with 15.2.11.1 of NFPA 101. [101:15.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.7.4 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [101:15.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.7.5 Where another provision of Chapter 15 of 
NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprin- 
kler system shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1 (1) of 
NFPA 101. [101:15.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.8 New Health Care Occupancies. 

13.3.2.8.1* Buildings containing health care occupancies 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, un- 
less otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.8.3. [101:18.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.8.2 The sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.8.1 shall 
be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101. 
[101:18.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.8.3 In Type I and Type II construction, alternative pro- 
tection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection without causing a building to be classified as 
nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the AHJ has prohib- 
ited sprinklers. [101:18.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.8.4* Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout smoke compartments contain- 
ing patient sleeping rooms. [101:18.3.5.4] 



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13.3.2.8.5* Sprinklers in areas where cubicle curtains are in- 
stalled shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. [101:18.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.9 Existing Health Came Qccuipancies. 

13.3.2.9.1 Where required by 19.1.6 of NFPA 101, health care 
facilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.9.3. 
[101:19.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.9.2 In Type I and Type II construction, alternative pro- 
tection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection, without causing a building to be classified as 
nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the AHJ has prohib- 
ited sprinklers. [101:19.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.9.3* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered buildings or smoke compartments, the sprinkler system 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of 
NFPA 101 unless it is an approved existing system. 

(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 

(5) In Type I and Type II construction, where the AHJ has 
prohibited sprinklers, approved alternative protection 
measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection in specified areas without causing a build- 
ing to be classified as nonsprinklered. [101:19.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.9.4* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered buildings or smoke compartments and specifically ref- 
erences this paragraph, the sprinkler system shall meet the 
following criteria: 

(1) It shall be installed throughout the building in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of 
NFPA 101 unless it is an approved existing system. 

(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 

(5) It shall be equipped with listed quick-response or listed 
residential sprinklers throughout all smoke compart- 
ments containing patient sleeping rooms. 

(6) Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted to be 
continued to be used in approved existing sprinkler sys- 
tems where quick-response and residential sprinklers 
were not listed for use in such locations at the time of 
installation. 

(7) Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted for use in 
hazardous areas protected in accordance with 19.3.2.1 of 
NFPA 101. [101:19.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.9.5 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101. For new 
installations in existing health care occupancies, where more 
than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow 
detection shall be provided to sound the building fire alarm, 
or to notify by a signal, any constantly attended location, such 
as PBX, security, or emergency room, at which the necessary 
corrective action shall be taken. [101:19.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.9.6* Newly introduced cubicle curtains in sprinklered 
areas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. [101:19.3.5.6] 



13.3.2.10 New Detention and Conrection Facilities. 

13.3.2.10.1 All buildings classified as Use Condition II, Use 
Condition III, Use Condition IV, or Use Condition V shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.10.2. [101:22.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.10.2 The automatic sprinkler system required by 

13.3.2.10.1 shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 13.3 

(2) Installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1 (1) of NFPA 101 

(3) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(4) Fully supervised [101:22.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.11 Existing Detention and Connectional Facilities. 

13.3.2.11.1* Where required by Table 23.1.6.5 of NFPA 101, 
facilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 

13.3.2.11.2. [101:23.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.11.2 Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered detention and correctional occupancies or sprinklered 
smoke compartments, the sprinkler system shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 13.3 

(2) Installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101 

(3) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(4) Fully supervised [101:23.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.12 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.3.2.12.1 All buildings other than those complying with 

13.3.2.12.2 shall be protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 

13.3.2.12.3. [101:28.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.12.2 Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be re- 
quired in buildings where all guest sleeping rooms or guest 
suites have a door opening direcdy to either of the following: 

(1) The outside at the street or grade level 

(2) Exterior exit access arranged in accordance with 7.5.3 of 
NFPA 101 in buildings up to and including three stories in 
height above grade. [101:28.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.12.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in 
accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.12.4; in 
buildings up to and including four stories in height above grade, 
systems in accordance with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four 
Stories in Height, shall be permitted. [101:28.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.12.4 The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems, shall not be required for openings complying with 
8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the opening is within the guest 
room or guest suite. [101:28.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.12.5 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout guest rooms and guest room 
suites. [101:28.3.5.5] 

13.3.2. 12.S Open parking structures that comply with 
NFPA 88A, Standard for Parking Structures, and are contiguous 
with hotels or dormitories shall be exempt from the sprinkler 
requirements of 13.3.2.12.1. [101:28.3.5.6] 



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13.3.2.13 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.3.2.13.1 All high-rise buildings, other than those where 
each guest room or guest suite has exterior exit access in ac- 
cordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101, shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 13.3.2.12.3. [201:29.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.13.2* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.13.3 
and 13.3.2.13.4; in buildings up to and including four stories 
in height above grade, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Oc- 
cupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, shall be per- 
mitted. [107:29.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.13.3 The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems, shall not be required for openings complying with 
8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the opening is within the guest 
room or guest suite. [201:29.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.13.4 In guest rooms and in guest room suites, sprinkler 
installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 
(2.2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ). 
[101:29.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.14 New Apartment Buildings. 

13.3.2.14.1 All buildings, other than those complying with 
13.3.2.14.2, shall be protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with 13.3.2.14.2. [101:30.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.14.2 Sprinkler systems shall not be required in buildings 
where every dwelling unit complies with one of the following: 

(1) An exit door opening directly to the street or yard at 
ground level 

(2) Direct access to an outside stair that complies with 7.2.2 of 
NFPA 101 and serves a maximum of two units, both lo- 
cated on the same floor 

(3) Direct access to an interior stair serving only that unit and 
separated from all other portions of the building by fire 
barriers having a 1-hour fire resistance rating with no 
openings therein [101:30.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.14.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 

13.3.2.14.4 and 13.3.2.14.5. In buildings up to and including 
four stories in height above grade, systems in accordance with 
NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Resi- 
dential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, shall 
be permitted. [101:30.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.14.4 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, closets 
less than 12 ft 2 (1.1 m 2 ) in area in individual dwelling units 
shall not be required to be sprinklered. Closets that contain 
equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters 
shall be sprinklered regardless of size. [101:30.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.14.5 The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler re- 
quirements of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems, shall not be required for convenience openings com- 
plying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the convenience open- 
ing is within the dwelling unit. [101:30.3.5.5] 



13.3.2.14.6 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout all dwelling units. [101:30.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.14.7 Open parking structures complying with 
NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, that are contiguous 
with apartment buildings shall be exempt from the sprinkler 
requirements of 13.3.2.14.1. [101:30.3.5.7] 

13.3.2.14.8 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 30.3.5 of NFPA 101. [101:30.3.5.8] 

13.3.2.15 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

13.3.2.15.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 
13.3.2.15.2 and 13.3.2.15.3. In buildings up to and including 
four stories in height above grade, systems in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Resi- 
dential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, shall 
be permitted. [101:31.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.15.2 In individual dwelling units, sprinkler installation 
shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) 
and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ). Closets that 
contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water 
heaters shall be sprinklered regardless of size. [101:31.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.15.3 The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler re- 
quirements of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems, shall not be required for convenience openings com- 
plying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the convenience open- 
ing is within the dwelling unit. [101:31.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.15.4 Buildings using Option 3 shall be provided with 
the following: 

(1) Automatic sprinklers in the corridor along the corridor 
ceiling 

(2) An automatic sprinkler within any dwelling unit that has a 
door opening to the corridor, with such sprinkler posi- 
tioned over the center of the door, unless the door to the 
dwelling unit has not less than a 20-minute fire protection 
rating and is self-closing [101:31.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.15.5 The sprinkler installation required in 13.3.2.15.4 
shall meet the requirements of Section B.3 in terms of work- 
manship and materials. [101:31.3.5.7] 

13.3.2.15.6 The installation of the corridor sprinklers re- 
quired in 13.3.2.15.4 shall not exceed the maximum spacing 
and protection area requirements of the installation standards 
referenced in 13.3.2.15.1. [101:31.3.5.8] 

13.3.2.15.7 Buildings using Option 4 shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with 13.3.2.15.1 and meeting the requirements of 
Section 13.3 for supervision for buildings more than six stories 
in height. [101:31.3.5.9] 

13.3.2.16 Lodging and Rooming Houses. 

13.3.2.16.1 All new lodging or rooming houses, other than 
those meeting 13.3.2.16.2, shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
13.3.2.16.3. [101:26.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.16.2 An automatic sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired where every sleeping room has a door opening direcdy 
to the outside of the building at street or ground level, or has a 



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door opening directly to the outside leading to an exterior 
stairway that meets the requirements of 26.2.1.1 of NFPA 101. 
[101:26.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.16.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is required 
or is used as an alternative method of protection, either for 
total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3 of this Code and 26.3.5.3.1 through 
26.3.5.3.6 of NFPA 101. [101:26.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.16.3.1 Activation of the automatic sprinkler system 
shall actuate the fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:26.3.5.3.1] 

13.3.2.16.3.2 Systems in accordance with NFPA 13R, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to 
and Including Four Stories in Height, shall be permitted in buildings 
up to and including four stories in height. [101:26.3.5.3.2] 

13.3.2.16.3.3* Systems in accordance with NFPA 13D, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, shall be permitted where 
the following requirements are met: 

(1) The lodging or rooming house shall not be part of a 
mixed occupancy. 

(2) Entrance foyers shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Lodging or rooming houses with sleeping accommoda- 
tions for more than eight occupants shall be treated as 
two-family dwellings with regard to the water supply. 
[101:26.3.5.3.3] 

13.3.2.16.3.4 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, closets 
less than 12 ft 2 (1.1 m 2 ) in area in individual dwelling units 
shall not be required to be sprinklered. [101:26.3.5.3.4] 

13.3.2.16.3.5 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, closets that contain equipment such as washers, dry- 
ers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered regardless 
of size. [101:26.3.5.3.5] 

13.3.2.16.3.6 In existing lodging or rooming houses, sprinkler 
installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 
(2.2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ). 
[101:26.3.5.3.6] 

13.3.2.17 New Residential Board and Care Facilities. 

13.3.2.17.1 Large Facilities. 

13.3.2.17.1.1 All buildings shall be protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with 9.7.1.1 (1) of NFPA 101 and provided with quick-response or 
residential sprinklers throughout. [101:32.3.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.17.1.2 Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided 
with electrical supervision in accordance with 9.7.2 of 
NFPA 101. [101:32.3.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.17.2 Small Facilities. 

13.3.2.17.2.1* All facilities, other than those meeting 
13.3.2.17.2.2, shall be protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with 13.3.2.17.2.3 using quick response or residential sprin- 
klers. [101:32.2.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.17.2.2* In conversions, sprinklers shall not be required 
in small board and care homes, serving eight or fewer resi- 
dents, when all occupants have the ability as a group to move 
reliably to a point of safety within 3 minutes. [101:32.2.3.5.2] 



13.3.2.17.2.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is in- 
stalled, for either total or partial building coverage, the follow- 
ing requirements shall be met: 

( 1 ) The system shall be in accordance with NFPA 1 3, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and shall initiate the fire 
alarm system in accordance with 32.2.3.4.1 of NFPA 101. 

(2) The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to 
theAHJ. [101:32.2.3.5.3] 

(A) An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Resi- 
dential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, shall 
be permitted in facilities up to and including four stories in 
height. All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 
[101:32.2.3.5.3.1] 

(B)* An automatic sprinkler system with a 30-minute water 
supply, and complying with the following requirements and 
with NFPA 1 3D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, shall be 
permitted: 

(1) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(2) Facilities with more than eight residents shall be treated 
as two-family dwellings with regard to water supply. 

[101:32.2.3.5.3.2] 

13.3.2.17.2.4 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, and NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height, shall be provided with electrical supervision in accor- 
dance with 9.7.2 of NFPA 101. [101:32.2.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.17.2.5 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured 
Homes, shall be provided with valve supervision by one of the 
following methods: 

(1) A single listed control valve that shuts off both domestic 
and sprinkler systems and a separate shutoff for the do- 
mestic system only 

(2) Electrical supervision in accordance with 9.7.2 of NFPA 101 

(3) Valve closure that causes the sounding of an audible sig- 
nal in the facility [101:32.2.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.17.2.6 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six 
sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted 
to be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101 and 
shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are 
installed in a single area, water flow detection shall be 
provided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 
32.2.3.4.1 of NFPA 101. 

(2) Duration of water supplies shall be as required by 
13.3.2.17.2.2. [101:32.2.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.18 Existing Residential Board and Care Facilities. 

13.3.2.18.1 Large Facilities. 

13.3.2.18.1.1* Automatic Extinguishment Systems. Where an 
automatic sprinkler system is installed for either total or par- 
tial building coverage, the system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.18.1.1(A) 
through 13.3.2.18.1.1(C). [101:33.3.3.5.1] 



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(A) In buildings not more than four stories in height, a sprin- 
kler system complying with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and IncludingFour 
Stories in Height, shall be permitted. [101:33.3.3.5.1.1] 

(B) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets not 
exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 
(5.1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and 
plaster or materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier. 
[101:33.3.3.5.1.2] 

(C) Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be required 
for existing installations in accordance with 13,3.2.18.1. 
[101:33.3.3.5.1.3] 

13.3.2.18.1.2 All high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with 13.3.2.18.1, as modified by 
13.3.2.18.1.4. Such systems shall initiate the fire alarm system 
in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. [101:33.3.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.18.1.3 Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in 
small clothes closets where the smallest dimension does not ex- 
ceed 36 in. (915 mm), the area does not exceed 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ), 
and the walls and ceiling are finished with noncombustible or 
limited-combustible materials. [101:33.3.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.18.1.4 Automatic sprinkler systems shall be supervised 
in accordance with Section 13.3; waterflow alarms shall not be 
required to be transmitted off-site. [101:33.3.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.18.1.5 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six 
sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area in accordance with 
13.3.1.2 shall be permitted. In new installations where more 
than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow 
detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm system 
required by 13.7.2.16.2.1. [101:33.3.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.18.2 Small Facilities. 

13.3.2.18.2.1 Where an automatic sprinkler system is in- 
stalled, for either total or partial building coverage, the follow- 
ing requirements shall be met: 

(1) The system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3 and 
shall activate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
33.2.3.4.1 of NFPA 101, modified by 13.3.2.18.2.1(A) 
through 13.3.2.18.2.1(F). 

(2) The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to 
theAHJ. [101:33.2.3.5.2] 

(A)* In prompt evacuation capability facilities, the following 
requirements shall be met: 

(1) An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 
shall be permitted. 

(2) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets not 
exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not exceed- 
ing 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ) , provided that such spaces are finished 
with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute 
thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.2.1] 

(B) In slow and impractical evacuation capability facilities, 
the following requirements shall be met: 

(1) An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 
with a 30-minute water supply, shall be permitted. 



(2) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms 
not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 
15-minute thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.2.2] 

(C) In prompt and slow evacuation facilities, where an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, sprinklers shall not be 
required in closets not exceeding 24 ft (2.2 m 2 ) and in bath- 
rooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ), provided that such 
spaces are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing 
a 15-minute thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.2.3] 

(D) In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities up to 
and including four stories in height, systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler 
Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories 
in Height, shall be permitted. [101:33.2.3.5.2.4] 

(E) In impractical evacuation capability facilities up to and 
including four stories in height, the following requirements 
shall be met: 

( 1 ) Systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up 
to and IncludingFour Stories in Height, shall be permitted. 

(2) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms 
not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 
15-minute thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.2.5] 

(F) Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for 
any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be installed 
in accordance with 9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101 and shall meet the 
requirements of the following: 

(1) In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are 
installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be pro- 
vided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 
33.2.3.4.1 of NFPA 101. 

(2) Duration of water supplies shall be as required for the 
sprinkler system addressed in 33.2.3.5.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:33.2.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.19 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.3.2.19.1 Mercantile occupancies shall be protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.3 as follows: 

(1) Throughout all mercantile occupancies three or more 
stories in height 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
12,000 ft 2 (1115 m 2 ) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where 
such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft 2 (230 m 2 ) used 
for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods and 
merchandise 

(4) Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed oc- 
cupancies in accordance with 6.1.14 of NFPA 101 where 
the conditions of 13.3.2.18.1(1), (2), or (3) apply to the 
mercantile occupancy [101:36.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.19.2 Automatic sprinkler systems in Class A mercantile 
occupancies shall be supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.7. 
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13.3.2.19.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the ap- 
plicable provisions of the following: 

( 1 ) NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage 
[701:36.4.5.5] 

13.3.2.20 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.3.2.20.1 Mercantile occupancies, other than single-story 
buildings that meet the requirements of a street floor as de- 
fined in 3.3.216 of NFPA 101, shall be protected by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101 as follows: 

(1) Throughout all mercantile occupancies with a story over 
15,000 ft 2 (1400 m 2 ) in area 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
30,000 ft 2 (2800 m 2 ) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where 
such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft 2 (232 m 2 ) and 
used for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods 
and merchandise 

(4) Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed oc- 
cupancies in accordance with 6.1.14 of NFPA 101 where 
the conditions of 13.3.2.20.1(1), (2), or (3) apply to the 
mercantile occupancy [101:37.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.20.2 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the ap- 
plicable provisions of the following: 

(1) NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage 
[101:37.4.5.5] 

13.3.2.21 Underground and Wiindowless Structures. Under- 
ground and limited access structures, and all areas and floor 
levels traversed in traveling to the exit discharge, shall be pro- 
tected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 13.3, unless such structures meet 
one of the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They have an occupant load of 50 or fewer persons in new 
underground or limited access portions of the structure. 

(2) They have an occupant load of 100 or fewer persons in 
existing underground or limited access portions of the 
structure. 

(3) The structure is a single-story underground or limited ac- 
cess structure that is permitted to have a single exit per 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 NFPA 101, with a com- 
mon path of travel not greater than 50 ft (15 m). 
[101:11.7.3.4] 

13.3.2.22 HigJi-Rise Buildings. 

13.3.2.22.1 New high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 13. 



13.3.2.22.2* Existing high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with this chapter, 13.3.2.22.2.1 and 13.3.2.22.2.2. 

13.3.2.22.2.1 Each building owner shall, within 180 days of 
receiving notice, file an intent to comply with this regulation 
with the AHJ for approval. 

13.3.2.22.2.2 The AHJ shall review and respond to the intent 
to comply submittal within 60 days of receipt. 

13.3.2.22.2.3* The entire building shall be required to be pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system within 12 years 
of adoption of this Code. 

13.3.2.23* New Storage Occupancies. 

13.3.2.23.1 High-Piled Storage. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing 
areas greater than 2500 ft 2 (232 m 2 ) for the high-piled storage 
of combustibles. 

13.3.2.23.2* General Storage. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing areas 
greater than 12,000 ft 2 (1115 m 2 ) for the storage of combustibles. 

13.3.2.23.3 An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
throughout all occupancies containing storage commodities 
classified as Group A Plastics in excess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in height 
over an area exceeding 2500 ft 2 (232 m 2 ) in area. 

13.3.2.24 New and Existing Day Care. Buildings with unpro- 
tected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:16.3.5.3; 
101:17.3.5.3] 

13.3.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.3.3.1 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. The owner 
shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it 
in good working condition. 

13.3.3.2 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Mainte- 
nance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

13.3.3.3 Responsibility of the Owner or Occupant. 

13.3.3.3.1* The owner or occupant shall provide ready acces- 
sibility to components of water-based fire protection systems 
that require inspection, testing, or maintenance. [25:4.1.1] 

13.3.3.3.2* The responsibility for properly maintaining a 
water-based fire protection system shall be that of the owner of 
the property. [25:4.1.2] 

13.3.3.3.2.1 By means of periodic inspections, tests, and 
maintenance, the equipment shall be shown to be in good 
operating condition, or any defects or impairments shall be 
revealed. [25:4.1.2.1] 

13.3.3.3.2.2 Inspection, testing, and maintenance shall be 
implemented in accordance with procedures meeting or ex- 
ceeding those established in this document and in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. [25:4.1.2.2] 



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13.3.3.3.2.3 These tasks shall be performed by personnel 
who have developed competence through training and expe- 
rience. [25:4.1.2.3] 

13.3.3.3.2.4 Where the owner is not the occupant, the owner 
shall be permitted to pass on the authority for inspecting, testing, 
and maintaining the fire protection systems to the occupant, 
management firm, or managing individual through specific pro- 
visions in the lease, written use agreement, or management con- 
tract. [25:4.1.2.4] 

13.3.3.3.3 The owner or occupant shall notify the AHJ, the 
fire department, if required, and the alarm-receiving facility 
before testing or shutting down a system or its supply. 

[25:4.1.3] 

13.3.3.3.3.1 The notification shall include the purpose for 
the shutdown, the system or component involved, and the es- 
timated time of shutdown. [25:4.1.3.1] 

13.3.3.3.3.2 The AHJ, the fire department, and the alarm- 
receiving facility shall be notified when the system, supply, or 
component is returned to service. [25:4.1.3.2] 

13.3.3.3.3.3 Where an occupant, management firm, or manag- 
ing individual has received the authority for inspection, testing, 
and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.3.2.4, the occupant, 
management firm, or managing individual shall comply with 

13.3.3.3.3. [25:4.1.3.3] 

13.3.3.3.4* The owner or occupant shall prompdy correct or 
repair deficiencies, damaged parts, or impairments found 
while performing the inspection, test, and maintenance re- 
quirements of this Code. [25:4.1.4] 

13.3.3.3.4.1 Corrections and repairs shall be performed by 
qualified maintenance personnel or a qualified contractor. 
[25:4.1.4.1] 

13.3.3.3.4.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or manag- 
ing individual has received the authority for inspection, testing, 
and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.3.2.4, the occupant, 
management firm, or managing individual shall comply with 

13.3.3.3.4. [25:4.1.4.2] 

13.3.3.3.5* The building owner or occupant shall not make 
changes in the occupancy, the use or process, or the materials 
used or stored in the building without evaluation of the fire 
protection systems for their capability to protect the new occu- 
pancy, use, or materials. [25:4.1.5] 

13.3.3.3.5.1 The evaluation shall consider factors that in- 
clude, but are not limited to, the following: 

(1) Occupancy changes such as converting office or produc- 
tion space into warehousing 

(2) Process or material changes such as metal stamping of 
molded plastics 

(3) Building revisions such as relocated walls, added mezza- 
nines, and ceilings added below sprinklers 

(4) Removal of heating systems in spaces with piping subject 
to freezing [25:4.1.5.1] 

13.3.3.3.5.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or man- 
aging individual has received the authority for inspection, test- 
ing, and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.3.2.4, the oc- 
cupant, management firm, or managing individual shall 
comply with 13.3.3.3.5. [25:4.1.5.2] 

13.3.3.3.6 Where changes in the occupancy, hazard, water 
supply, storage commodity, storage arrangement, building 



modification, or other condition that affects the installation 
criteria of the system are identified, the owner or occupant 
shall promptly take steps, such as contacting a qualified con- 
tractor, consultant, or engineer, to evaluate the adequacy of 
the installed system in order to protect the building or hazard 
in question. [25:4.1.6] 

13.3.3.3.6.1 Where the evaluation reveals a deficiency caus- 
ing a threat to life or property, the owner shall make appropri- 
ate corrections. All requirements of the AHJ shall be followed. 
[25:4.1.6.1] 

13.3.3.3.6.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or manag- 
ing individual has received the authority for inspection, testing, 
and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.3.2.4, the occupant, 
management firm, or managing individual shall comply with 
13.3.3.3.6. [25:4.1.6.2] 

13.3.3.3.7 Where a water-based fire protection system is re- 
turned to service following an impairment, the system shall be 
verified to be working properly. [25:4.1.7] 

13.3.3.4 Records. 

13.3.3.4.1* Records of inspections, tests, and maintenance of 
the system and its components shall be made available to the 
AHJ upon request. [25:4.3.1] 

13.3.3.4.2 Records shall indicate the procedure performed 
(e.g., inspection, test, or maintenance), the organization that 
performed the work, the results, and the date. [25:4.3.2] 

13.3.3.4.3 Records shall be maintained by the owner. 
[25:4.3.3] 

13.3.3.4.4 Original records shall be retained for the life of 
the system. [25:4.3.4] 

13.3.3.4.5 Subsequent records shall be retained for a period 
of 1 year after the next inspection, test, or maintenance re- 
quired by the standard. [25:4.3.5] 

13.3.3.5 Buildings. Annually, prior to the onset of freezing 
weather, buildings with wet pipe systems shall be inspected to 
verify that windows, skylights, doors, ventilators, other open- 
ings and closures, blind spaces, unused attics, stair towers, roof 
houses, and low spaces under buildings do not expose water- 
filled sprinkler piping to freezing and to verify that adequate 
heat [minimum 40°F (4.4°C)] is available. [25:5.2.5] 

13.3.3.6 Spare Sprinklers. 

13.3.3.6.1* Asupply of spare sprinklers (never fewer than six) 
shall be maintained on the premises so that any sprinklers that 
have operated or been damaged in any way can be prompdy 
replaced. [25:5.4.1.4] 

13.3.3.6.1.1 The sprinklers shall correspond to the types and 
temperature ratings of the sprinklers in the property. 
[25:5.4.1.4.1] 

13.3.3.6.1.2 The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located 
where the temperature in which they are subjected will at no 
time exceed 100°F (38°C). [25:5.4.1.4.2] 

13.3.3.6.1.3 Where dry sprinklers of different lengths are in- 
stalled, spare dry sprinklers shall not be required, provided 
that a means of returning the system to service is furnished. 
[25:5.4.1.4.2.1] 

13.3.3.6.2 The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types 
and ratings installed and shall be as follows: 



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( 1 ) For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 6 sprinklers 

(2) For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — 
no fewer than 12 sprinklers 

(3) For protected facilities having over 1000 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 24 sprinklers [25:5.4.1.5] 

13.3.3.6.3* A special sprinkler wrench shall be provided and 
kept in the cabinet to be used in the removal and installation 
of sprinklers. One sprinkler wrench shall be provided for each 
type of sprinkler installed. [25:5.4.1.6] 

13.3.3.7 Sprinklers protecting spray coating areas shall be 
protected against overspray residue. [25:5.4.1.7] 

13.3.3.7.1 Sprinklers subject to overspray accumulations 
shall be protected using plastic bags having a maximum thick- 
ness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or shall be protected with small 
paper bags. [25:5.4.1.7.1] 

13.3.3.7.2 Coverings shall be replaced when deposits or resi- 
due accumulate. [25:5.4.1.7.2] 

13.3.3.8* Sprinklers shall not be altered in any respect or have 
any type of ornamentation, paint, or coatings applied after 
shipment from the place of manufacture. [25:5.4.1.8] 

13.3.3.9 Sprinklers and automatic spray nozzles used for pro- 
tecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilating 
systems shall be replaced annually. [25:5.4.1.9] 

13.3.3.9.1 Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray 
nozzles are used and annual examination shows no buildup of 
grease or other material on the sprinklers or spray nozzles, 
such sprinklers and spray nozzles shall not be required to be 
replaced. [25:5.4.1.9.1] 

13.3.3.10* Dry Pipe Systems. Dry pipe systems shall be kept 
dry at all times. [25:5.4.2] 

13.3.3.10.1 During nonfreezing weather, a dry pipe system 
shall be permitted to be left wet if the only other option is to 
remove the system from service while waiting for parts or dur- 
ing repair acdvides. [25:5.4.2.1] 

13.3.3.10.2 Air driers shall be maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.2] 

13.3.3.10.3 Compressors used in conjunction with dry pipe 
sprinkler systems shall be maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.3] 

13.3.3.11* Installation and Acceptance Testing. Where mainte- 
nance or repair requires the replacement of sprinkler system 
components affecting more than 20 sprinklers, those compo- 
nents shall be installed and tested in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. [25:5.4.3] 

13.3.4 Impairments. 

13.3.4.1 General. This subsection and Chapter 14 of NFPA 25 
shall provide the minimum requirements for a water-based fire 
protection system impairment program. Measures shall be taken 
during the impairment to ensure that increased risks are mini- 
mized and the duration of the impairment is limited. [25:14.1] 

13.3.4.2 Inipainrnent Coordinator. 

13.3.4.2.1 The building owner shall assign an impairment 
coordinator to comply with the requirements of Chapter 14 of 
NFPA25. [25:14.2.1] 



13.3.4.2.2 In the absence of a specific designee, the owner 
shall be considered the impairment coordinator. [25:14.2.2] 

13.3.4.2.3 Where the lease, written use agreement, or man- 
agement contract specifically grants the authority for inspec- 
tion, testing, and maintenance of the fire protection system (s) 
to the tenant, management firm, or managing individual, the 
tenant, management firm, or managing individual shall assign 
a person as impairment coordinator. [25:14.2.3] 

13.3.4.3 Tag Impainnent System. 

13.3.4.3.1* A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or part 
thereof, has been removed from service. [25:14.3.1] 

13.3.4.3.2* The tag shall be posted at each fire department 
connection and system control valve indicating which system, 
or part thereof, has been removed from service. [25:14.3.2] 

13.3.4.3.3 The AHJ shall specify where the tag is to be placed. 
[25:14.3.3] 

13.3.4.3.4 Iimpaiired Equipment. 

13.3.4.3.4.1 The impaired equipment shall be considered to 
be the water-based fire protection system, or part thereof, that 
is removed from service. [25:14.4.1] 

13.3.4.3.4.2 The impaired equipment shall include, but shall 
not be limited to, the following: 

(1) Sprinkler systems 

(2) Standpipe systems 

(3) Fire hose systems 

(4) Underground fire service mains 

(5) Fire pumps 

(6) Water storage tanks 

(7) Water spray fixed systems 

(8) Foam-water systems 

(9) Fire service control valves [25:14.4.2] 

13.3.4.3.5* Preplanned Impainment Programs. 

13.3.4.3.5.1 All preplanned impairments shall be authorized 
by the impairment coordinator. [25:14.5.1] 

13.3.4.3.5.2 Before authorization is given, the impairment 
coordinator shall be responsible for verifying that the follow- 
ing procedures have been implemented: 

(1) The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

(2) The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and 
the increased risks determined. 

(3) Recommendations have been submitted to management 
or building owner/manager. Where a required fire pro- 
tection system is out of service for more than 4 hours in a 
24-hour period, the impairment coordinator shall ar- 
range for one of the following: 

(a) Evacuation of the building or portion of the building 
affected by the system out of service 

(b) *An approved fire watch 

(c) *Establishment of a temporary water supply 
(d)*Establishment and implementation of an approved 

program to eliminate potential ignition sources and 
limit the amount of fuel available to the fire 

(4) The fire department has been notified. 

(5) The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other AHJs have been notified. 

(6) The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been no- 
tified. 



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(7) A tag impairment system has been implemented. (See 
13.3.4.3.) 

(8) All necessary tools and materials have been assembled on 
the impairment site. [25:14.5.2] 

13.3.4.3.6 Emergency Impairments. 

13.3.4.3.6.1 Emergency impairments include but are not lim- 
ited to system leakage, interruption of water supply, frozen or 
ruptured piping, and equipment failure. [25:14.6.1] 

13.3.4.3.6.2 When emergency impairments occur, emer- 
gency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and 
damage. [25:14.6.2] 

13.3.4.3.6.3 The coordinator shall implement the steps out- 
lined in 13.3.4.3.5. [25:14.6.3] 

13.3.4.3.7 Restoring Systems to Service. When all impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that the following procedures 
have been implemented: 

(1) Any necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operational. The appro- 
priate chapter of this standard shall be consulted for guid- 
ance on the type of inspection and test required. 

(2) Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored. 

(3) The fire department has been advised that protection is 
restored. 

(4) The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm 
company, and other authorities having jurisdiction have 
been advised that protection is restored. 

(5) The impairment tag has been removed. [25:14.7] 

13.4 Fire Pumps. 
13.4.1 General. 

13.4.1.1 Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with NFPA20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary 
Pumps for Fire Protection and Section 13.4. 

13.4.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

13.4.1.3 Existing Installations. Where existing pump installa- 
tions meet the provisions of the standard in effect at the time 
of purchase, they shall be permitted to remain in use provided 
they do not constitute a distinct hazard to life or adjoining 
property. [20:1.2.2] 

13.4.1.4 Other Pumps. Pumps other than those specified in this 
standard and having different design features shall be permitted 
to be installed where such pumps are listed by a testing labora- 
tory. They shall be limited to capacities of less than 500 gpm 
(1892 L/min). [20:1.3] 

13.4.1.5* Approval Required. 

13.4.1.5.1 Stationary pumps shall be selected based on the con- 
ditions under which they are to be installed and used. [20:1.4.1] 

13.4.1.5.2 The pump manufacturer or its designated repre- 
sentative shall be given complete information concerning the 
water and power supply characteristics. [20:1.4.2] 

13.4.1.5.3 A complete plan and detailed data describing 
pump, driver, controller, power supply, fittings, suction and 
discharge connections, and water supply conditions shall be 
prepared for approval. Each pump, driver, controlling equip- 
ment, power supply and arrangement, and water supply shall 



be approved by the AHJ for the specific field conditions en- 
countered. [20:1.4.3] 

13.4. 1 .6 Pump Operation. In the event of fire pump operation, 
qualified personnel shall respond to the fire pump location to 
determine that the fire pump is operating in a satisfactory man- 
ner. [20:1.5] 

13.4.2* Equipment Protection. 

13.4.2.1* The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be pro- 
tected against possible interruption of service through damage 
caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, 
windstorm, freezing, vandalism, and other adverse conditions. 
[20:2.7.1] 

13.4.2.1.1 Indoor fire pump units shall be separated from all 
other areas of the building by 2-hour fire-rated construction. 

Exception No. 1: The pumps outlined in 13.4.2.1.2. 

Exception No. 2: In buildings protected with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems, the separation requirement shall be reduced 
to 1-hour fire-rated construction. [20:2. 7.1.1] 

13.4.2.1.2 Fire pump units located outdoors and fire pump 
installations in buildings other than that building being pro- 
tected by the fire pump shall be located at least 50 ft (15.3 m) 
away from the protected building. Outdoor installations also 
shall be required to be provided with protection against pos- 
sible interruption in accordance with 13.4.2.1. [20:2.7.1.2] 

13.4.2.2 Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining 
the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where re- 
quired, above 40°F (5°C) . 

Exception: See 8. 6. 5 of NFPA 20 for higher temperature requirements 
for internal combustion engines. [20:2. 7.2] 

13.4.2.3 Artificial light shall be provided in a pump room or 
pump house. [20:2.7.3] 

13.4.2.4 Emergency lighting shall be provided by fixed or por- 
table battery-operated lights, including flashlights. Emergency 
lights shall not be connected to an engine-starting battery. 

[20:2.7.4] 

13.4.2.5 Provision shall be made for ventilation of a pump 
room or pump house. [20:2.7.5] 

13.4.2.6* Floors shall be pitched for adequate drainage of es- 
caping water away from critical equipment such as the pump, 
driver, controller, and so forth. The pump room or pump 
house shall be provided with a floor drain that will discharge 
to a frost-free location. [20:2.7.6] 

13.4.2.7 Guards shall be provided for flexible couplings and 
flexible connecting shafts to prevent rotating elements from 
causing injury to personnel. [20:2.7.7] 

13.4.3* Valve Supervision. Where provided, the suction valve, 
discharge valve, bypass valves, and isolation valves on the back- 
flow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open 
by one of the following methods: 

(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling 
service 

(2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended point 

(3) Locking valves open 



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(4) Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures un- 
der the control of the owner 

Exception: The test outlet control valves shall be supervised closed. 
[20:2.11] 

13.4.4* Driver System Operation. 

13.4.4.1 Weekly Rum. Engines shall be started no less than once 
a week and run for no less than 30 minutes to attain normal 
running temperature. They shall run smoothly at rated speed. 

[20:8.6.1]) 

1 3.4.4.2* System Performance. Engines shall be kept clean, dry, 
and well lubricated to ensure adequate performance. [20:8.6.2] 

13.4.4.3 Battery Maintenance. 

13.4.4.3.1 Storage batteries shall be kept charged at all times. 
They shall be tested frequendy to determine the condition of 
the battery cells and the amount of charge in the battery. 

[20:8.6.3.1] 

13.4.4.3.2 Only distilled water shall be used in battery cells. 
The plates shall be kept submerged at all times. [20:8.6.3.2] 

13.4.4.3.3 The automatic feature of a battery charger shall 
not be a substitute for proper maintenance of battery and 
charger. Periodic inspection of both shall be made. This in- 
spection shall determine that the charger is operating cor- 
rectly, the water level in the battery is correct, and the battery is 
holding its proper charge. [20:8.6.3.3] 

13.4.4.4 Fuel Supply Maintenance. The fuel storage tanks 
shall be kept as full as possible at all times, but never less than 
50 percent of tank capacity. The tanks shall always be filled by 
means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign mate- 
rial. [20:8.6.4] 

13.4.4.5* Temperature Maintenance. Temperature of the 
pump room, pump house, or area where engines are installed 
shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the 
engine manufacturer. An engine jacket water heater shall be 
provided to maintain 120°F (49°C). The engine manufacturer's 
recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed. [20:8.6.5] 

13.4.4.6 Emergency Starting and Stopping. The sequence for 
emergency manual operation, arranged in a step-by-step man- 
ner, shall be posted on the fire pump engine. It shall be the 
engine manufacturer's responsibility to list any specific in- 
structions pertaining to the operation of this equipment dur- 
ing the emergency operation. [20:8.6.6] 

13.4.5 Components. 

13.4.5.1 Alarm and Signal Devices om Controller. 

13.4.5.1.1 All visible indicator alarms shall be plainly visible. 
[20:9.4.1.1] 

13.4.5.1.2* Visible indication shall be provided to indicate that 
the controller is in the automatic position. If the visible indicator 
is a pilot lamp, it shall be accessible for replacement. [20:9.4.1.2] 

13.4.5.1.3 Separate visible indicators and a common audible 
alarm capable of being heard while the engine is running and 
operable in all positions of the main switch except off shall be 
provided to indicate trouble caused by the following conditions: 

( 1 ) Critically low oil pressure in the lubrication system. The con- 
troller shall provide means for testing the position of the 
pressure switch contacts without causing trouble alarms. 



(2) High engine jacket coolant temperature. 

(3) Failure of engine to start automatically. 

(4) Shutdown from overspeed. 

(5) Battery failure. Each controller shall be provided with a 
separate visible indicator for each battery. 

(6) Battery charger failure. Each controller shall be provided 
with a separate visible indicator for battery charger failure. 

Exception: The audible alarm shall not be required for battery charger 
failure. 

(7) Low air or hydraulic pressure. Where air or hydraulic 
starting is provided (see 8.2.5 and 8.2.5.4 ofNFPA 20), each 
pressure tank shall provide to the controller separate vis- 
ible indicators to indicate low pressure. [20:9.4.1.3] 

13.4.5.1.4 No audible alarm silencing switch, other than the 
controller main switch, shall be permitted for the alarms re- 
quired in 13.4.5.1.3. [20:9.4.1.4] 

13.4.5.2 Alarm and Signal Devices Remote from Controller. 
Where the pump room is not constantly attended, audible or 
visible alarms powered by a source other than the engine start- 
ing batteries and not exceeding 125 V shall be provided at a 
point of constant attendance. These alarms shall indicate the 
following: 

(1) The engine is running (separate signal). 

(2) The controller main switch has been turned to the off or 
manual position (separate signal). 

(3)*Trouble on the controller or engine (separate or com- 
mon signals). (See 13.4.5.1.3.) [20:9.4.2] 

13.4.6 Field Acceptance Tests. 

13.4.6.1 The pump manufacturer, the engine manufacturer 
(when supplied), the controller manufacturer, and the trans- 
fer switch manufacturer (when supplied) or their respective 
representatives shall be present for the field acceptance test. 
(SeeSection 1.6 ofNFPA 20.) [20:11.2] 

13.4.6.2 All electric wiring to the fire pump motor(s), includ- 
ing control (multiple pumps) interwiring, emergency power 
supply, and jockey pump, shall be completed and checked by 
the electrical contractor prior to the initial startup and accep- 
tance test. [20:11.2.1] 

13.4.6.3* The AHJ shall be notified as to time and place of the 
field acceptance test. [20:11.2.2] 

13.4.6.4 A copy of the manufacturer's certified pump test 
characteristic curve shall be available for comparison of results 
of field acceptance test. The fire pump as installed shall equal 
the performance as indicated on the manufacturer's certified 
shop test characteristic curve within the accuracy limits of the 
test equipment. [20:11.2.3] 

13.4.6.5 The fire pump shall perform at minimum, rated, 
and peak loads without objectionable overheating of any com- 
ponent. [20:11.2.4] 

13.4.6.6 Vibrations of the fire pump assembly shall not be of a 
magnitude to warrant potential damage to any fire pump com- 
ponent. [20:11.2.5] 

13.4.7 Manuals, Special Tools, and Spare Parts. 

13.4.7.1 A minimum of one set of instruction manuals for all 
major components of the fire pump system shall be supplied 
by the manufacturer of each major component. The manual 
shall contain the following: 



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( 1 ) A detailed explanation of the operation of the component 

(2) Instructions for routine maintenance 

(3) Detailed instructions concerning repairs 

(4) Parts list and parts identification 

(5) Schematic electrical drawings of controller, transfer 
switch, and alarm panels [20:11.3.1] 

13.4.7.2 Any special tools and testing devices required for 
routine maintenance shall be available for inspection by the 
AHJ at the time of the field acceptance test. [20:11.3.2] 

13.4.7.3 Consideration shall be given to stocking spare parts 
for critical items not readily available. [20:11.3.3] 

13.4.8 Periodic Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. Fire 
pumps shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. [20:11.4] 

13.4.9 Component Replacement. Whenever the moving com- 
ponents in a listed positive displacement fire pump are re- 
placed, a field test of the pump shall be performed. If compo- 
nents that do not affect performance are replaced, such as 
shafts, then only a functional test shall be required to ensure 
proper installation and reassembly. If components that affect 
performance are replaced, such as rotors, plungers, and so 
forth, then a retest shall be conducted by the pump manufac- 
turer or designated representative, or qualified person who is 
so designated by the appropriate authorities. The field retest 
results shall equal the original pump performance as indi- 
cated by the original factory-certified test curve, whenever it is 
available, and the results shall be within the accuracy limits of 
field testing as stated elsewhere in this standard. [20:11.5] 

13.5 Water Supply. 

13.5.1 Private fire service mains shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, and NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire 
Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. 

13.5.2 Where no adequate and reliable water supply exists for 
fire-fighting purposes, the requirements of NFPA 1142, Standard 
on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting, shall apply. 

13.5.3* The installation of devices to protect the public water 
supply from contamination shall comply with the provisions of 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, or 
NFPA24, Standardfor the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and 
Their Appurtenances, and the plumbing code of the jurisdiction. 

13.5.3.1 Backflow prevention devices shall be inspected, 
tested, and maintained in accordance with the requirements 
of NFPA 25, Standardfor the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

13.5.4 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.5.4.1 A private fire service main installed in accordance 
with this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least 
the same level of performance and protection as designed. 
The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the system 
and keeping it in good working condition. 

13.5.4.2 A private fire service main installed in accordance 
with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, 
and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 



13.6 Portable Extinguishers. 

13.6.1 General Requirements. 

13.6.1.1 The installation, maintenance, selection, and distribu- 
tion of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 10, Standardfor Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Section 13.6. 

13.6.1.2* Where Required. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided where required by this Code as specified in Table 13.6.1.2 
and the referenced codes and standards listed in Chapter 2. 

Table 13.6.1.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers Required 



Occupancy Use 


Where Required 


Ambulatory health care occupancies 


Yes 


Apartment occupancies 1 


Yes 


Assembly occupancies 2 


Yes 


Business occupancies 


Yes 


Day-care occupancies 


Yes 


Detention and correctional 


Yes 


occupancies 3 ' 4 




Educational occupancies 


Yes 


Health care occupancies 


Yes 


Hotel and dormitory occupancies 


Yes 


Industrial occupancies 


Yes 


Lodging and rooming house 


Yes 


occupancies 




Mercantile occupancies 


Yes 


Occupancies in special structures 


Yes 


One- and two-family dwelling 


No 


occupancies 




Residential board and care 


Yes 


occupancies 




Storage occupancies 


Yes 



1 Portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at exte- 
rior locations or interior locations so that all portions of the buildings 
are within 75 ft (22.8 m) of travel distance to an extinguishing unit. 

2 Portable fire extinguishers are not required in seating or outdoor 
performance areas. 

3 Access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked. 

4 Portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff 
locations only. 

13.6.2 Classification, Ratings, and Performance of Fire Extin- 
guishers. 

13.6.2.1 Portable fire extinguishers used to comply with this 
standard shall be listed and labeled and shall meet or exceed 
all the requirements of one of the fire test standards and one 
of the appropriate performance standards shown below: 

(1) Fire Test Standards: 

(a) ANSI/UL 711, Standard for Rating and Testing of Fire 
Extinguishers 

(b) CAN/ULC-S508, Standardfor Rating and Fire Testing of 
Fire Extinguishers and Class D Extinguishing Media 

(2) Performance Standards: 

(a) Carbon Dioxide Types. ANSI/UL 154, Standardfor Car- 
bon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S503, Standard 
for Carbon Dioxide Hand and Wheeled Fire Extinguishers 

(b) Dry Chemical Types. ANSI/UL 299, Standard for Dry 
Chemical Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S504, Standard 
for Dry Chemical and Dry Powder Hand and Wheeled Fire 
Extinguishers 



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(c) Water Types. ANSI/UL 626, Standard for 2 1 /2-Gallon 
Stoned-Pressure, Water-Type Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC- 
S507, Standard for 9 Litre Stored Pressure Water Type Fire Ex- 
tinguishers 

(d) Halon Types. ANSI/UL 1093, Standard for Hahgenated 
Agent Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S512, Standard for 
Hahgenated Agent Hand and Wheeled Fire Extinguishers 

(e) Film-Forming Foam Types. ANSI/UL 8, Standard for 
Foam Fire Extinguishers 

(f) Halocarbon Type. ANSI/UL 2129, Standard for Halo- 
carbon Agent Fire Extinguishers [10:1.3.1] 

13.6.2.2* The identification of the listing and labeling organi- 
zation, the fire test, and the performance standard that the 
fire extinguisher meets or exceeds shall be clearly marked on 
each fire extinguisher. [10:1.3.2] 

13.6.2.2.1 Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 
1986, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.2.2. [10:1.3.2.1] 

13.6.2.3* An organization listing fire extinguishers used to com- 
ply with the requirements of this standard shall utilize a third- 
party certification program for portable fire extinguishers that 
meets or exceeds ANSI/UL 1803, Standard for Factory Follow-up on 
ThirdParty Certified Portable Fire Extinguishers. [10:1.3.3] 

13.6.2.3.1 Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 
1989, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.2.3. [10:1.3.3.1] 

13.6.2.3.2 Certification organizations accredited by the Stan- 
dards Council of Canada shall not be required to comply with 
13.6.2.3. [10:1.3.3.2] 

13.6.2.4 Extinguishers listed for the Class C rating shall not con- 
tain an agent that is a conductor of electricity. In addition to 
successfully meeting the requirements of ANSI/UL 711, Standard 
for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, water-based agents 
shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D 5391, Standard Test for 
Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of a Flowing High Purity Water 
Sample. Fire extinguishers containing water-based agents that 
have a conductivity higher than 100 microsiemens/cm at 77°F 
(25°C) shall be considered a conductor of electricity and there- 
fore shall not be rated Class C. This requirement shall apply only 
to water-based extinguishers manufactured after August 15, 
2002. [10:1.3.4] 

13.6.3 General Requirenienite. 

13.6.3.1 The classification of fire extinguishers shall consist 
of a letter that indicates the class of fire on which a fire extin- 
guisher has been found to be effective, preceded by a rating 
number (Class A and Class B only) that indicates the relative 
extinguishing effectiveness. [10:1.5.1] 

13.6.3.1.1 Fire extinguishers classified for use on Class C, 
Class D, or Class K hazards shall not be required to have a 
number preceding the classification letter. [10:1.5.1.1] 

13.6.3.2 Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a 
fully charged and operable condition and shall be kept in their 
designated places at all times when they are not being used. 

[10:1.5.2] 

13.6.3.3 Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located 
where they will be readily accessible and immediately available 
in the event of fire. Preferably, they shall be located along 
normal paths of travel, including exits from areas. [10:1.5.3] 

13.6.3.4 The following types of fire extinguishers are consid- 
ered obsolete and shall be removed from service: 



(1) Soda acid 

(2) Chemical foam (excluding film-forming agents) 

(3) Vaporizing liquid (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) 

(4) Cartridge-operated water 

(5) Cartridge-operated loaded stream 

(6) Copper or brass shell (excluding pump tanks) joined by 
soft solder or rivets 

(7) Carbon dioxide extinguishers with metal horns 

(8) Solid charge-type AFFF extinguishers (paper cartridge) 
[10:1.5.4] 

13.6.3.5 Cabinets housing fire extinguishers shall not be 
locked, except where fire extinguishers are subject to malicious 
use and cabinets include a means of emergency access. [10:1.5.5] 

13.6.3.6* Fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured 
from view. In large rooms, and in certain locations where visual 
obstructions cannot be completely avoided, means shall be pro- 
vided to indicate the extinguisher location. [10:1.5.6] 

13.6.3.7* Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled ex- 
tinguishers shall be installed securely on the hanger, or in the 
bracket supplied by the extinguisher manufacturer, or in a 
listed bracket approved for such purpose, or placed in cabi- 
nets or wall recesses. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be lo- 
cated in a designated location. [10:1.5.7] 

13.6.3.8 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in manufac- 
turer's strap-type brackets specifically designed to cope with 
this problem. [10:1.5.8] 

13.6.3.9 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to physical damage (e.g., from impact, vibration, 
the environment) shall be adequately protected. [10:1.5.9] 

13.6.3.10 Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceed- 
ing 40 lb (18.14 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the fire 
extinguisher is not more than 5 ft (1.53 m) above the floor. Fire 
extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 lb (18.14 kg) 
(except wheeled types) shall be so installed that the top of the fire 
extinguisher is not more than 3M> ft (1.07 m) above the floor. In 
no case shall the clearance between the bottom of the fire extin- 
guisher and the floor be less than 4 in. (10.2 cm). [10:1.5.10] 

13.6.3.11 Extinguishers' operating instructions shall be lo- 
cated on the front of the extinguisher and shall be clearly 
visible. Hazardous materials identification systems (HMIS) la- 
bels, six-year maintenance labels, hydrostatic test labels, or 
other labels shall not be located or placed on the front of the 
extinguisher. These restrictions shall not apply to original 
manufacturer's labels, labels that specifically relate to the ex- 
tinguisher's operation or fire classification, or inventory con- 
trol labels specific to that extinguisher. [10:1.5.11] 

13.6.3.12 Fire extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall re- 
cesses shall be placed so that the fire extinguisher operating in- 
structions face outward. The location of such fire extinguishers 
shall be marked conspicuously. (See 13.6.3.6.) [10:1.5.12] 

13.6.3.13* Where fire extinguishers are installed in closed 
cabinets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabi- 
nets shall be provided with screened openings and drains. 

[10:1.5.13] 

13.6.3.14* Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to tempera- 
tures outside of the listed temperature range shown on the 
fire extinguisher label. [10:1.5.14] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 1 



13.6.3.15 Fire extinguishers containing plain water only can 
be protected to temperatures as low as -40°F (— 40°C) by the 
addition of an antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extin- 
guisher nameplate. Calcium chloride solutions shall not be 
used in stainless steel fire extinguishers. [10:1.5.15] 

13.6.3.16* The owner or the owner's agent shall be provided 
with a fire extinguisher instruction manual that details con- 
densed instructions and cautions necessary to the installation, 
operation, inspection, and maintenance of the fire extinguish- 
er^). The manual shall refer to this standard as a source of 
detailed instruction. [10:1.5.16] 

13.6.4* Identification of Contents. Afire extinguisher shall 
have a label, tag, stencil, or similar indicator attached to it 
providing the following information: 

(1) The contents' product name as it appears on the manu- 
facturer's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 

(2) Listing of the hazardous material identification in accor- 
dance with hazardous materials identification systems 
(HMIS) [in Canada, workplace hazardous materials iden- 
tification systems (WHMIS)] developed by the National 
Paint & Coatings Association 

(3) List of any hazardous materials that are in excess of 
1.0 percent of the contents 

(4) List of each chemical in excess of 5.0 percent of the contents 

(5) Information as to what is hazardous about the agent in 
accordance with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 

(6) Manufacturer's or service agency's name, mailing ad- 
dress, and phone number [10:1.6] 

13.6.5 Selection of Fire Extinguishers. 

13.6.5.1* General Requirements. The selection of fire extin- 
guishers for a given situation shall be determined by the char- 
acter of the fires anticipated, the construction and occupancy 
of the individual property, the vehicle or hazard to be pro- 
tected, ambient-temperature conditions, and other factors (see 
Table H. 2 ofNFPA 10). The number, size, placement, and limi- 
tations of use of fire extinguishers required shall meet the 
requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA10. [10:4.1] 

13.6.5.1.1* Use of halogenated agent fire extinguishers shall 
be limited to applications where a clean agent is necessary to 
extinguish fire efficiently without damaging the equipment or 
area being protected, or where the use of alternate agents can 
cause a hazard to personnel in the area. [10:4.1.1] 

13.6.5.1.1.1 Placement of portable fire extinguishers con- 
taining halogenated agents shall conform to minimum vol- 
ume requirement warnings contained on the fire extinguisher 
nameplates. [10:4.1.1.1] 

13.6.5.2 Selection by Hazard. 

13.6.5.2.1 Fire extinguishers shall be selected for the 
class (es) of hazards to be protected in accordance with the 
subdivisions in 13.6.5.2.1.1 through 13.6.5.2.1.5. (For specific 
hazards, see Section 4.3 ofNFPA 10.) [10:4.2.1] 

13.6.5.2.1.1* Fire extinguishers for protecting Class A hazards 
shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and la- 
beled for use on Class A fires. (Forhalon agent-type extinguishers, 
see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.1] 

13.6.5.2.1.2* Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class B 
hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically 
listed and labeled for use on Class B fires. (For halon agent- 
type extinguishers, see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.2] 



13.6.5.2.1.3* Fire extinguishers for protection of Class C haz- 
ards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and 
labeled for use on Class C hazards. (For halon agent-type fire 
extinguishers, see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.3] 

13.6.5.2.1.4* Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for 
the protection of Class D hazards shall be of the types specifi- 
cally listed and labeled for use on the specific combustible 
metal hazard. [10:4.2.1.4] 

13.6.5.2.1.5 Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class K 
hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed 
and labeled for use on Class K fires. [10:4.2.1.5] 

13.6.5.3* Class K Fire Extinguishers for Cooking Oil Fires. 
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking ap- 
pliances that use combustible cooking media (vegetable or 
animal oils and fats) shall be listed and labeled for Class K 
fires. Class Kfire extinguishers manufactured after January 1, 
2002, shall not be equipped with "extended wand-type" dis- 
charge devices. [10:4.3.2] 

13.6.5.3.1 Fire extinguishers installed specifically for the pro- 
tection of cooking appliances that use combustible cooking 
media (animal, vegetable oils and fats) prior to June 30, 1998, 
shall not be required to comply with 13.6.5.3. (Abo see 4.3.2.3 of 
NFPA 10.) [10:4.3.2.1] 

13.6.5.3.2* A placard shall be conspicuously placed near the 
extinguisher that states that the fire protection system shall be 
activated prior to using the fire extinguisher. [10:4.3.2.2] 

13.6.5.3.3 Existing dry chemical extinguishers without a 
Class K listing that were installed for the protection of Class K 
hazards shall be replaced with an extinguisher having Class K 
listing when the dry chemical extinguishers become due for 
either a 6-year maintenance or hydrostatic test. [10:4.3.2.3] 

13.6.6 Distribution of Fire Extinguishers. 

13.6.6.1 General Requirements. 

13.6.6.1.1* The minimum number of fire extinguishers 
needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined 
in this chapter and Chapter 5 ofNFPA 10. [10:5.1.1] 

13.6.6.1.2* Fire extinguishers shall be provided for the protec- 
tion of both the building structure and the occupancy hazards 
contained therein. [10:5.1.2] 

13.6.6.1.2.1 Required building protection shall be provided 
by fire extinguishers suitable for Class Afires. [10:5.1.2.1] 

13.6.6.1.2.2* Occupancy hazard protection shall be provided 
by fire extinguishers suitable for such Class A, B, C, D, or Kfire 
potentials as might be present. [10:5.1.2.2] 

13.6.6.1.2.3 Fire extinguishers provided for building protec- 
tion can be considered also for the protection of occupancies 
having a Class Afire potential. [10:5.1.2.3] 

13.6.6.1.2.4 Buildings having an occupancy hazard subject to 
Class B or Class C fires, or both, shall have a standard comple- 
ment of Class Afire extinguishers for building protection, plus 
additional Class B or Class C fire extinguishers, or both. 
Where fire extinguishers have more than one letter classifica- 
tion (such as 2-A:20-B:C), they can be considered to satisfy the 
requirements of each letter class. [10:5.1.2.4] 



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13.6.6.1.3 Rooms or areas shall be classified generally as light 
(low) hazard, ordinary (moderate) hazard, or extra (high) 
hazard. Limited areas of greater or lesser hazard shall be pro- 
tected as required. [10:5.1.3] 

13.6.6.1.4 On each floor level, the area protected and the travel 
distances shall be based on fire extinguishers installed in accor- 
dance with the tables in 13.6.6.2.1 and 13.6.6.3.1. [10:5.1.4] 

13.6.6.2 Fine Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A 
Hazards. 

13.6.6.2.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed 
grades of hazards shall be provided on the basis of Table 
13.6.6.2.1, except as modified by 13.6.6.2.2. Fire extinguishers 
shall be located so that the maximum travel distances shall not 
exceed those specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1, except as modified 
by 13.6.6.2.2. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:5.2.1] 

13.6.6.2.1.1 Certain smaller fire extinguishers that are charged 
with a multipurpose dry chemical or a halogenated agent are 
rated on Class B and Class C fires, but have insufficient effective- 
ness to earn the minimum 1-Arating even though they have value 
in extinguishing smaller Class A fires. They shall not be used to 
meet the requirements of 13.6.6.2.1. [10:5.2.1.1] 

13.6.6.2.2 Up to one-half of the complement of fire extin- 
guishers as specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1 shall be permitted to 
be replaced by uniformly spaced VA in. (3.81 cm) hose sta- 
tions for use by the occupants of the building. Where hose 
stations are so provided, they shall conform to NFPA 14, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems. The loca- 
tion of hose stations and the placement of fire extinguishers 
shall be such that the hose stations do not replace more than 
every other fire extinguisher. [10:5.2.2] 

13.6.6.2.3 Where the area of the floor of a building is less than 
that specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1, at least one fire extinguisher of 
the minimum size recommended shall be provided. [10:5.2.3] 

13.6.6.2.4 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher rating, provided 
the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 75 ft (22.7 m). [10:5.2.4] 



13.6.6.3* Fine Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B 
Fires Other Than for Fires in Flamnmable liquids of Appre- 
ciable Depth. 

13.6.6.3.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed 
grades of hazard shall be provided on the basis of 
Table 13.6.6.3.1. Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the 
maximum travel distances do not exceed those specified in 
the table used. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:5.3.1] 



Table 13.6.6.3.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for 
Class B Hazards 







Maxinmuin Travel 






Distance to 




Basic Minhmum 


Extinguishers 


Type 


Extinguisher 










of Hazard 


Rating 


ft 


m 


Light (low) 


5-B 


30 


9.15 




10-B 


50 


15.25 


Ordinary (moderate) 


10-B 


30 


9.15 




20-B 


50 


19.25 


Extra (high) 


40-B 


30 


9.15 




80-B 


50 


15.25 



Notes: 

(1) The specified ratings do not imply that fires of the magnitudes 
indicated by these ratings will occur, but rather they are provided to 
give the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires 
that could occur. 

(2) For fires involving water-soluble flammable liquids, see 4.3.4 of 
NFPA 10. 

(3) For specific hazard applications, see Section 4.3 of NFPA 10. 
Source: Table 5.3.1 of NFPA 10. 



Table 13.6.6.2.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards 



Light 


Ordinary 


Extra 


(Low) 


(Moderate) 


(High) 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Hazard 


3ccupancy 


Occupancy 


Occupancy 


2-A* 


2-A* 


4-A + 


3000 ft 2 


1500 ft 2 


1000 ft 2 


1 1,250 ftt 


11,250 ftt 


11,250 fit 



75 ft 



Criteria 

Minimum rated single extinguisher 
Maximum floor area per unit of A 
Maximum floor area for 

extinguisher 
Maximum travel distance to 75 ft 75 ft 

extinguisher 

Note: For SI units: 1 ft = 0.305 m; 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 . 

*Up to two water-type extinguishers, each with 1-Arating, can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 2-A 

rated extinguisher. 

fTwo 2% gal (9.46 L) water-type extinguishers can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 4A rated 

extinguisher. 

JSeeE.3.3ofNFPA10. 

Source: Table 5.2.1 of NFPA 10. 



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13.6.6.3.1.1 Fire extinguishers of lesser rating, desired for small 
specific hazards within the general hazard area, shall be permit- 
ted to be installed but shall not be considered as fulfilling any 
part of the requirements of Table 13.6.6.3.1. [10:5.3.1.1] 

13.6.6.3.2 Up to three AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at 
least 2 ] /2 gal (9.46 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to 
fulfill extra (high) hazard requirements. [10:5.3.2] 

13.6.6.3.3 Two AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 1 Vi> 
gal (6 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill ordi- 
nary (moderate) hazard requirements. [10:5.3.3] 

13.6.6.3.4 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower rating 
shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of 
Table 13.6.6.3.1 except as permitted by 13.6.6.3.2 and 
13.6.6.3.3. [10:5.3.4] 

13.6.6.3.5 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher ratings, provided 
the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). [10:5.3.5] 

13.6.6.4* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B 
Fires in Flammable liquids of Appreciable Depth. 

13.6.6.4.1* Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as 
the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of appre- 
ciable depth where the surface area exceeds 10 ft 2 (0.93 m 2 ). 
Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in the 
protected hazards are available on the premises, the maxi- 
mum surface area shall not exceed 20 ft 2 (1.86 m 2 ). [10:5.4.1] 

13.6.6.4.2 For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable 
depth, a Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the 
basis of at least two numerical units of Class B extinguishing 
potential per ft 2 (0.0929 m 2 ) of flammable liquid surface of 
the largest hazard area. AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers 
shall be permitted to be provided on the basis of TB of protec- 
tion per ft 2 (0.09 m 2 ) of hazard. (For fires involving cooking grease 
or water-soluble flammable liquids, see 13.6.5.3 and 4.3.4 of 
NFPA 10.) [10:5.4.2] 

13.6.6.4.3 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower ratings, 
other than AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers, shall not be 
used in lieu of the fire extinguisher required for the largest 
hazard area. Up to three AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers 
shall be permitted to fulfill the requirements, provided the 
sum of the Class B ratings meets or exceeds the value required 
for the largest hazard area. [10:5.4.3] 

13.6.6.4.4 Travel distances for portable fire extinguishers shall 
not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:5.4.4] 

13.6.6.4.4.1 Scattered or widely separated hazards shall be indi- 
vidually protected. A fire extinguisher in the proximity of a haz- 
ard shall be carefully located to be accessible in the presence of a 
fire without undue danger to the operator. [10:5.4.4.1] 

13.6.6.5* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class C 
Hazards. Fire extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be re- 
quired where energized electrical equipment can be encoun- 
tered. This requirement includes situations where fire either 
directly involves or surrounds electrical equipment. Since the 
fire itself is a Class A or Class B hazard, the fire extinguishers 
shall be sized and located on the basis of the anticipated 
Class Aor Class B hazard. [10:5.5] 

13.6.6.6 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class D 
Hazards. 

13.6.6.6.1 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents with 
Class D ratings shall be provided for fires involving combus- 
tible metals. [10:5.6.1] 



13.6.6.6.2 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents (media) 
shall be located not more than 75 ft (23 m) of travel distance 
from the Class D hazard. (See Section E. 6 of NFPA 10.) [10:5.6.2] 

13.6.6.6.3 Portable fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents 
(media) for Class D hazards shall be provided in those work 
areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, 
chips, or similarly sized products are generated. [10:5.6.3] 

13.6.6.6.4 Size determination shall be on the basis of the spe- 
cific combustible metal, its physical particle size, area to be cov- 
ered, and recommendations by the fire extinguisher manufac- 
turer on data from control tests conducted. [10:5.6.4] 

13.6.6.7 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class K 
Fires. 

13.6.6.7.1 Class Kfire extinguishers shall be provided for haz- 
ards where there is a potential for fires involving combustible 
cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats). [10:5.7.1] 

13.6.6.7.2 Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 ft 
(9.15 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers. [10:5.7.2] 

13.6.6.8 Inspection, Maintenance, and Recharging. 

13.6.6.8.1 General. 

1 3.6.6.8. 1 . 1 The owner or designated agent or occupant of a 
property in which fire extinguishers are located shall be re- 
sponsible for such inspection, maintenance, and recharging. 
(See 6.1.2 of NFPA 10 and 13.6.6.8.1.2.) [10:6.1.3] 

13.6.6.8.1.2* Maintenance, servicing, and recharging shall be 
performed by trained persons having available the appropri- 
ate servicing manual (s), the proper types of tools, recharge 
materials, lubricants, and manufacturer's recommended re- 
placement parts or parts specifically listed for use in the fire 
extinguisher. [10:6.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.1.3 Tags or labels shall not be placed on the front of 
the fire extinguisher. [10:6.1.5] 

13.6.6.8.1.4 Labels indicating fire extinguisher use or classi- 
fication or both shall be permitted to be placed on the front of 
the fire extinguisher. [10:6.1.6] 

13.6.6.8.2 Inspection. 

13.6.6.8.2.1* Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected 
when initially placed in service and thereafter at approxi- 
mately 30-day intervals. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected, 
manually or by electronic monitoring, at more frequent inter- 
vals when circumstances require. [10:6.2.1] 

13.6.6.8.2.2 Inspection Recordkeeping. 

(A) Personnel making inspections shall keep records of all 
fire extinguishers inspected, including those found to require 
corrective action. [10:6.2.4.1] 

(B) At least monthly, the date the inspection was performed 
and the initials of the person performing the inspection shall 
be recorded. [10:6.2.4.2] 

(C) Records shall be kept on a tag or label attached to the fire 
extinguisher, on an inspection checklist maintained on file or 
by an electronic method that provides a permanent record. 
[10:6.2.4.3] 

13.6.6.8.3* Maintenance. 



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13.6.6.8.3.1 Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be subjected 
to maintenance at intervals of not more than 1 year, at the 
time of hydrostatic test, or when specifically indicated by an 
inspection or electronic notification. [10:6.3.1] 

13.6.6.8.3.2 Fire extinguishers removed from service for 
maintenance or recharge shall be replaced by a fire extin- 
guisher suitable for the type of hazard being protected and 
shall be of at least equal rating. [10:6.3.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.3.3* Maintenance Recordkeeping. Each fire extin- 
guisher shall have a tag or label securely attached that indi- 
cates the month and year the maintenance was performed and 
that identifies the person performing the service. [10:6.3.4] 

13.6.6.8.4* Recharging. All rechargeable-type fire extinguish- 
ers shall be recharged after any use or as indicated by an in- 
spection or when performing maintenance. [10:6.4.1.1] 

13.6.6.8.5 Hydrostatic Testing. 

13.6.6.8.5.1 Subparagraph 13.6.6.8.5 of this Code and Chap- 
ter 7 of NFPA 10 require hydrostatic testing of pressure vessels 
used as fire extinguishers and specified components of fire 
extinguishers. [10:7.1.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.2 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed by per- 
sons trained in pressure testing procedures and safeguards 
who have suitable testing equipment, facilities, and appropri- 
ate servicing manual (s) available. [10:7.1.2] 

(A) A hydrostatic test shall always include both an internal 
and external visual examination of the cylinder. [10:7.1.2.1] 

(B) Hydrostatic testing shall be conducted using water or some 
other noncompressible fluid as the test medium. Air or other 
gases shall not be used as the sole medium for pressure testing. 
All air shall be vented prior to hydrostatic testing to prevent vio- 
lent and dangerous failure of the cylinder. [10:7.1.2.2] 

13.6.6.8.5.3 If, at any time, a fire extinguisher shows evidence of 
dents, mechanical injury, or corrosion to the extent as to indicate 
weakness, it shall be condemned or hydrostatically retested sub- 
ject to the provisions of 13.6.6.8.5.2 and 13.6.6.8.5.3. [10:7.1.3] 

13.6.6.8.5.4* Examination of Cylinder Condition. Where a 
fire extinguisher cylinder or shell has one or more of the fol- 
lowing conditions, it shall not be hydrostatically tested, but 
shall be condemned or destroyed by the owner or at the own- 
er's direction: 

(l)*Where repairs by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of 
patching compounds exist 

(2) Where the cylinder threads are worn, corroded, broken, 
cracked, or nicked 

(3) Where there is corrosion that has caused pitting, includ- 
ing pitting under a removable nameplate or nameband 
assembly 

(4) Where the fire extinguisher has been burned in a fire 

(5) Where a calcium chloride-type of extinguishing agent 
was used in a stainless steel fire extinguisher 

(6) Where the shell is of copper or brass construction joined 
by soft solder or rivets 

(7) Where the depth of a dent exceeds Vio of the greatest 
dimension of the dent if not in a weld, or exceeds V* in. 
(0.6 cm) if the dent includes a weld 

(8) Where any local or general corrosion, cuts, gouges, or 
dings have removed more than 10 percent of the mini- 
mum cylinder wall thickness 



(9) Where a fire extinguisher has been used for any purpose 
other than that of a fire extinguisher [10:7.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.5.5 When a fire extinguisher cylinder, shell, or car- 
tridge fails a hydrostatic pressure test, or fails to pass a visual 
examination as specified in 13.6.6.8.5.2, it shall be con- 
demned or destroyed by the owner or the owner's agent. 
When a cylinder is required to be condemned, the retester 
shall notify the owner in writing that the cylinder is con- 
demned and that it cannot be re-used. Condemned cylinders 
shall be stamped "CONDEMNED" on the top, head, shoulder, 
or neck with a steel stamp. Minimum letter height shall be 
Va in. (0.3 cm). A condemned cylinder shall not be repaired. 
No person shall remove or obliterate the "CONDEMNED" 
marking. [10:7.1.5; 10:7.1.5.1 ] 

13.6.6.8.5.6* Fire extinguishers having aluminum cylinders or 
shells suspected of being exposed to temperatures in excess of 
350°F (177°C) shall be removed from service and subjected to 
a hydrostatic test. [10:7.1.6] 

13.6.6.8.5.7 Frequency. At intervals not exceeding those 
specified in Table 13.6.6.8.5.7, fire extinguishers shall be hy- 
drostatically retested. The hydrostatic retest shall be con- 
ducted within the calendar year of the specified test interval. 
In no case shall an extinguisher be recharged if it is beyond its 
specified retest date. (For nonrechargeable fire extinguishers, see 
6.4.3.1 of NFPA 10.) [10:7 .2] 



Table 13.6.6.8.5.7 Hydrostatic Test Interval for 
Extinguishers 



Extinguisher Type 



Test Interval 
(Years) 



Stored-pressure water, loaded stream, 5 

and/ or antifreeze 

Wetting agent 5 

AFFF (aqueous film-forming foam) 5 

FFFP (film-forming fluoroprotein foam) 5 

Dry chemical with stainless steel shells 5 

Carbon dioxide 5 

Wet chemical 5 

Dry chemical, stored-pressure, with mild 12 

steel shells, brazed brass shells, or 

aluminum shells 

Dry chemical, cartridge- or 12 

cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 

Halogenated agents 12 

Dry powder, stored-pressure, cartridge- or 12 

cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 

Note: Stored-pressure water extinguishers with fiberglass shells 
(pre-1976) are prohibited from hydrostatic testing due to manufac- 
turer's recall. 
Source: Table 7.2 of NFPA 10. 



(A) Nitrogen cylinders, argon cylinders, carbon dioxide cyl- 
inders, or cartridges used for inert gas storage that are used as 
an expellant for wheeled fire extinguishers and carbon diox- 
ide extinguishers shall be hydrostatically tested every 5 years. 
Cylinders (except those charged with carbon dioxide) com- 
plying with 49 CFR l73.34(e)16 shall be permitted to be hy- 
drostatically tested every 10 years in lieu of the requirement in 
7.2.1. [10:7.2.1; 10:7.2.1.1] 



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(B) Nitrogen cartridges, argon cartridges, and carbon dioxide 
cartridges used as an expellant for hand portable fire extinguish- 
ers that have DOT or TC markings shall be hydrostatically tested 
or replaced according to the requirements of DOT or TC. Car- 
tridges not exceeding 2 in. (5.1 cm) outside diameter and having 
a length less than 2 ft (0.61 m) shall be exempt from periodic 
hydrostatic retest. Cartridges with DOT stamp 3E shall be exempt 
from periodic hydrostatic retest. [10:7.2.2; 10:7.2.2.1; 10:7.2.2.2] 

(C) A hydrostatic test shall be performed on fire extinguisher 
hose assemblies equipped with a shutoff nozzle at the end of 
the hose. The test interval shall be the same as specified for the 
fire extinguisher on which the hose is installed. [10:7.2.3] 

(D) High-pressure and low-pressure accessory hose (other 
than agent discharge hose) used on wheeled extinguishers 
shall be hydrostatically tested. The test interval shall be the 
same as that specified for the fire extinguisher agent cylinder 
on which the hose is installed. [10:7.2.3.1] 

13.7 Detection, Alarm, and Communication Systems. 

13.7.1 General. 

13.7.1.1 Where building fire alarm systems or automatic fire 
detectors are required by other sections of this Code, they shall 
be provided in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm 
Code® and Section 13.7. 

13.7.1.2 Applications. Protected premises fire alarm systems 
shall include one or more of the following features: 

(1) Manual alarm signal initiation 

(2) Automatic alarm signal initiation 

(3) Monitoring of abnormal conditions in fire suppression 
systems 

(4) Activation of fire suppression systems 

(5) Activation of fire safety functions 

(6) Activation of alarm notification appliances 

(7) Emergency voice/alarm communications 

(8) Guard's tour supervisory service 

(9) Process monitoring supervisory systems 

(10) Activation of off-premises signals 

(11) Combination systems 

(12) Integrated systems [72:6.3] 

13.7.1.3 All apparatus requiring rewinding or resetting to 
maintain normal operation shall be rewound or reset as 
promptly as possible after each test and alarm. All test signals 
received shall be recorded to indicate date, time, and type. 
[72:10.5.4] 

13.7. 1 .4 The provisions of 13.7. 1 .4 shall apply only where spe- 
cifically required by another section of this Code. [101:9.6.1.1] 

13.7.1.4.1 Fire detection, alarm, and communications sys- 
tems installed to make use of an alternative allowed by this 
Code shall be considered required systems and shall meet the 
provisions of this Code applicable to required systems. [101: 
9.6.1.2] 

13.7.1.4.2 All systems and components shall be approved for 
the purpose for which they are installed. [101:9.6.1.4] 

13.7.1.4.3 Fire alarm system installation wiring or other trans- 
mission paths shall be monitored for integrity in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4. [102:9.6.1.5] 

13.7.1.4.4* To ensure operational integrity, the fire alarm sys- 
tem shall have an approved maintenance and testing program 



complying with the applicable requirements of NFPA 70, Na- 
tional Electrical Code®, and NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. 
[201:9.6.1.6] 

13.7.1.4.5* Where a required fire alarm system is out of service 
for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the AHJ shall be 
notified, and the building shall be evacuated or an approved 
fire watch shall be provided for all parties left unprotected by 
the shutdown until the fire alarm system has been returned to 
service. [101:9.6.1.7] 

13.7.1.4.6 For the purposes of this Code, a complete fire alarm 
system shall be used for initiation, notification, and control 
and shall provide the following: 

(1) The initiation function provides the input signal to the 
system. 

(2) The notification function is the means by which the sys- 
tem advises that human action is required in response to a 
particular condition. 

(3) The control function provides outputs to control building 
equipment to enhance protection of life. [101:9.6.1.8] 

13.7.1.4.7 Nonrequired Coverage. Where installed, detection 
that is not required by an applicable law, code, or standard, 
whether total (complete) , partial, or selective coverage, shall 
conform to the requirements of this Code. 

Exception: Spacing requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA 72. 
[72:5.5.2.4.1] 

13.7.1.4.7.1 Where nonrequired detection devices are in- 
stalled for a specific hazard, additional nonrequired detection 
devices shall not be required to be installed throughout an 
entire room or building. [72:5.5.2.4.2] 

13.7.1.4.8 Signal Initiation. 

13.7.1.4.8.1 Where required by other sections of this Code, 
actuation of the complete fire alarm system shall occur by any 
or all of the following means of initiation, but shall not be 
limited to such means: 

(1) Manual fire alarm initiation 

(2) Automatic detection 

(3) Extinguishing system operation [101:9.6.2.1] 

13.7.1.4.8.2 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be approved for 
the particular application and shall be used only for fire- 
protective signaling purposes. Combination fire alarm and 
guard's tour stations shall be acceptable. [101:9.6.2.2] 

13.7.1.4.8.3 Amanual fire alarm box shall be provided in the 
natural exit access path near each required exit from an area, 
unless modified by another section of this Code. [101:9.6.2.3] 

13.7.1.4.8.4* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be lo- 
cated so that, from any part of the building, no horizontal 
distance on the same floor exceeding 200 ft (60 m) shall be 
traversed to reach a manual fire alarm box. [101:9.6.2.4] 

13.7.1.4.8.5 For fire alarm systems using automatic fire detec- 
tion or waterflow detection devices, not less than one manual 
fire alarm box shall be provided to initiate a fire alarm signal. 
This manual fire alarm box shall be located where required by 
the AHJ. [101:9.6.2.5] 

13.7.1.4.8.6* Each manual fire alarm box on a system shall be 
accessible, unobstructed, and visible. [101:9.6.2.6] 

13.7.1.4.8.7 Where a sprinkler system provides automatic de- 
tection and alarm system initiation, it shall be provided with 
an approved alarm initiation device that operates when the 



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flow of water is equal to or greater than that from a single 
automatic sprinkler. [101:9.6.2.7] 

13.7.1.4.8.8 Where a total (complete) coverage smoke detec- 
tion system is required by another section of this Code, automatic 
detection of smoke in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire 
Alarm Code 9 , shall be provided in all occupiable areas, common 
areas, and work spaces in environments that are suitable for 
proper smoke detector operation. [101:9.6.2.8] 

13.7.1.4.8.9 Where a partial smoke detection system is re- 
quired by another section of this Code, automatic detection of 
smoke in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 
shall be provided in all common areas and work spaces, such 
as corridors, lobbies, storage rooms, equipment rooms, and 
other tenantless spaces in those environments suitable for 
proper smoke detector operation. Selective smoke detection 
unique to other sections of this Code shall be provided as re- 
quired by those sections. [101:9.6.2.9] 

13.7.1.4.9 Smoke Alarms. 

13.7.1.4.9.1 Where required by another section of this Code, 
single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code m . System 
smoke detectors in accordance with NFPA 72 and arranged to 
function in the same manner as single-station or multiple- 
station smoke alarms shall be permitted in lieu of smoke 
alarms. [101:9.6.2.10.1] 

13.7.1.4.9.2 Smoke alarms, other than battery-operated de- 
vices as permitted by other sections of this Code, or battery- 
operated devices complying with 13.7.1.4 and the low-power 
wireless system requirements of NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm 
Code 1 ", shall receive their operating power from the building 
electrical system. [101:9.6.2.10.2] 

13.7.1.4.9.3 In new construction, where two or more smoke 
alarms are required within a dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or 
similar area, they shall be arranged so that operation of any 
smoke alarm shall cause the alarm in all smoke alarms within 
the dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area to sound, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 13.7.1.4.9.3 shall not apply where 
permitted by another section of this Code. 

(2) The requirement of 13.7.1.4.9.3 shall not apply to con- 
figurations that provide equivalent distribution of the 
alarm signal. [101:9.6.2.10.3] 

13.7.1.4.9.4 The alarms shall sound only within an individual 
dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area and shall not 
actuate the building fire alarm system, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by the AHJ. Remote annunciation shall be permitted. 
[101:9.6.2.10.4] 

13.7.1.4.9.5 Where required by Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, an automatic fire detection system shall be provided 
in hazardous areas for initiation of the signaling system. 
[101:9.6.2.11] 

13.7.1.4.10 Occupant Notification. 

13.7.1.4.10.1 Occupant notification shall be provided to alert 
occupants of fire or other emergency where required by other 
sections of this Code. [101:9.6.3.1] 

13.7.1.4.10.2 Occupant notification shall be in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4.10.3 through 13.7.1.4.10.11, unless otherwise 
provided in 13.7.1.4.10.2(A) through 13.7.1.4.10.2(D). 



(A)* Elevator lobby, hoistway, and associated machine room 
smoke detectors used solely for elevator recall, and heat detec- 
tors used solely for elevator power shutdown, shall not be re- 
quired to activate the building evacuation alarm if the power 
supply and installation wiring to such detectors are monitored 
by the building fire alarm system, and if the activation of such 
detectors results in an audible and visible alarm signal at a 
constantly attended location. [101:9.6.3.2.1] 

(B)* Smoke detectors used solely for closing dampers or heat- 
ing, ventilating, and air-conditioning system shutdown shall 
not be required to activate the building evacuation alarm. 
[101:9.6.3.2.2] 

(C)* Detectors located at doors for the exclusive operation of 
automatic door release shall not be required to activate the 
building evacuation alarm. [101:9.6.3.2.3] 

(D) Detectors in accordance with 22.3.4.3.1(1) and 
23.3.4.3.1(2) of NFPA 101 shall not be required to activate the 
building evacuation alarm. [101:9.6.3.2.4] 

13.7.1.4.10.3 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, a presignal system shall be permitted 
where the initial fire alarm signal is automatically transmitted 
without delay to a municipal fire department, a fire brigade (if 
provided), and an on-site staff person trained to respond to a 
fire emergency. [101:9.6.3.3] 

13.7.1.4.10.4 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, a positive alarm sequence shall be permit- 
ted, provided that it is in accordance with NFPA 72®, National 
Fire Alarm Code®. [101:9.6.3.4] 

13.7.1.4.10.5 Unless otherwise provided in 13.7.1.4.10.5(A) 
through 13.7.1.4.10.5(D), notification signals for occupants to 
evacuate shall be audible and visible signals in accordance 
with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code", and ICC/ANSI A117.1, 
American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and 
Facilities, or other means of notification acceptable to the AHJ 
shall be provided. [101:9.6.3.5] 

(A) Areas not subject to occupancy by persons who are hear- 
ing impaired shall not be required to comply with the provi- 
sions for visible signals. [101:9.6.3.5.1] 

(B) Visible-only signals shall be provided where specifically 
permitted in health care occupancies in accordance with the 
provisions of Chapter 18 and Chapter 19 of NFPA 101. 
[101:9.6.3.5.2] 

(C) Existing alarm systems shall not be required to comply 
with the provision for visible signals. [101:9.6.3.5.3] 

(D) Visible signals shall not be required in lodging or room- 
ing houses in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 26 of 
NFPA 101. [101:9.6.3.5.4] 

(E) Visible signals shall not be required in exit stair enclo- 
sures. [101:9.6.3.5.5] 

(F) Visible signals shall not be required in elevator cars. 
[101:9.6.3.5.6] 

13.7.1.4.10.6 The general evacuation alarm signal shall oper- 
ate in accordance with one of the methods prescribed by 
9.6.3.6.1 through 9.6.3.6.4 of NFPA 101. [101:9.6.3.6] 

(A) The general evacuation alarm signal shall operate 
throughout the entire building. [101:9.6.3.6.1] 



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(B)* Where total evacuation of occupants is impractical due to 
building configuration, only the occupants in the affected 
zones shall be notified initially. Provisions shall be made to 
selectively notify occupants in other zones to afford orderly 
evacuation of the entire building. [201:9.6.3.6.2] 

(C) Where occupants are incapable of evacuating themselves 
because of age, physical or mental disabilities, or physical re- 
straint, the private operating mode as described in NFPA 72?, 
National Fire Alarm Code®, shall be permitted to be used. Only 
the attendants and other personnel required to evacuate oc- 
cupants from a zone, area, floor, or building shall be required 
to be notified. The notification shall include means to readily 
identify the zone, area, floor, or building in need of evacua- 
tion. [701:9.6.3.6.3] 

(D) In mall buildings in accordance with Chapter 36 and 
Chapter 37 of NFPA 101, notification within the mall shall be 
permitted in accordance with 36.4.4.4.3.1 (3) and 37.4.4.4.3.1 (3) 
of NFPA 101. [101:9.6.3.6.4] 

(E) The general evacuation signal shall not be required to 
operate in exit stair enclosures. [101:9.6.3.6.5] 

(F) The general evacuation signal shall not be required to 
operate in elevator cars. [101:9.6.3.6.6] 

13.7.1.4.10.7 Audible alarm notification appliances shall be 
of such character and so distributed as to be effectively heard 
above the average ambient sound level occurring under nor- 
mal conditions of occupancy. [101:9.6.3.7] 

13.7. 1 .4. 10.8 Audible alarm notification appliances shall pro- 
duce signals that are distinctive from audible signals used for 
other purposes in the same building. [101:9.6.3.8] 

13.7.1.4.10.9 Automatically transmitted or live voice evacua- 
tion or relocation instructions to occupants shall be permitted 
and shall be in accordance with NFPA 72?, National Fire Alarm 
Code®. [101:9.6.3.9] 

13.7.1.4.10.10 Unless otherwise permitted by another section 
of this Code, audible and visible fire alarm notification appli- 
ances shall comply with either 9.6.3.10.1 or 9.6.3.10.2 of 
NFPA 101. [101:9.6.3.10] 

(A) Audible and visible fire alarm notification appliances 
shall be used only for fire alarm system or other emergency 
purposes. [101:9.6.3.10.1] 

(B) Voice communication systems shall be permitted to be 
used for other purposes, subject to the approval of the AHJ, if 
the fire alarm system takes precedence over all other signals. 
[101:9.6.3.10.2] 

13.7.1.4.10.11 Alarm notification signals shall take prece- 
dence over all other signals. [101:9.6.3.11] 

1 3. 7. 1 .4. 1 1 Emergency Forces Notification. 

13.7.1.4.11.1 Where required by another section of this Code, 
emergency forces notification shall be provided to alert the 
municipal fire department and fire brigade (if provided) of 
fire or other emergency. [101:9.6.4.1] 

13.7.1.4.11.2 Where fire department notification is required 
by another section of this Code, the fire alarm system shall be 
arranged to transmit the alarm automatically via any of the 
following means acceptable to the AHJ and shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72?, National Fire Alarm Code®: 



(1) Auxiliary alarm system 

(2) Central station connection 

(3) Proprietary system 

(4) Remote station connection [101:9.6.4.2] 

13.7.1.4.11.3 For existing installations where none of the 
means of notification specified in 13.7.1.4.11.2(1) through 
13.7.1.4.11.2(4) is available, an approved plan for notification of 
the municipal fire department shall be permitted. [101:9.6.4.3] 

13.7.1.4.12 Emergency Control. 

13.7.1.4.12.1 Afire alarm and control system, where required 
by another section of this Code, shall be arranged to actuate 
automatically the control functions necessary to make the pro- 
tected premises safer for building occupants. [101:9.6.5.1] 

13.7.1.4.12.2 Where required by another section of this Code, 
the following functions shall be actuated by the complete fire 
alarm system: 

(1) Release of hold-open devices for doors or other opening 
protectives 

(2) Stairwell or elevator shaft pressurization 

(3) Smoke management or smoke control systems 

(4) Emergency lighting control 

(5) Unlocking of doors [101:9.6.5.2] 

13.7.1.4.12.3 The functions specified in 13.7.1.4.12.2 shall be 
permitted to be actuated by any fire alarm and control system 
where otherwise not required by this Code. Additionally, such a 
fire alarm and control system shall be permitted to recall eleva- 
tors, as required by Section 9.4 of NFPA 101, if the activation of 
the system for this purpose comes only from elevator lobby, hoist- 
way, or associated machine room detectors. [101:9.6.5.3] 

13.7.1.4.12.4 Installation of emergency control devices shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 72?, National Fire Alarm Code®. The 
performance of emergency control functions shall not impair 
the effective response of all required alarm notification func- 
tions. [101:9.6.5.4] 

13.7.1.4.13 Location of Controls. Operator controls, alarm 
indicators, and manual communications capability shall be in- 
stalled in a control center at a convenient location acceptable 
to the AHJ. [101:9.6.6] 

13.7.1.4.14 Zoning and Annunciation. 

13.7.1.4.14.1 Where alarm annunciation is required by an- 
other section of this Code, it shall comply with 13.7.1.4.14.2 
through 13.7.1.4.14.7. [101:9.6.7.1] 

13.7.1.4.14.2 Visible Zone Alarni Indication. If required, the 
location of an operated initiating device shall be visibly indi- 
cated by building, floor, fire zone, or other approved subdivi- 
sion by annunciation, printout, or other approved means. The 
visible indication shall not be canceled by the operation of an 
audible alarm silencing means. [72:4.4.6.1] 

(A)* All required annunciation means shall be readily acces- 
sible to responding personnel and shall be located as required 
by the AHJ to facilitate an efficient response to the fire situa- 
tion. [72:4.4.6.1.1] 

(B)* Zone of Origin. Fire alarm systems serving two or more 
zones shall identify the zone of origin of the alarm initiation 
by annunciation or coded signal. [72:4.4.6.1.2] 

(C) Display. Visual annunciators shall be capable of display- 
ing all zones in alarm. If all zones in alarm are not displayed 
simultaneously, there shall be visual indication that other 
zones are in alarm. [72:4.4.6.1.3] 



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13.7.1.4.14.3 Fire Command Center. Alarm annunciation at 
the fire command center shall be by means of audible and 
visible indicators. [72:4.4.6.2] 

13.7.1.4.14.4 Zone. For the purpose of alarm annunciation, 
each floor of the building shall be considered as a separate 
zone. If a floor is subdivided by fire or smoke barriers and the 
fire plan for the protected premises allows relocation of occu- 
pants from the zone of origin to another zone on the same 
floor, each zone on the floor shall be annunciated separately 
for purposes of alarm location. [72:4.4.6.3] 

13.7.1.4.14.5 Multiple Buildings. If the system serves more 
than one building, each building shall be indicated separately. 
[72:4.4.6.4] 

13.7.1.4.14.6 Alarm annunciation at the control center shall 
be by means of audible and visible indicators. [101:9.6.7.2] 

13.7.1.4.14.7 For the purposes of alarm annunciation, each 
floor of the building, other than floors of existing buildings, 
shall be considered as not less than one zone, unless otherwise 
permitted by 13.7.1.4.14.8(C) or 13.7.1.4.14.8(D) or by an- 
other section of this Code. [101:9.6.7.3] 

13.7.1.4.14.8 If a floor area exceeds 22,500 ft 2 (2090 m 2 ), 
additional fire alarm zoning shall be provided, and the length 
of any single fire alarm zone shall not exceed 300 ft (91 m) in 
any direction, except as provided in 13.7.1.4.14.8(A) through 
13.7.1.4.14.8(D) or otherwise modified by another section of 
this Code. [702:9.6.7.4] 

(A) Where permitted by another section of this Code, fire 
alarm zones shall be permitted to exceed 22,500 ft 2 (2090 m 2 ) , 
and the length of a zone shall be permitted to exceed 300 ft 
(91 m) in any direction. [702:9.6.7.4.1] 

(B) Where the building is protected by an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) of NFPA 101, the 
area of the fire alarm zone shall be permitted to coincide with 
the allowable area of the sprinkler system. [201:9.6.7.4.2] 

(C) Where the building is protected by an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(2) of NFPA 101, the 
sprinkler system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the 
fire alarm system as a single zone. [201:9.6.7.4.3] 

(B) Where the building is protected by an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(3) of NFPA 101, the 
sprinkler system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the 
fire alarm system as a single zone. [202:9.6.7.4.4] 

13.7.1.4.14.9 A system trouble signal shall be annunciated at 
the control center by means of audible and visible indicators. 
[202:9.6.7.5] 

13.7.1.4.14.10 A system supervisory signal shall be annunci- 
ated at the control center by means of audible and visible in- 
dicators. [202:9.6.7.6] 

13.7.2 Where Required. 



13.7.2.1 New Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupancies 
with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1 of 
this Code and 12.3.4 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

( 1 ) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected by a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14 of 
NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be served by a common 
fire alarm system, provided that the individual require- 
ments of each occupancy are met. 



(2) Voice communication or public address systems comply- 
ing with 12.3.4.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to 
comply with 13.7.1.4 of the Code. [101:12.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.2 Existing Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupan- 
cies with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4 of 
this Code and 13.3.4 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected as a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14 of 
NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be served by a common 
fire alarm system, provided that the individual require- 
ments of each occupancy are met. 

(2) Voice communication or public address systems comply- 
ing with 13.3.4.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to 
comply with 13.7.1.4 of this Code. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
where, in the judgment of the AHJ, adequate alternative 
provisions exist or are provided for the discovery of a fire 
and for alerting the occupants prompdy. [202:13.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.3 New Educational Occupancies. 

13.7.2.3.1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and 14.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. [101:14.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.3.2 The requirement of 13.7.2.3.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 50 ft (15 m) from another 
building [101:14.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.4 Existing Educational Occupancies. 

13.7.2.4.1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and 15.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. [101:15.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.4.2 The requirement of 13.7.2.4.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 50 ft (15 m) from another 
building [101:15.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.5 New Health Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.5.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:18.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.5.2 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Detectors 
shall be installed in spaces open to the corridor in accordance 
with 18.3.6.1 of NFPA 101. 

13.7.2.5.3* Nursing Homes. An approved automatic smoke de- 
tection system shall be installed in corridors throughout smoke 
compartments containing patient sleeping rooms and in spaces 
open to corridors as permitted in nursing homes by 18.3.6.1 of 
NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor systems shall not be required where each patient 
sleeping room is protected by an approved smoke detec- 
tion system. 



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(2) Corridor systems shall not be required where patient room 
doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with 
integral smoke detectors on the room side installed in accor- 
dance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors 
provide occupant notification. [101:18.3.4.5.3] 

13.7.2.6 Existing Health Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.6.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[201:19.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.6.2 Corridors. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system in accordance with 13.7.1 shall be installed in all 
corridors of limited care facilities, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

(1) Where each patient sleeping room is protected by an ap- 
proved smoke detection system, and a smoke detector is pro- 
vided at smoke barriers and horizontal exits in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4 of this Code, the corridor smoke detection sys- 
tem shall not be required on the patient sleeping room 
floors. 

(2) Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted. 
[202:19.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.6.3 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Detectors 
shall be installed in spaces open to the corridor in accordance 
with 19.3.6.1 of NFPA 101. 

13.7.2.7 New Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

13.7.2.7.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, 
except as modified by 22.3.4.1.3 through 22.3.4.4.3 of NFPA 101. 
[101:22.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.7.2* Detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.4, as modified 
by 13.7.2.7.2.1 through 13.7.2.7.2.3, throughout all resident 
sleeping areas and adjacent day rooms, activity rooms, or con- 
tiguous common spaces. [201:22.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.7.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleep- 
ing rooms with four or fewer occupants. [202:22.3.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.7.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tamper- 
ing, or for other purposes. Such arrangements shall be ca- 
pable of detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors 
shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to 
that provided by the spacing and arrangements required by 
the installation standards referenced in 13.7.1.4. Detectors 
shall be permitted to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, 
behind grilles, or in other locations. The equivalent perfor- 
mance of the design, however, shall be acceptable to the 
AHJ in accordance with the equivalency concepts specified 
in Section 1.4 of NFPA 101. [201:22.3.4.4.2] 

13.7.2.7.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use 
Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within the 
dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied. [101:22.3.4.4.3] 

13.7.2.8 Existing Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

13.7.2.8.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, 
except as modified by 23.3.4.1.2 through 23.3.4.4.4 of 
NFPA 101. [102:23.3.4.1.1] 



13.7.2.8.1.1 Existing systems lacking the monitoring of wir- 
ing required byl3.7.1.4.4 shall be permitted to be continued 
in use in buildings protected by a complete automatic extin- 
guishing system. [202:23.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.8.2 Detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.4, as modified 
by 13.7.2.8.2.1 through 13.7.2.8.2.4, throughout all resident 
housing areas. [202:23.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.8.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleep- 
ing rooms with four or fewer occupants in Use Condition II or 
Use Condition III. [202:23.3.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.8.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, 
or for other purposes. Such arrangements shall be capable of 
detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors shall be 
such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided 
by the spacing and arrangements required by the installation 
standards referenced in 13.7.1.4. Detectors shall be permitted 
to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, behind grilles, or in 
other locations. The equivalent performance of the design, 
however, shall be acceptable to the AHJ in accordance with the 
equivalency concepts specified in Section 1.4 of NFPA 101. 
[201:23.3.4.4.2] 

13.7.2.8.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use 
Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within 
the dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied and the 
building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[101:23.3.4.4.3] 

13.7.2.8.2.4 In smoke compartments protected throughout 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
23.3.5.3 of NFPA 101, smoke detectors shall not be required, 
except in corridors, common spaces, and sleeping rooms with 
more than four occupants. [202:23.3.4.4.4] 

13.7.2.9 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.7.2.9.1 A fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, 
except as modified by 28.3.4.2 through 28.3.4.5 of NFPA 101, 
shall be provided. [202:28.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.9.2 Detection. A corridor smoke detection system in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4 shall be provided in buildings other 
than those protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 28.3.5.3 of 
NFPA 101. [202:28.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.9.3* Smoke Alarms. An approved single-station smoke 
alarm shall be installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.9 in every 
guest room and every living area and sleeping room within a 
guest suite. [202:28.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.10 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.7.2.10.1 Afire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, 
except as modified by 29.3.4.2 through 29.3.4.5.2 of NFPA 101, 
shall be provided in buildings other than those where each 
guest room has exterior exit access in accordance with 7.5.3 of 
NFPA 101, and the building does not exceed three stories in 
height. [202:29.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.10.2 Smoke Alarms. An approved single-station 
smoke alarm shall be installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.9 
in every guest room and every living area and sleeping room 
within a guest suite. These alarms shall not be required to 
be interconnected. Single-station smoke alarms without a 



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secondary (standby) power source shall be permitted. 
[101:29.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.11 New Apartment Buildings. 

13.7.2.11.1 Apartment buildings with more than three stories 
or with more than 1 1 dwelling units, other than those meeting 

13.7.2.11.2 or 13.7.2.11.3, shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, except as modified by 
30.3.4.2 through 30.3.4.5.2 of NFPA 101. [101:30.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.11.2 Afire alarm system shall not be required in build- 
ings where each dwelling unit is separated from other contigu- 
ous dwelling units by fire barriers (see Section 8.3 q/"NFPA 101) 
having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, and 
where each dwelling unit has either its own independent exit 
or its own independent stairway or ramp discharging at grade. 
[101:30.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.11.3 Afire alarm system shall not be required in build- 
ings that are protected throughout by an approved, automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 30.3.5.1 of NFPA 101, that 
do not exceed four stories in height, and that contain not 
more than 16 dwelling units. [101:30.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.11.4* Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 13.7.1.4.9 outside every sleeping area 
in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms and on all levels of the 
dwelling unit, including basements. [101:30.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.11.5 In buildings other than those protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with 30.3.5 of NFPA 101, approved 
single-station smoke alarms shall be installed in every sleeping 
room in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10. [101:30.3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.12 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

13.7.2.12.1 Apartment buildings with more than three stories 
or with more than 11 dwelling units, other than those meeting 
31.3.4.1.2 of NFPA 101, shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system in accordance with 13.7.1.4, except as modified by 
31.3.4.2 through 31.3.4.5 of NFPA 101. [101:31.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.12.1.1 Afire alarm system shall not be required where 
each dwelling unit is separated from other contiguous dwelling 
units by fire barriers (see Section 8.3 of NFPA 101) having a fire 
resistance rating of not less than V4 hour, and where each dwell- 
ing unit has either its own independent exit or its own indepen- 
dent stairway or ramp discharging at grade. [101:31.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.12.2 In buildings other than those equipped through- 
out with an existing, complete automatic smoke detection sys- 
tem, approved single-station smoke alarms shall be installed in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4.2.9, as modified by 13.7.2.12.3, out- 
side every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bed- 
rooms and on all levels of the dwelling unit, including base- 
ments. [101:31.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.12.3 Single-station smoke alarms without a secondary 
(standby) power source shall be permitted. [101:31.3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.13 Lodging and Rooming Houses. Lodging and room- 
ing houses, other than those meeting 13.7.2.13.1, shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:26.3.3.1] 

13.7.2.13.1 A fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4 
shall not be required in existing lodging and rooming houses 



that have an existing smoke detection system meeting or ex- 
ceeding the requirements of 26.3.3.5.1 of NFPA 101 where 
that detection system includes not less than one manual fire 
alarm box per floor arranged to intitate the smoke detection 
alarm. [101:26.3.3.1.2] 

13.7.2.13.2 Smoke Alannms. 

13.7.2.13.2.1 Approved single-station smoke alarms, other 
than existing smoke alarms meeting 13.7.2.13.2.1, shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10 in every sleeping room. 
[101:26.3.3.5.1] 

13.7.2.13.2.2 The smoke alarms required by 13.7.2.13.2.1 
shall not be required to be interconnected. [101:26.3.3.5.2] 

13.7.2.13.2.3 Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, rather 
than house electric-powered smoke alarms, shall be permitted 
where the facility has demonstrated to the AHJ that the test- 
ing, maintenance, and battery replacement programs will en- 
sure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. [101:26.3.3.5.3] 

13.7.2.14 One- and Two-Family Dwellings. 

13.7.2.14.1 Detection, Alarm, and Communicatioinis Systems. 
Smoke alarms or a smoke detection system shall be provided 
in accordance with either 13.7.2.14.2 or 13.7.2.14.3, as modi- 
fied by 13.7.2.14.4. [101:24.3.4] 

13.7.2.14.2 Smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance 
with 13.7.2.14.2 or 13.7.2.14.3 in the following locations: 

(1) All sleeping rooms in other than existing one- and two- 
family dwellings 

(2) Outside of each separate sleeping area, in the immediate 
vicinity of the sleeping rooms 

(3) On each level of the dwelling unit, including basements 
[101:24.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.14.3 Dwelling units shall be protected by an approved 
smoke detection system in accordance with 13.7.1.4 and 
equipped with an approved means of occupant notification. 
[101:24.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.14.4 In existing one- and two-family dwellings, ap- 
proved smoke alarms powered by batteries shall be permitted. 

[101:24.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.15 New Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.15.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations 
for Not More Than 16 Residents. 

13.7.2.15.1.1 Amanual fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:32.2.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.15.1.2 Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with 13.7.1.4.9 on all levels, including basements, but 
excluding crawl spaces and unfinished attics. [101:32.2.3.4.3.1] 

13.7.2.15.1.3 Additional smoke alarms shall be installed in 
all living areas as defined in Chapter 3 of NFPA 101. 
[101:32.2.3.4.3.2] 

13.7.2.15.1.4 Each sleeping room shall be provided with an 
approved smoke alarm in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10. 
[101:32.2.3.4.3.3] 

13.7.2.15.2 Large Facilities. 

13.7.2.15.2.1 A fire alarm system shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4. [101:32.3.3.4.1] 



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13.7.2.15.2.2 Smoke Alarms. Approved smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10 inside every sleeping 
room, outside every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of 
the bedrooms, and on all levels within a resident unit. 
[201:32.3.3.4.7] 

13.7.2.15.2.3 Smoke Detection Systems. Corridors and spaces 
open to the corridors, other than those meeting 13.7.2.15.2.4, 
shall be provided with smoke detectors that comply with 
NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, and are arranged to initiate 
an alarm that is audible in all sleeping areas. [101:32.3.3.4.8] 

13.7.2.15.2.4 Smoke detection systems shall not be required 
in unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, colonnades, 
or other arrangements with one or more sides along the long 
dimension fully or extensively open to the exterior at all times. 
[101:32.3.3.4.9] 

13.7.2.16 Existing Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.16.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations 

for Not More Than 16 Residents. 

13.7.2.16.1.1 Fire Alarm Systems. A manual fire alarm system 
shall be provided in accordance with 13.7.1.4, unless the provi- 
sions of 13.7.2.16.1.2 or 13.7.2.16.1.3 are met. [101:33.2.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.16.1.2 Afire alarm system shall not be required where 
there are interconnected smoke detectors meeting the re- 
quirements of 13.7.2.16.1.4 and there is not less than one 
manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to continuously 
sound the smoke detector alarms. [101:33.2.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.16.1.3 Other manually activated continuously sound- 
ing alarms acceptable to the AHJ shall be permitted in lieu of a 
fire alarm system. [101:33.2.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.16.1.4* Smoke Alarms. Approved smoke alarms shall 
be provided in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10, unless otherwise 
indicated in 13.7.2.16.1.5 and 13.7.2.16.1.6. [101:33.2.3.4.3.1] 

(A) Smoke alarms shall be powered from the building electri- 
cal system and, when activated, shall initiate an alarm that is 
audible in all sleeping areas. [101:33.2.3.4.3.2] 

(B) Smoke alarms shall be installed on all levels, including 
basements but excluding crawl spaces and unfinished attics. 
[101:33.2.3.4.3.3] 

(C) Additional smoke alarms shall be installed for living 
rooms, dens, day rooms, and similar spaces. [101:33.2.3.4.3.4] 

13.7.2.16.1.5 Smoke alarms in accordance with 13.7.2.16.1.4 
shall not be required where buildings are protected throughout 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system, in accordance with 
13.3.2.16.2, that uses quick-response or residential sprinklers, 
and are protected with approved smoke alarms installed in each 
sleeping room, in accordance with 13.7.1.4.10, that are powered 
by the building electrical system. [101:33.2.3.4.3.5] 

13.7.2.16.1.6 Smoke alarms in accordance with 13.7.2.16.1.4 
shall not be required where buildings are protected through- 
out by an approved automatic sprinkler system, in accordance 
with 33.2.3.5 of NFPA 101, that uses quick-response or residen- 
tial sprinklers, with existing battery-powered smoke alarms in 
each sleeping room, and where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the 
facility has demonstrated that testing, maintenance, and a bat- 
tery replacement program ensure the reliability of power to 
the smoke alarms. [101:33.2.3.4.3.6] 



13.7.2.16.2 Large Facilities. 

13.7.2.16.2.1 Afire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4 
shall be provided unless each sleeping room has exterior exit 
access in accordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101 and the building 
is not more than three stories in height. [101:33.3.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.16.2.2 Smoke Alarms. Smoke alarms shall be provided 
in accordance with 13.7.2.16.2.2(A), (B), or (C). [101:33.3.3.4.7] 

(A) Each sleeping room shall be provided with an approved 
smoke alarm with 13.7.1.4.10 and is powered from the build- 
ing electrical system. [101:33.3.3.4.7.1] 

(B) Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, rather than 
building electrical service-powered smoke alarms, shall be ac- 
cepted where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the facility has dem- 
onstrated that testing, maintenance, and battery replacement 
programs ensure the reliability of power to the smoke alarms. 
[101:33.3.3.4.7.2] 

(C) Sleeping room smoke alarms shall not be required in 
facilities having an existing corridor smoke detection system 
that comply with 13.7.1.4 and are connected to the building 
fire alarm system. [101:33.3.3.4.7.3] 

13.7.2.16.2.3 Smoke Detection Systems. All living areas as de- 
fined in 3.3.119 of NFPA 101 and all corridors shall be provided 
with smoke detectors that comply with NFPA 72®, National Fire 
Alarm Code 6 , and are arranged to initiate an alarm that is audible 
in all sleeping areas, as modified by 13.7.2.16.2.3(A) and (B). 
[101:33.3.3.4.8] 

(A) Detectors shall not be required in living areas in facilities 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with 33.3.3.5 of NFPA 101. 
[101:33.3.3.4.8.1] 

(B) Detectors shall not be required in unenclosed corridors, 
passageways, balconies, colonnades, or other arrangements 
with one or more sides along the long dimension fully or ex- 
tensively open to the exterior at all times. [101:33.3.3.4.8.2] 

13.7.2.17 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.7.2.17.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:36.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.17.2 Malls shall be provided with a fire alarm system in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:36.4.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.17.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:36.4.5.4.1] 

13.7.2.18 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.7.2.18.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[101:37.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.18.2 Malls shall be provided with a fire alarm system in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:37.4.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.18.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 
[201:37.4.5.4.1] 

13.7.2.19 New Business Occupancies. Afire alarm system in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4 shall be provided in any business oc- 
cupancy where any one of the following conditions exists: 



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(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 50 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 300 or more total occupants. 
[102:38.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.2© Existing Business Occupancies. A fire alarm system 
in accordance with 13.7.1.4 shall be provided in any business 
occupancy where any one of the following conditions exists: 

(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 100 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 1000 or more total occupants. 
[101:39.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.21 Industrial Occupancies. Afire alarm system shall be 
required in accordance with Section 13.7 for industrial occu- 
pancies, unless the total capacity of the building is under 
100 persons and of these fewer than 25 persons are above or 
below the level of exit discharge. [101:40.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22 Storage Occupancies. 

13.7.2.22.1 General. Afire alarm system shall be required in 
accordance with Section 13.7 for storage occupancies except 
as modified by 13.7.2.22.1.1, 13.7.2.22.1.2, and 13.7.2.22.1.3. 

[101:42.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22.1.1 Storage occupancies limited to low hazard con- 
tents shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[101:42.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.22.1.2 Storage occupancies with ordinary or high haz- 
ard contents not exceeding an aggregate floor area of 
100,000 ft 2 (9300 m 2 ) shall not be required to have a fire 
alarm system. [101:42.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.22.1.3 Storage occupancies protected throughout by 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.3 shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[101:42.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.22.2 General. A fire alarm system shall be required in 
accordance with Section 13.7 for parking structures except as 
modified by 13.7.2.22.1.1, 13.7.2.22.1.2, and 13.7.2.22.1.3. 
[101:42.8.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22.2.1 Parking structures not exceeding an aggregate 
floor area of 100,000 ft 2 (9300 m 2 ) shall not be required to 
have a fire alarm system. [101:42.8.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.22.2.2 Open parking structures shall not be required 
to have a fire alarm system. [101:42.8.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.22.2.3 Parking structures protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
don 13.3 shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[101:42.8.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.23 New Day-Cane Occupancies. 

13.7.2.23.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:16.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.23.2 Detection. A smoke detection system in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4 shall be installed in day-care occupancies, 
other than those housed in one room, and such system shall 
comply with both of the following: 



(1) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. 

(2) Detectors also shall be installed in lounges, recreation ar- 
eas, and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 
[201:16.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.23.3 Day-Care Homes. 

13.7.2.23.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 13.7.1.4.9. [101:16.6.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.23.3.2 Where a day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4. [101:16.6.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.23.3.3 One of the following shall be provided in all 
rooms used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4.9 that are powered by the building 
electrical system 

(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 9.6.1.3 of NFPA 101. [101:16.6.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.24 Existing Day-Came Occupancies. 

13.7.2.24.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:17.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.24.2 Detection. Asmoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4 shall be installed in daycare occupancies, other 
than those housed in one room or those housing clients capable 
of self-preservation if no sleeping facilities are provided, and such 
system shall comply with both of the following: 

(1) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. 

(2) Detectors shall be installed in lounges, recreation areas, and 
sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. [101:17.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.24.3 Day-Care Homes. 

13.7.2.24.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 13.7.1.4.9. [101:17.6.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.24.3.2 Where a day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4. [101:17.6.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.24.3.3 One of the following shall be provided in all 
rooms used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4.9 that are powered by the building 
electrical system 

(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 9.6.1.4 of NFPA 202.[101:17.6.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.24.3.4 Approved existing battery-powered smoke 
alarms, rather than house electrical service-powered smoke 
alarms required by 17.6.3.4.3, shall be permitted where, the 
facility has testing, maintenance, and battery replacement pro- 
grams that ensure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. 
[102:17.6.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.25 New Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies. Ambu- 
latory health care facilities shall be provided with fire alarm 



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systems in accordance with 13.7.1.4, except as modified by 
20.3.4.2 through 20.3.4.5 of NFPA 101. [102:20.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.26 Existing Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies. Am- 
bulatory health care facilities shall be provided with fire alarm 
systems in accordance with 13.7.1.4, except as modified by 
21.3.4.2 through 21.3.4.5 of NFPA 101. [102:21.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.27 Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings. 

13.7.2.27.1 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 
Towers designed for occupancy by not more than three per- 
sons shall be exempt from requirements for detection, alarm, 
and communications systems. [102:11.3.3.4] 

13.7.2.27.2 High-Rise Buildings. 

13.7.2.27.2.1* A fire alarm system using an approved, emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system shall be installed in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:11.8.3.1] 

13.7.2.27.2.2 Two-way telephone service shall be in accor- 
dance with 13.7.2.27.2.2(A) and 13.7.2.27.2.2(B): 

(A) Two-way telephone communication service shall be pro- 
vided for fire department use. This system shall be in accordance 
with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. The communications 
system shall operate between the central control station and 
every elevator car, every elevator lobby, and each floor level of 
exit stairs. 

(B) The requirement of 13.7.2.27.2.2(A) shall not apply 
where the fire department radio system is approved as an 
equivalent system. [101:11.8.3.2] 

13.7.3 Fire Alarm Systems. 

13.7.3.1 General. 

13.7.3.1.1 Equipment. Equipment constructed and installed 
in conformity with this Code shall be listed for the purpose for 
which it is used. Fire alarm system components shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturers' installation in- 
structions. [72:4.3.1] 

13.7.3.1.2 Compatibility. All fire detecdon devices that re- 
ceive their power from the initiating device circuit or signaling 
line circuit of a fire alarm control unit shall be listed for use 
with the control unit. [ 72:4.4.2] 

13.7.3.2 Documentation. 

13.7.3.2.1 Approval and Acceptance. 

13.7.3.2.1.1* The AHJ shall be notified prior to installation or 
alteration of equipment or wiring. At the AHJ's request, com- 
plete information regarding the system or system alterations, 
including specifications, shop drawings, battery calculations, 
and notification appliance circuit voltage drop calculations 
shall be submitted for approval. [ 72:4.5.1.1] 

13.7.3.2.1.2 Before requesting final approval of the installa- 
tion, if required by the AHJ, the installing contractor shall 
furnish a written statement stating that the system has been 
installed in accordance with approved plans and tested in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's specifications and the ap- 
propriate NFPA requirements. [72:4.5.1.2] 

13.7.3.2.1.3* The record of completion form, Figure 4.5.2.1 
of NFPA 72, shall be permitted to be a part of the written 
statement required in 13.7.3.2.1.2. When more than one 
contractor has been responsible for the installation, each 



contractor shall complete the portions of the form for 
which that contractor had responsibility. [72:4.5.1.3] 

13.7.3.2.1.4 The record of completion form, Figure 4.5.2.1 of 
NFPA 72, shall be permitted to be a part of the documents that 
support the requirements of 13.7.3.2.1.3. [72:4.5.1.4] 

13.7.3.2.2* Preparation. The preparation of a record of 
completion, Figure 4.5.2.1 of NFPA 72, shall be the responsibil- 
ity of the qualified and experienced person described in 4.3.3 
of NFPA 72 and shall be in accordance with 13.7.3.2.2(A) and 
13.7.3.2.2(B). [72:4.5.2.1] 

(A) Parts 1, 2, and 4 through 10 shall be completed after the 
system is installed and the installation wiring has been 
checked. Part 3 shall be completed after the operational ac- 
ceptance tests have been completed. [72:4.5.2.1 (A)] 

(B) A preliminary copy of the record of completion shall be 
given to the system owner and, if requested, to other AHJs 
after completion of the installation wiring tests. A final copy 
shall be provided after completion of the operational accep- 
tance tests. [72:4.5.2. 1(B)] 

13.7.3.2.3 Revision. All fire alarm systems that are modified 
after the initial installation shall have the original record of 
completion revised to show all changes from the original in- 
formation and shall include a revision date. [72:4.5.2.2] 

13.7.3.2.4 Documentation Required. Every system shall in- 
clude the following documentation, which shall be delivered 
to the owner or the owner's representative upon final accep- 
tance of the system: 

(l)*An owner's manual and installation instructions covering 
all system equipment 

(2) Record drawings 

(3) For software-based systems, a record copy of the site- 
specific software [ 72:4.5.2.3] 

13.7.3.2.5* Verification of Compliant Installation. Where re- 
quired, compliance of the completed installation with the re- 
quirements of this standard, as implemented via the referring 
code (s) , specifications, and/or other criteria applicable to the 
specific installation, shall be certified by a qualified and impartial 
third-party organization acceptable to the AHJ. [ 72:4.5.2.4] 

13.7.3.2.5.1 At a minimum, the verification shall ensure that 
the installed system includes all required components and 
functions, that those components and functions are installed 
and operate as required, that the system has been 100-percent 
acceptance tested in accordance with Chapter 10 of NFPA 72, 
and that all required documentation has been provided to the 
system owner. For supervising station systems, the verification 
shall also ascertain proper arrangement, transmission, and re- 
ceipt of all signals required to be transmitted off-premises. 

Exception: Where the installation is an extension, modification, or 
reconfiguration of an existing system, the verification shall be required 
for the new work only and reacceptance testing in accordance with 
Chapter 10 of NFPA 72 shall be acceptable. [72:4.5.2.4.1] 

13.7.3.2.5.2 Verification shall include confirmation that any re- 
quired corrective actions have been completed. [72:4.5.2.4.2] 

13.7.3.2.6 Records. 

13.7.3.2.6.1 A complete, unalterable record of the tests and 
operations of each system shall be kept until the next test and 
for 1 year thereafter. [72:4.5.3.1] 



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13.7.3.2.6.2 The record shall be available for examination 
and, if required, reported to the AHJ. Archiving of records by 
any means shall be permitted if hard copies of the records can 
be provided promptly when requested. [ 72:4.5.3.2] 

13.7.3.2.6.3 If off-premises monitoring is provided, records of 
all signals, tests, and operations recorded at the supervising sta- 
tion shall be maintained for not less than 1 year. [72:4.5.3.3] 

13.7.3.2.7* Testing Frequency. Testing shall be performed in 
accordance with the schedules in Table 13.7.3.2.7, except as 
modified in other paragraphs of 13.7.3.2, or more often if 
required by the AHJ. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety con- 
siderations (e.g., continuous process operations, energized electrical 
equipment, radiation, and excessive height) shall be tested during 
scheduled shutdowns if approved by the AHJ but shall not be tested 
more than every 18 months. [72:10.4.3] 

13.7.3.2.7.1 If automatic testing is performed at least weekly 
by a remotely monitored fire alarm control unit specifically 
listed for the application, the manual testing frequency shall 
be permitted to be extended to annually. Table 13.7.3.2.7 shall 
apply. [72:10.4.3.1] 

13.7.3.3 Manually Actuated Alanm-Innitnatimg Devices. 

13.7.3.3.1 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be used only for fire 
alarm-initiating purposes. [72:5.12.1] 

13.7.3.3.2 Combination manual fire alarm boxes and guard's 
signaling stations shall be permitted. [72:5.12.2] 

13.7.3.3.3 Each manual fire alarm box shall be securely 
mounted. [72:5.12.3] 

13.7.3.3.4 The operable part of each manual fire alarm box 
shall be not less than 3V£ ft (1.1 m) and not more than 414 ft 
(1.37 m) above floor level. [72:5.12.4] 

13.7.3.3.5* Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located through- 
out the protected area so that they are conspicuous, unob- 
structed, and accessible. [72:5.12.5] 

13.7.3.3.6 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located within 5 ft 
(1.5 m) of the exit doorway opening at each exit on each floor. 
[72:5.12.6] 

13.7.3.3.7 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be mounted on both 
sides of grouped openings over 40 ft (12.2 m) in width, and 
within 5 ft (1.5 m) of each side of the opening. [72:5.12.7] 

13.7.3.3.8* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be pro- 
vided so that the travel distance to the nearest fire alarm box 
will not be in excess of 200 ft (61 m) measured horizontally on 
the same floor. [72:5.12.8] 



13.7.3.4 Certificated or Placarded. The prime contractor 
shall conspicuously indicate that the fire alarm system provid- 
ing service at a protected premises complies with all the re- 
quirements of this Code by providing a means of third-party 
verification, as specified in 13.7.3.4.1 or 13.7.3.4.2. [72:8.2.4] 

13.7.3.4.1 The installation shall be certificated. [72:8.2-4.1] 

13.7.3.4.1.1 Fire alarm systems providing service that com- 
plies with all the requirements of this Code shall be certificated 
by the organization that has listed the central station. 
[72:8.2.4.1.1] 

13.7.3.4.1.2 A document attesting to certification shall be lo- 
cated on or within 36 in. (1 m) of the fire alarm system control 



unit or, if no control unit exists, on or within 36 in. (1 m) of a 
fire alarm system component. [72:8.2.4.1.2] 

13.7.3.4.1.3 A central repository of issued certification docu- 
ments, accessible to the AHJ, shall be maintained by the orga- 
nization that listed the central station. [72:8.2.4.1.3] 

13.7.3.4.2 The installation shall be placarded. [72:8.2.4.2] 

13.7.3.4.2.1 Fire alarm systems providing service that com- 
plies with all the requirements of this Code shall be conspicu- 
ously marked by the central station to indicate compliance. 
[72:8.2.4.2.1] 

13.7.3.4.2.2 The marking shall be by one or more placards 
that meet the requirements of the organization that listed the 
central station and requires the placard. [72:8.2.4.2.2] 

13.7.3.4.2.3 The placard(s) shall be 20 in. 2 (130 cm 2 ) or 
larger, shall be located on or within 36 in. (1 m) of the fire 
alarm system control unit or, if no control unit exists, on or 
within 36 in. (1 m) of a fire alarm system component, and shall 
identify the central station by name and telephone number. 
[72:8.2.4.2.3] 

13.7.3.4.2.4 Fire alarm system service that does not comply 
with all the requirements of Section 8.2 of NFPA 72 shall not be 
designated as central station service. [72:8.2.4.3] 

13.7.3.4.2.5 For the purpose of Section 8.2 of NFPA 72, the 
subscriber shall notify the prime contractor, in writing, of the 
identity of the AHJs. [ 72:8.2.4.4] 

13.7.3.5 Automatic Fire Detection and Alaunna Service. 

13.7.3.5.1 Automatic fire detectors shall be located, main- 
tained, and tested in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire 
Alarm Code®. 

13.7.3.5.2 Automatic Fine Alarm Signal Initiation — Initiating 
Devices with Integral Trouble Contacts. Automatic fire alarm 
signal initiation devices that have integral trouble signal con- 
tacts shall be connected to the initiating device circuit so that a 
trouble condition within a device does not impair alarm trans- 
mission from any other initiating device. 

Exception: Where the trouble condition is caused by electrical discon- 
nection of the device or by removing the initiating device from its 
plug-in base. [72:6.8.5.3] 

13.7.3.5.3* Systems equipped with alarm verification features 
shall be permitted, under the following conditions: 

(1) The alarm verification feature is not initially enabled un- 
less conditions or occupant activities that are expected to 
cause nuisance alarms are anticipated in the area that is 
protected by the smoke detectors. Enabling of the alarm 
verification feature shall be protected by password or lim- 
ited access. 

(2) A smoke detector that is continuously subjected to a 
smoke concentration above alarm threshold does not de- 
lay the system functions of 4.4.3, 6.8.1.1, or 6.15.2.1 of 
NFPA 72 by more than 1 minute. 

(3) Actuation of an alarm-initiating device other than a 
smoke detector causes the system functions of 4.4.3, 
6.8.1.1, or 6.15.2.1 of NFPA 72without additional delay. 

(4) The current status of the alarm verification feature is 
shown on the record of completion. (See Figure 4.5.2.1, 
item 10 of NFPA 72.) [72:6.8.5.4.1] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



Table 13.7.3.2.7 Testing Frequencies 



Component 



Initial/ 
Reacceptance 



Monthly 



Quarterly Semiannually 





NFPA 72 Table 




10.4.2.2 


Annually 


Reference 




1,7,16,17 


X 





X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 



Control Equipment — Building Systems Connected to 
Supervising Station 

(a) Functions X 

(b) Fuses X 

(c) Interfaced equipment X 

(d) Lamps and LEDs X 

(e) Primary (main) power supply X 

(f) Transponders X 



Control Equipment — Building Systems Not 
Connected to a Supervising Station 

(a) Functions 

(b) Fuses 

(c) Interfaced equipment 

(d) Lamps and LEDs 

(e) Primary (main) power supply 

(f) Transponders 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



3. Engine-Driven Generator - 
and Fire Alarm Systems 



- Central Station Facilities 



Engine-Driven Generator - 
Reporting Systems 



■ Public Fire Alarm 



X (weekly) 



5. Batteries — Central Station Facilities 
(a) Lead-acid type 



1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 


X 


— 


2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


X 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


X 


4. Specific gravity 


X 


— 


(b) Nickel-cadmium type 


— 


— 


1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 


X 


— 


2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


— 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


— 


(c) Sealed lead-acid type 


X 


X 


1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years 


— 


X 


after manufacture or more frequendy as 






needed.) 






2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


X 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


X 


Batteries — Fire Alarm Systems 






(a) Lead-acid type 


— 


— 


1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 


X 


— 


2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


— 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


— 


4. Specific gravity 


X 


— 


(b) Nickel-cadmium type 


— 


— 


1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 


X 


— 


2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


— 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


— 


(c) Primary type (dry cell) 


— 


— 


1. Load voltage test 


X 


X 


(d) Sealed lead-acid type 


— 


— 


1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years 


X 


— 


after manufacture or more frequently as 






needed.) 






2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 


X 


— 


3. Load voltage test 


X 


— 



6b 



6c 



6d 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



6b 



6c 



6a 
6d 



Batteries — Public Fire Alarm Reporting Systems 
Voltage tests in accordance with Table 10.4.2.2, items 
7(D-(6) 

(a) Lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 

3. Load voltage test 

4. Specific gravity 

(b) Nickel-cadmium type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 

3. Load voltage test 



X (daily) 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



6b 



6c 



X 
X 



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Table 13.7.3.2.7 Continued 



Component 



Initial/ 
Reacceptance 



Monthly 



Quarterly Semiannually 



NFPA 72 Table 
10.4.2.2 
Annually Reference 



(c) Sealed lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years 
after manufacture or more frequently as 
needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 

3. Load voltage test 



6d 



X 
X 



8. Fiber-Optic Cable Power 



12b 



9. Control Unit Trouble Signals 



10. Conductors — Metallic 



1 1 . Conductors — Nonmetallic 



12 



12. Emergency Voice/ Alarm Communications Equipment 



18 



13. Retransmission Equipment 

(The requirements of 10.4.7 shall apply.) 



14. Remote Annunciators 



10 



15. Initiating Devices 

(a) Duct detectors 

(b) Electromechanical releasing device 

(c) Fire extinguishing system (s) or suppression 
system (s) switches 

(d) Fire-gas and other detectors 

(e) Heat detectors (The requirements of 10.4.3.4 
shall apply.) 

(f) Fire alarm boxes 

(g) Radiant energy fire detectors 

(h) System smoke detectors — functional 

(i) Smoke detectors — sensitivity (The requirements 

of 10.4.3.2 shall apply.) 

(j) Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms (The 

requirements for monthly testing in accordance with 

10.4.4 shall also apply.) 

(k) Single- and multiple-station heat alarms 

(1) Supervisory signal devices (except valve tamper 

switches) 



X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



19. Alarm Notification Appliances 

(a) Audible devices 

(b) Audible textual notification appliances 

(c) Visible devices 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 

X 



X 
X 
X 



13 





(m) Waterflow devices 
(n) Valve tamper switches 


X 
X 


— 


— 


X 
X 


— 


— 


16. 


Guard's Tour Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


— 


17. 


Interface Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


19 


18. 


Special Hazard Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


15 



14 



20. Off-Premises Transmission Equipment 



21. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems - 

(a) DACT 

(b) DART 

(c) McCulloh 
(d)RAT 



- Transmitters 



X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 



16 



22. Special Procedures 



21 



23. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems — Receivers 
(a) DACR 
(b)DARR 

(c) McCulloh systems 

(d) Two-way RF multiplex 

(e) RASSR 
(f)RARSR 

(g) Private microwave 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



17 



Source: Table 10.4.3 of NFPA 72. 



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13.7.3.5.4 If automatic drift compensation of sensitivity for a 
fire detector is provided, the control unit shall identify the 
affected detector when the limit of compensation is reached. 

[72:6.8.5.4.2] 

13.7.3.5.5 Systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to initiate the alarm response shall be permitted 
provided the following conditions are satisfied: 

(1) The systems are not prohibited by the AHJ. 

(2) At least two automatic detectors are in each protected 
space. 

(3) The alarm verification feature is not used. [72:6.8.5.4.3] 

13.7.3.5.6 For systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to initiate fire safety functions or to actuate 
fire extinguishing or suppression systems, the detectors shall 
be installed at the spacing determined in accordance with 
Chapter 5 of NFPA 72. [72:6.8.5.4.4] 

13.7.3.5.7 For systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to actuate public mode notification, the detec- 
tors shall be installed at a linear spacing not more than 0.7 times 
the linear spacing determined in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
NFPA 72. [72:6.8.5.4.5] 

13.7.3.6 Alarm Signal Initiation and Water How. 

13.7.3.6.1 A dry-pipe or preaction sprinkler system supplied 
with water by a connection beyond the alarm-initiating device 
of a wet-pipe system shall be equipped with a separate water- 
flow alarm-initiating pressure switch or other approved means 
to initiate a waterflow alarm. [72:6.8.5.5.1] 

13.7.3.6.2 The number of waterflow switches permitted to be 
connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not exceed 
five. [72:6.8.5.5.2] 

13.7.3.6.3 Automatic fire suppression system alarm-initiating 
devices and supervisory signal-initiating devices and their circuits 
shall be designed and installed so that they cannot be subject to 
tampering, opening, or removal without initiating a signal. This 
provision shall include junction boxes installed outside of build- 
ings to facilitate access to the initiating device circuit. 

Exception No. 1: Covers of junction boxes inside of buildings. 

Exception No. 2: Tamperproof screws or other approved mechanical 
means shall be permitted for preventing access to junction boxes in- 
stalled outside buildings. [72:6.8.5.10.1] 

13.7.3.6.4 The number of supervisory devices permitted to 
be connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not ex- 
ceed 20. [ 72:6.8.5.7.2] 

13.7.3.6.5* Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 
90 seconds of waterflow at the alarm-initiating device when 
flow occurs that is equal to or greater than that from a single 
sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. 
[72:5.10.2] 

13.7.3.7* Monitoring Integrity of Installation Conductors and 
Other Signaling Channels. Unless otherwise permitted or re- 
quired by 13.7.3.7.1.1 through 13.7.3.7.1.13, all means of in- 
terconnecting equipment, devices, and appliances and wiring 
connections shall be monitored for the integrity of the inter- 
connecting conductors or equivalent path so that the occur- 
rence of a single open or a single ground-fault condition in 
the installation conductors or other signaling channels and 



their restoration to normal shall be automatically indicated 
within 200 seconds. [72:4.4.7.1] 

13.7.3.7.1 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
styles of initiating device circuits, signaling line circuits, and noti- 
fication appliance circuits tabulated in Table 6.5, Table 6.6.1, and 
Table 6.7 of NFPA 72 that do not have an "X" under "Trouble" for 
the abnormal condition indicated. [72:4.4.7.1.1] 

13.7.3.7.2 Shorts between conductors, other than as required 
by 13.7.3.7.6, 13.7.3.7.15, and 4.4.7.2.2 and Table 6.5, Table 6.6.1, 
and Table 6.7 of NFPA 72, shall not be required to monitored. 
[72:4.4.7.1.2] 

13.7.3.7.3 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for a 
noninterfering shunt circuit, provided that a fault circuit con- 
dition on the shunt circuit wiring results only in the loss of the 
noninterfering feature of operation. [72:4.4.7.1.3] 

13.7.3.7.3.1 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
connections to and between supplementary system compo- 
nents, provided that single open, ground, or short-circuit con- 
ditions of the supplementary equipment or interconnecting 
means, or both, do not affect the required operation of the 
fire alarm system. [72:4.4.7.1.4] 

13.7.3.7.3.2 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the circuit of an alarm notification appliance installed in the 
same room with the central control equipment, provided that 
the notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in 
conduit or are equivalently protected against mechanical in- 
jury. [72:4.4.7.1.5] 

13.7.3.7.4 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for a 
trouble signal circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.6] 

13.7.3.7.5* Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnection between listed equipment within a com- 
mon enclosure. [72:4.4.7.1.7] 

13.7.3.7.6 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnection between enclosures containing control 
equipment located within 20 ft (6 m) of each otherwhere the 
conductors are installed in conduit or equivalently protected 
against mechanical injury. [72:4.4.7.1.8] 

13.7.3.7.7 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the conductors for ground detection where a single ground 
does not prevent the required normal operation of the system. 
[72:4.4.7.1.9] 

13.7.3.7.8 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
central station circuits serving notification appliances within a 
central station. [72:4.4.7.1.10] 

13.7.3.7.9 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
pneumatic rate-of-rise systems of the continuous line type in 
which the wiring terminals of such devices are connected in 
multiple across electrically supervised circuits. [72:4.4.7.1.11] 

13.7.3.7.10 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnecting wiring of a stationary computer and the 
computer's keyboard, video monitor, mouse-type device, or 
touch screen, so long as the interconnecting wiring does not 
exceed 8 ft (2.4 m) in length; is a listed computer/data pro- 
cessing cable as permitted by NFPA 70, National Electrical 
Code®; and failure of cable does not cause the failure of the 
required system functions not initiated from the keyboard, 
mouse, or touch screen. [72:4.4.7.1.12] 



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13.7.3.7.11 Monitoring for integrity of the installation con- 
ductors for a ground-fault condition shall not be required for 
the communications and transmission channels extending 
from a supervising station to a subsidiary station (s) or pro- 
tected premises, or both, which comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 8 of NFPA 72 and are electrically isolated from the 
fire alarm system (or circuits) by a transmitter (s), provided 
that a single ground condition does not affect the required 
operation of the fire alarm system. [72:4.4.7.1.13] 

13.7.3.7.12 Interconnection means shall be arranged so that 
a single break or single ground fault does not cause an alarm 
signal. [72:4.4.7.1.14] 

13.7.3.7.13 Unacknowledged alarm signals shall not be inter- 
rupted if a fault on an initiating device circuit or a signaling 
line circuit occurs while there is an alarm condition on that 
circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.15] 

Exception: Circuits used to interconnect fire alarm control panels. 

13.7.3.7.14 An open, ground, or short-circuit fault on the 
installation conductors of one alarm notification appliance 
circuit shall not affect the operation of any other alarm notifi- 
cation circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.16] 

13.7.3.7.15 Unless otherwise permitted or required by 
13.7.3.7.15.1 through 13.7.3.7.15.3, the occurrence of a wire- 
to-wire short-circuit fault on any alarm notification appliance 
circuit shall result in a trouble signal at the protected pre- 
mises. [72:4.4.7.1.17] 

13.7.3.7.15.1 A trouble signal shall not be required for a cir- 
cuit employed to produce a supplementary local alarm signal, 
provided that the occurrence of a short circuit on the circuit 
in no way affects the required operation of the fire alarm sys- 
tem. [72:4.4.7.1.17.1] 

13.7.3.7.15.2 A trouble signal shall not be required for the 
circuit of an alarm notification appliance installed in the same 
room with the central control equipment, provided that the 
notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in con- 
duit or are equivalendy protected against mechanical injury. 
[72:4.4.7.1.17.2] 

13.7.3.7.15.3 A trouble signal shall not be required for cen- 
tral station circuits serving notification appliances within a 
central station. [72:4.4.7.1.17.3] 

13.7.3.8* At least two independent and reliable power sup- 
plies shall be provided, one primary and one secondary, each 
of which shall be of adequate capacity for the application. 
[72:4.4.1.3.1] 

13.7.4 Automatic Fibre Detectors. 

13.7.4.1 Installation. 

13.7.4.1.1 Where subject to mechanical damage, an initiating 
device shall be protected. A mechanical guard used to protect 
a smoke or heat detector shall be listed for use with the detec- 
tor. [72:5.4.2] 

13.7.4.1.2 Initiating devices shall be supported indepen- 
dently of their attachment to the circuit conductors. [ 72:5.4.3] 

13.7.4.1.2.1 Initiating devices shall be installed in a manner 
that provides accessibility for periodic maintenance. [ 72:5.4.4] 

13.7.4.1.2.2 Initiating devices shall be installed in all areas, 
compartments, or locations where required by other NFPA 
codes and standards or as required by the AHJ. [72:5.4.5] 



13.7.4.1.2.3* Duplicate terminals, leads, or connectors that 
provide for the connection of installation wiring shall be pro- 
vided on each initiating device for the express purpose of con- 
necting into the fire alarm system to monitor the integrity of 
the signaling and power wiring. 

Exception: Initiating devices connected to a system that provides the 
required monitoring. [72:5.4.6] 

13.7.4.2 Requirements for Smoke and Heat Detectors. 

13.7.4.2.1 Recessed Mounting. Unless tested and listed for re- 
cessed mounting, detectors shall not be recessed into the 
mounting surface. [72:5.5.1] 

13.7.4.3 Location. 

13.7.4.3.1 Unless otherwise modified by 13.7.4.2.3 or 13.7.4.2.4 
of NFPA 72, spot-type heat-sensing fire detectors shall be located 
on the ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm) from the sidewall or 
on the sidewalls between 4 in. and 12 in. (100 mm and 300 mm) 
from the ceiling. [72:5.6.3.1] 

13.7.4.3.2* In the case of solid joist construction, detectors 
shall be mounted at the bottom of the joists. [72:5.6.3.1.1] 

13.7.4.3.3 In the case of beam construction where beams are 
less than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8 ft (2.4 m) 
on center, detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the 
bottom of beams. [72:5.6.3.1.2] 

13.7.4.3.4 Unless otherwise modified by 5.6.3.2.1 through 
5.6.3.2.3 of NFPA 72, line-type heat detectors shall be located 
on the ceiling or on the sidewalls not more than 20 in. 
(500 mm) from the ceiling. [72:5.6.3.2] 

13.7.4.3.4.1 In the case of solid joist construction, detectors 
shall be mounted at the bottom of the joists. [72:5.6.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.3.4.2 In the case of beam construction where beams are 
less than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on 
center, detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the bottom 
of beams. [72:5.6.3.2.2] 

13.7.4.3.4.3 Where a line-type detector is used in an applica- 
tion other than open area protection, the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions shall be followed. [72:5.6.3.2.3] 

13.7.4.3.5* Spot-type smoke detectors shall be located on the 
ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm ) from a sidewall to the 
near edge or, if on a sidewall, between 4 in. and 12 in. 
(100 mm and 300 mm ) down from the ceiling to the top of 
the detector. [72:5.7.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.3.6* To minimize dust contamination, smoke detec- 
tors, where installed under raised floors, shall be mounted 
only in an orientation for which they have been listed. 
[72:5.7.3.2.2] 

13.7.4.3.7 Projected beam-type smoke detectors shall be lo- 
cated in accordance with the manufacturer's documented in- 
structions. [72:5.7.3.4.1] 

13.7.4.3.8 The effects of stratification shall be evaluated 
when locating the detectors. [72:5.7.3.4.2] 

13.7.4.3.9 Detectors shall not be installed until after the con- 
struction cleanup of all trades is complete and final. 

Exception: Where required by the AHJ for protection during construc- 
tion. Detectors that have been installed during construction and found 
to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned or replaced in accordance with Chapter 10 of NFPA 72 
at completion of construction. [72:5. 7.1.11] 



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1 3.7.4.3. 1 High Air Movement Areas. 

13.7.4.3.10.1 Location. Smoke detectors shall not be located 
directly in the airstream of supply registers. [ 72:5.7.5.3.2] 

13.7.4.3.10.2* Spacing. Smoke detector spacing shall be in ac- 
cordance with Table 5.7.5.3.3 and Figure 5.7.5.3.3 of NFPA 72. 

Exception: Air-sampling or projected beam smoke detectors installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's documented instructions. 
[72:5.7.5.3.3] 

13.7.4.4 Maintenance and Testing. 

13.7.4.4.1 The maintenance and testing schedules and pro- 
cedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm 
Code 9 . 

13.7.4.5 Heat Detectors. 

13.7.4.5.1 Fixed-Temperature, Rate-of-Rise, Rate-of-Compen- 
sation, Restorable Line, Spot Type (Excluding Pneumatic Tube 
Type). Heat test shall be performed with a heat source per the 
manufacturer's recommendations for response within 1 minute. 
A test method shall be used that is recommended by the manu- 
facturer or other method shall be used that will not damage the 
nonrestorable fixed-temperature element of a combination rate- 
of-rise/fixed-temperature element detector. [72: Table 10.4.2.2, 
13, d, 1] 

13.7.4.5.2 Fixed-Temperature, Nonrestorable Line Type. 
Heat test shall not be performed. Functionality shall be tested 
mechanically and electrically. Loop resistance shall be mea- 
sured and recorded. Changes from acceptance test shall be 
investigated. [72: Table 10.4.2.2, 13, d, 2) 

13.7.4.5.3 Nonrestorable (General). Heat tests shall not be 
performed. Functionality shall be tested mechanically and 
electrically. [ 72: Table 10.4.2.2, 1 3, d, 4) 

13.7.4.5.4 Restorable Line Type, Pneumatic Tube Only. Heat 
tests shall be performed (where test chambers are in cir- 
cuit) or a test with pressure pump shall be conducted. [72: 
Table 10.4.2.2, 13, d, 5) 

13.7.4.6 Smoke Detectors. 

13.7.4.6.1 Systems Detectors and Single-Station Smoke 
Alarms Used in Other than One- and Two-Family Dwellings. 

The detectors shall be tested in place to ensure smoke entry 
into the sensing chamber and an alarm response. Testing with 
smoke or listed aerosol approved by the manufacturer shall be 
permitted as acceptable test methods. Other methods ap- 
proved by the manufacturer that ensure smoke entry into the 
sensing chamber shall be permitted. Any of the following tests 
shall be performed to ensure that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range: 

(1) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/ control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit when its sensi- 
tivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test method approved by the 
AHJ [72: Table 10.4.2.2, 13, g, 1] 



13.7.4.6.2 Projected Beam Type. The detector shall be tested 
by introducing smoke, other aerosol, or an optical filter into 
the beam path. [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, g, 5] 

13.7.4.6.3 A functional test shall be performed on all smoke 
detectors upon initial installation, during reacceptance tests, 
and at least annually as required by Table 13.7.3.2.7(15) (h). 
[72:Table 10.4.3, 15, h] 

13.7.4.7* Sensitivity of smoke detectors and single- and 
multiple-station smoke alarms in other than one- and two- 
family dwellings shall be tested in accordance with 13.7.4.7.1 
through 13.7.4.7.6. [72:10.4.3.2] 

13.7.4.7.1 Sensitivity shall be checked within 1 year after in- 
stallation. [72:10.4.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.7.2 Sensitivity shall be checked every alternate year 
thereafter unless otherwise permitted by compliance with 
13.7.4.7.3. [72:10.4.3.2.2] 

13.7.4.7.3 After the second required calibration test, if sensi- 
tivity tests indicate that the device has remained within its 
listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4 percent obscuration 
light gray smoke, if not marked), the length of time between 
calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maxi- 
mum of 5 years. [72:10.4.3.2.3] 

13.7.4.7.3.1 If the frequency is extended, records of nuisance 
alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be main- 
tained. [72:10.4.3.2.3.1] 

13.7.4.7.3.2 In zones or in areas where nuisance alarms show 
any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be 
performed. [72:10.4.3.2.3.2] 

13.7.4.7.4 To ensure that each smoke detector or smoke 
alarm is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall 
be tested using any of the following methods: 

(1) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/ control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit where its sen- 
sitivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test methods approved by the 
AHJ [72:10.4.3.2.4] 

13.7.4.7.5 Detectors or smoke alarms found to have a sensi- 
tivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be 
cleaned and recalibrated or be replaced. 

Exception: Devices listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be 
either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and 
cleaned and recalibrated, or they shall be replaced. [72:10.4.3.2.5] 

13.7.4.7.6 The detector or smoke alarm sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using any device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the 
detector or smoke alarm. [72:10.4.3.2.6] 

13.8 Other Fire Protection Systems. Where other fire protec- 
tion systems are required to be installed by the provisions of 
this Code, or are installed with the approval of the AHJ as an 
alternative or equivalency, the design and installation of the 
system shall comply with the appropriate standards listed in 
Table 13.8. The system shall be tested and maintained in 
accordance with Section 10.4. 



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Table 13.8 Other Reqwimed Fire Protection Systems 



Type of System 

Low-expansion foam 
systems 

Medium- and high- 
expansion foam systems 

Carbon dioxide systems 

Halon 1301 systems 



Sprinklers in one- and 
two-family dwellings 
and manufactured homes 



Sprinklers in residential 
occupancies up to and 
including four stories 
in height 



Water spray systems 



Deluge foam-water sprinkler, 

foam-water spray 

systems, and closed-head 

foam-water sprinkler 

systems 
Dry chemical extinguishing 

systems 

Wet chemical extinguishing 
systems 

Water mist systems 

Clean agent 

fire-extinguishing 
systems 



NFPA 11, Standard for 

Law-Expansion Foam 
NFPA 11 A, Standard for 

Medium- and High-Expansion 

Foam Systems 
NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon 

Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 12 A, Standard on Halon 

1301 Fire Extinguishing 

Systems 
NFPA 13D, Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler 

Systems in One- and 

Two-Family Dwellings and 

Manufactured Homes 
NFPA 13R, Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler 

Systems in Residential 

Occupancies up to and 

Including Four Stories in 

Height 
NFPA 15, Standard for Water 

Spray Fixed Systems for Fire 

Protection 
NFPA 16, Standard for the 

Installation of Foam-Water 

Sprinkler and Foam-Water 

Spray Systems 

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry 

Chemical Extinguishing 

Systems 
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet 

Chemical Extinguishing 

Systems 
NFPA 750, Standard on Water 

Mist Fire Protection Systems 
NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean 

Agent Fire Extinguishing 

Systems 



Chapter 14 Meams of Egress 

14.1 Application. Means of egress in new and existing build- 
ings shall comply with this Code and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. 

14.2 Exit Access Corridors. Corridors used as exit access and 
serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 shall be 
separated from other parts of the building by walls having not 
less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with 
Section 8.3 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to existing buildings, pro- 
vided that the occupancy classification does not change. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply where otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.1.3.1] 



14.3 Exits. 

14.3.1 Where this Code requires an exit to be separated from 
other parts of the building, the separating construction shall 
meet the requirements of Section 8.2 of NFPA 101 and the 
following: 

(l)*The separation shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects three stories or less. 

(2)*The separation shall have not less than a 2-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects four or more stories, 
unless one of the following conditions exists: 

(a) In existing non-high-rise buildings, existing exit stair 
enclosures shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating. 

(b) In existing buildings protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3, existing exit stair enclo- 
sures shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance 
rating. 

(c) One-hour enclosures in accordance with 28.2.2.1.2, 
29.2.2.1.2, 30.2.2.1.2, and 31.2.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 shall 
be permitted as an alternative to the requirement of 
14.3.1(2) 

(3) The 2-hour fire resistance-rated separation required by 
14.3.1 (2) shall be constructed of an assembly of noncom- 
bustible or limited-combustible materials and shall be 
supported by construction having not less than a 2-hour 
fire resistance rating. 

(4) Openings in the separation shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies equipped with door closers complying with 
7.2.1.8 of NFPA 1 01. 

(5) *Openings in exit enclosures shall be limited to doors from 

normally occupied spaces and corridors and doors for 
egress from the enclosure, unless one of the following 
conditions exists: 

(a) Openings in exit passageways in mall buildings as pro- 
vided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 of NFPA 101 shall 
be permitted. 

(b) In buildings of Type I or Type II construction, exist- 
ing fire protection-rated doors to interstitial spaces 
shall be permitted provided that such spaces meet all 
of the following criteria: 

i. The space is used solely for distribution of pipes, 

ducts, and conduits, 
ii. The space contains no storage. 

iii. The space is separated from the exit enclosure in ac- 
cordance with Section 8.3 of NFPA 101. 

(c) Existing openings to mechanical equipment spaces 
protected by approved existing fire protection-rated 
doors shall be permitted, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

i. The space is used solely for non-fuel-fired mechanical 

equipment, 
ii. The space contains no storage of combustible materials, 
iii. The building is protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 

(6) Penetrations into, and openings through, an exit enclo- 
sure assembly shall be limited to the following: 

(a) Doors permitted by 14.3.1 (5) 

(b) Electrical conduit serving the stairway 

(c) Required exit doors 



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(d) Ductwork and equipment necessary for independent 
stair pressurization 

(e) Water or steam piping necessary for the heating or 
cooling of the exit enclosure 

(f) Sprinkler piping 

(g) Standpipes 

(h) Existing penetrations protected in accordance with 

8.3.5 of NFPA 101 
(i) Penetrations for fire alarm circuits where the circuits 
are installed in metal conduit and the penetrations 
are protected in accordance with 8.3.5 of NFPA 101. 
(7) Penetrations or communicating openings shall be prohib- 
ited between adjacent exit enclosures. [101:7.1.3.2.1] 

14.3.2 An exit enclosure shall provide a continuous pro- 
tected path of travel to an exit discharge. [101:7.1.3.2.2] 

14.3.3* An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose that 
has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if so 
designated, as an area of refuge. (See also 14.6.3.) [101:7.1.3.2.3] 

14.4 Means of Egress Reliability. 

14.4.1* Means of egress shall be continuously maintained free 
of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the 
case of fire or other emergency. [101:7.1.10.1] 

14.4.2 Furnishings and Decorations in Means of Egress. 

14.4.2.1 No furnishings, decorations, or other objects shall 
obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility 
thereof. [101:7.1.10.2.1] 

14.4.2.2 No obstruction by railings, barriers, or gates shall 
divide the means of egress into sections appurtenant to indi- 
vidual rooms, apartments, or other occupied spaces. Where 
the AHJ finds the required path of travel to be obstructed by 
furniture or other movable objects, the authority shall be per- 
mitted to require that such objects be secured out of the way 
or shall be permitted to require that railings or other perma- 
nent barriers be installed to protect the path of travel against 
encroachment. [101:7.1.10.2.2] 

14.4.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors 
shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner 
as to confuse the direction of egress. [101:7.1.10.2.3] 

14.4.2.4 Every door and every principal entrance that is re- 
quired to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed so 
that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct. Windows 
that, because of their physical configuration or design and the 
materials used in their construction, have the potential to be 
mistaken for doors shall be made inaccessible to the occu- 
pants by barriers or railings. [101:7.2.1.1.2] 

14.4.3 Impediments to Egress. Any device or alarm installed to 
restrict the improper use of a means of egress shall be designed 
and installed so that it cannot, even in case of failure, impede or 
prevent emergency use of such means of egress unless otherwise 
provided in 7.2.1.6 of NFPA 101 and Chapters 18, 19, 22, and 23 
of NFPA 101. [101:7.1.9] 

14.5 Doors. 

14.5.1 Swing and Force to Open. 

14.5.1.1* Any door in a means of egress shall be of the side- 
hinged or pivoted-swinging type, and shall be installed to be 
capable of swinging from any position to the full required 
width of the opening in which it is installed, unless otherwise 
specified in 14.5.1.1.1 through 14.5.1.1.8. [101:7.2.1.4.1] 



14.5.1.1.1 Sliding doors in detention and correctional occu- 
pancies as provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101 
shall be permitted. [101:7.2.1.4.1.1] 

14.5.1.1.2 Doors in dwelling units as provided in Chapter 24 
of NFPA 101 shall be permitted. [101:7.2.1.4.1.2] 

14.5.1.1.3 Doors in residential board and care occupancies as 
provided in Chapter 32 and Chapter 33 of NFPA 101 shall be 
permitted. [101:7.2.1.4.1.3] 

14.5.1.1.4 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling security grilles 
or doors that are part of the required means of egress shall be 
permitted, provided that they meet the following criteria: 

(1) Such grilles or doors shall remain secured in the fully 
open position during the period of occupancy by the gen- 
eral public. 

(2) On or adjacent to the grille or door, there shall be a 
readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. 
(25 mm) high on a contrasting background that reads as 
follows: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN OPEN WHEN THE 
BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. 

(3) Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when the space is occupied. 

(4) Doors or grilles shall be operable from within the space 
without the use of any special knowledge or effort. 

(5) Where two or more means of egress are required, not 
more than half of the means of egress shall be equipped 
with horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling grilles or doors. 
[101:7.2.1.4.1.4] 

14.5.1.1.5 Horizontal-sliding doors complying with 7.2.1.14 
of NFPA 101 shall be permitted. [101:7.2.1.4.1.5] 

14.5.1.1.6 Where private garages, business areas, industrial 
areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 
10 contain only low or ordinary hazard contents, doors to such 
areas shall be exempt from the requirement of 14.5.1.1. 
[101:7.2.1.4.1.6] 

14.5.1.1.7 Revolving doors complying with 7.2.1.10 of NFPA 101 
shall be permitted. [101:7.2.1.4.1.7] 

14.5.1.1.8 Existing fusible link-operated horizontal-sliding 
or vertical-rolling fire doors shall be permitted to be used as 
provided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.2.1.4.1.8] 

14.5.1.2 Doors required to be of the side-hinged or pivoted- 
swinging type shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
where serving a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or 
more, except under the following conditions: 

(1 ) Doors in horizontal exits shall not be required to swing in 
the direction of egress travel where permitted by 
7.2.4.3.7.1 or 7.2.4.3.7.2 of NFPA 101. 

(2) Smoke barrier doors shall not be required to swing in the 
direction of egress travel in existing health care occupancies 
as provided in Chapter 19 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.4.2] 

14.5.1.3 A door shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
under either of the following conditions: 

(1) Where the door is used in an exit enclosure, unless the 
door is the door of an individual living unit that opens 
directly into an exit enclosure 

(2) When the door serves a high hazard contents area 
[101:7.2.1.4.3] 



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14.5.1.4* During its swing, any door in a means of egress shall 
leave not less than one-half of the required width of an aisle, a 
corridor, a passageway, or a landing unobstructed and shall 
project not more than 7 in. (180 mm) into the required width 
of an aisle, a corridor, a passageway, or a landing, when fully 
open, unless both of the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) The door provides access to a stair in an existing building. 

(2) The door meets the requirement that limits projection to 
not more than 7 in. (180 mm) into the required width of a 
stair or landing when the door is fully open. [201:7.2.1.4.4] 

14.5. 1 .5 The forces required to fully open any door manually 
in a means of egress shall not exceed 15 lbf (67 N) to release 
the latch, 30 lbf (133 N) to set the door in motion, and 15 lbf 
(67 N) to open the door to the minimum required width, 
unless otherwise specified in 14.5.1.5.2 through 14.5.1.5.5. 
[101:7.2.1.4.5] 

14.5.1.5.1 The forces specified in 14.5.1.5 shall be applied to 
the latch stile. [101:7.2.1.4.5.1] 

14.5.1.5.2 Opening forces for interior side-hinged or 
pivoted-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed 5 lbf 
(22 N). [101:7.2.1.4.5.2] 

14.5.1.5.3 The opening force for existing doors in existing 
buildings shall not exceed 50 lbf (222 N) applied to the latch 
stile. [201:7.2.1.4.5.3] 

14.5.1.5.4 The opening forces for horizontal-sliding doors in 
detention and correctional occupancies shall be as provided 
in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.4.5.4] 

14.5.1.5.5 The opening forces for power-operated doors shall 
be as provided in 7.2.1.9 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.4.5.5] 

14.5.1.6 Screen doors and storm doors used in a means of 
egress shall be subject to the requirements for direction of swing 
that are applicable to other doors used in a means of egress. 
[101:7.2.1.4.6] 

14.5.2 Locks, Latches, and Alarm Devices. 

14.5.2.1 Doors shall be arranged to be opened readily from the 
egress side whenever the building is occupied. [101:7.2.1.5.1] 

14.5.2.2 Locks, if provided, shall not require the use of a key, 
a tool, or special knowledge or effort for operation from the 
egress side. [101:7.2.1.5.2] 

14.5.2.3 The requirements of 14.5.2.1 and 14.5.2.2 shall not 
apply where otherwise provided in Chapter 18 through Chap- 
ter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.5.3] 

14.5.2.4 Exterior doors shall be permitted to have key- 
operated locks from the egress side, provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(1) This alternative is permitted in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101 for the specific occupancy. 

(2) A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. 
(25 mm) high on a contrasting background that reads as 
follows is located on or adjacent to the door: THIS DOOR 
TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THE BUILDING IS 
OCCUPIED. 

(3) The locking device is of a type that is readily distinguish- 
able as locked. 

(4) A key is immediately available to any occupant inside the 
building when it is locked. [101:7.2.1.5.4] 



14.5.2.5 The alternative provisions of 14.5.2.4 shall be per- 
mitted to be revoked by the AHJ for cause. [102:7.2.1.5.5] 

14.5.2.6 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, key operation shall be permitted, provided that 
the key cannot be removed when the door is locked from the 
side from which egress is to be made. [101:7.2.1.5.6] 

14.5.2.7* Every door in a stair enclosure serving more than 
four stories, unless permitted by 14.5.2.7.2, shall meet one of 
the following: 

(1) Re-entry from the stair enclosure to the interior of the 
building shall be provided. 

(2) An automatic release that is actuated with the initiation of 
the building fire alarm system shall be provided to unlock 
all stair enclosure doors to allow re-entry. 

(3) Selected re-entry shall be provided in accordance with 
14.5.2.7.1. [101:7.2.1.5.7] 

14.5.2.7.1 Doors on stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
equipped with hardware that prevents re-entry into the interior 
of the building, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) There shall be not less than two levels where it is possible 
to leave the stair enclosure to access another exit. 

(2) There shall be not more than four stories intervening be- 
tween stories where it is possible to leave the stair enclo- 
sure to access another exit. 

(3) Re-entry shall be possible on the top story or next-to-top 
story that allows access to another exit. 

(4) Doors allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the 
stair side of the door. 

(5) Doors not allowing re-entry shall be provided with a sign 
on the stair side indicating the location of the nearest 
door, in each direction of travel, that allows re-entry or 
exit. [101:7.2.1.5.7.1] 

14.5.2.7.2 The requirement of 14.5.2.7 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Existing installations as permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Stair enclosures serving a building permitted to have a 
single exit in accordance with Chapter 11 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101 

(3) Stair enclosures in health care occupancies where other- 
wise provided in Chapter 18 of NFPA 101 

(4) Stair enclosures in detention and correctional occupan- 
cies where otherwise provided in Chapter 22 of NFPA 101 
[101:7.2.1.5.7.2] 

14.5.2.8 If a stair enclosure allows access to the roof of the 
building, the door to the roof either shall be kept locked or 
shall allow re-entry from the roof. [101:7.2.1.5.8] 

14.5.2.9* A latch or other fastening device on a door shall be 
provided with a releasing device that has an obvious method 
of operation and that is readily operated under all lighting 
conditions. [101:7.2.1.5.9] 

14.5.2.9.1 The releasing mechanism for any latch other than 
existing installations shall be located not less than 34 in. 
(865 mm), and not more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the 
finished floor. [101:7.2.1.5.9.1] 

14.5.2.9.2 The releasing mechanism shall open the door with 
not more than one releasing operation, unless otherwise 
specified in 14.5.2.9.3 and 14.5.2.9.4. [202:7.2.1.5.9.2] 



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14.5.2.9.3* Egress doors from individual living units and 
guest rooms of residential occupancies shall be permitted 
to be provided with devices, including automatic latching 
devices, that require not more than one additional releas- 
ing operation, provided that such device is operable from 
the inside without the use of a key or tool and is mounted at 
aheight not exceeding 48 in. (1220 mm) above the finished 
floor. [202:7.2.1.5.9.3] 

14.5.2.9.4 Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.9.3 
shall be permitted to have two additional releasing operations. 
[202:7.2.1.5.9.4] 

14.5.2.9.5 Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.9.3, 
other than automatic latching devices, shall be located not 
more than 60 in. (1525 mm) above the finished floor. 
[202:7.2.1.5.9.5] 

14.5.2.10 Where pairs of doors are required in a means of 
egress, one of the following criteria shall be met: 

(1) Each leaf of the pair shall be provided with a releasing 
device that does not depend on the release of one door 
before the other. 

(2) Approved automatic flush bolts shall be used and ar- 
ranged such that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The door leaf equipped with the automatic flush 
bolts shall have no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

(b) Unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than 
one operation. [202:7.2.1.5.10] 

14.5.2.11* Devices shall not be installed in connection with 
any door on which panic hardware or fire exit hardware is 
required where such devices prevent or are intended to pre- 
vent the free use of the door for purposes of egress, unless 
otherwise provided in 14.5.3. [202:7.2.1.5.11] 

14.5.3 Special Locking Arrangements. 

14.5.3.1 Belayed-Egress Locks. Approved, listed, delayed- 
egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving 
low and ordinary hazard contents in buildings protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 13.7 or an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, 
and where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The doors shall unlock upon actuation of one of the 
following: 

(a) An approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 13.3 

(b) Any heat detector 

(c) Not more than two smoke detectors of an approved, 
supervised automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.7 

(2) The doors shall unlock upon loss of power controlling the 
lock or locking mechanism. 

(3) *An irreversible process shall release the lock within 15 sec- 

onds, or 30 seconds where approved by the AHJ, upon 
application of a force to the release device required in 
14.5.2.9 under the following conditions: 

(a) The force shall not be required to exceed 15 lbf (67 N) . 

(b) The force shall not be required to be continuously 
applied for more than 3 seconds. 



(c) The initiation of the release process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. 

(d) Once the door lock has been released by the applica- 
tion of force to the releasing device, relocking shall 
be by manual means only. 

(4)*A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. 
(25 mm) high and not less than V6 in. (3.2 mm) in stroke 
width on a contrasting background that reads as follows shall 
be located on the door adjacent to the release device: 

PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS 

DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS 
[202:7.2.1.6.1] 

14.5.3.2 Access-Controlled Egress Doors. Where permitted in 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, doors in the 
means of egress shall be permitted to be equipped with an 
approved entrance and egress access control system, provided 
that the following criteria are met: 

(1) One of the following shall be provided: 

(a) A sensor on the egress side, arranged to detect an 
occupant approaching doors that are arranged to un- 
lock in the direction of egress upon detection of an 
approaching occupant or loss of power to the sensor 

(b) Listed panic hardware or fire exit hardware that, 
when operated, unlocks the door 

(2) Loss of power to the part of the access control system that 
locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors in 
the direction of egress. 

(3) The doors shall be arranged to unlock in the direction of 
egress from a manual release device located 40 in. to 
48 in. (1015 mm to 1220 mm) vertically above the floor 
and within 60 in. (1525 mm) of the secured doors. 

(4) The manual release device specified in 14.5.3.2(3) shall 
be readily accessible and clearly identified by a sign that 
reads as follows: PUSH TO EXIT. 

(5) When operated, the manual release device shall result in 
direct interruption of power to the lock — independent 
of the access control system electronics — and the doors 
shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds. 

(6) Activation of the building fire-protective signaling system, 
if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors in the 
direction of egress, and the doors shall remain unlocked 
until the fire-protective signaling system has been manu- 
ally reset. 

(7) Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire de- 
tection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the 
doors in the direction of egress, and the doors shall re- 
main unlocked until the fire-protective signaling system 
has been manually reset. [202:7.2.1.6.2] 

14.5.3.3 Panic Hardware and Fire Exit Hardware. 

14.5.3.3.1 Where a door is required to be equipped with 
panic or fire exit hardware, such hardware shall meet the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

(1) It shall consist of a cross bar or a push pad, the actuating 
portion of which extends across not less than one-half of 
the width of the door leaf. 

(2) It shall be mounted as follows: 

(a) New installations shall be not less than 34 in. (865 mm) , 
nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the floor. 



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(b) Existing installations shall be not less than 30 in. 

(760 mm), nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above 

the floor. 
(3) It shall be constructed so that a horizontal force not to 
exceed 15 lbf (67 N) actuates the cross bar or push pad 
and latches. [101:7.2.1.7.1] 

14.5.3.3.2 Only approved panic hardware shall be used on 
doors that are not fire doors. Only approved fire exit hardware 
shall be used on fire doors. [101:7.2.1.7.2] 

14.5.3.3.3 Required panic hardware and fire exit hardware, 
in other than detention and correctional occupancies as oth- 
erwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101, 
shall not be equipped with any locking device, set screw, or 
other arrangement that prevents the release of the latch when 
pressure is applied to the releasing device. [101:7.2.1.7.3] 

14.5.3.3.4 Devices that hold the latch in the retracted position 
shall be prohibited on fire exit hardware, unless such devices are 
listed and approved for such purposes. [101:7.2.1.7.4] 

14.5.4 Self-Closing Devices. 

14.5.4.1* A door normally required to be kept closed shall not 
be secured in the open position at any time and shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 14.5.4.2. 
[101:7.2.1.8.1] 

14.5.4.2 In any building of low or ordinary hazard contents, 
as defined in 6.2.2.2 and 6.2.2.3 of NFPA 101, or where ap- 
proved by the AHJ, doors shall be permitted to be automatic- 
closing, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) Upon release of the hold-open mechanism, the door be- 
comes self-closing. 

(2) The release device is designed so that the door instantly 
releases manually and, upon release, becomes self-closing, 
or the door can be readily closed. 

(3) The automatic releasing mechanism or medium is acti- 
vated by the operation of approved smoke detectors in- 
stalled in accordance with the requirements for smoke 
detectors for door release service in NFPA 72®, National 
Fire Alarm Code®. 

(4) Upon loss of power to the hold-open device, the hold-open 
mechanism is released and the door becomes self-closing. 

(5) The release by means of smoke detection of one door in a 
stair enclosure results in closing all doors serving that 
stair. [101:7.2.1.8.2] 

14.6 Enclosure and Protection of Stairs. See 14.6.4, Stairway 
Marking. 

14.6.1 Enclosures. 

14.6.1.1 All inside stairs serving as an exit or exit compo- 
nent shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 14.3. 
[101:7.2.2.5.1.1] 

14.6.1.2 Inside stairs, other than those serving as an exit or 
exit component, shall be protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 8.6 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.2.5.1.2] 

14.6.1.3 In existing buildings, where a two-story exit enclo- 
sure connects the story of exit discharge with an adjacent story, 
the exit shall be permitted to be enclosed only on the story of 
exit discharge, provided that not less than 50 percent of the 
number and capacity of exits on the story of exit discharge are 
independent of such enclosures. [101:7.2.2.5.1.3] 



14.6.2* Exposures. 



14.6.2.1 Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings en- 
close the exterior of a stairway, other than an existing stairway, 
and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the 
building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the building 
enclosure walls within 120 in. (3050 mm) horizontally of the 
nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as 
required for stairway enclosures, including opening protec- 
tives. [101:7.2.2.5.2.1] 

14.6.2.2 Construction shall extend vertically from the 
ground to a point 120 in. (3050 mm) above the topmost land- 
ing of the stairs or to the roofline, whichever is lower. 
[101:7.2.2.5.2.2] 

14.6.2.3 The fire resistance rating of the separation extend- 
ing 120 in. (3050 mm) from the stairs shall not be required to 
exceed 1 hour where openings have not less than a %-hour 
fire protection rating. [101:7.2.2.5.2.3] 

14.6.3* Usable Space. Enclosed, usable spaces, within exit en- 
closures shall be prohibited, including under stairs, unless 
otherwise permitted by 14.6.3.2. [101:7.2.2.5.3] 

14.6.3.1 Open space within the exit enclosure shall not be 
used for any purpose that has the potential to interfere with 
egress. [101:7.2.2.5.3.1] 

14.6.3.2 Enclosed, usable space shall be permitted under 
stairs, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The space is separated from the stair enclosure by the 
same fire resistance as the exit enclosure. 

(2) Entrance to the enclosed, usable space shall not be from 
within the stair enclosure. (See also 7.1.3.2.3 of NFPA 101.) 
[101:7.2.2.5.3.2] 

14.6.4* Stairway Maridmg. 

14.6.4.1 Stairs serving five or more stories shall be provided 
with special signage within the enclosure at each floor land- 
ing. The signage shall indicate the floor level, the terminus of 
the top and bottom of the stair enclosure, and the identifica- 
tion of the stair enclosure. The signage also shall state the 
floor level of, and the direction to, exit discharge. The signage 
shall be located inside the enclosure approximately 60 in. 
(1525 mm) above the floor landing in a position that is visible 
when the door is in the open or closed position. The signage 
shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. The floor 
level designation shall also be tactile in accordance with ICC/ 
ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Us- 
able Buildings and Facilities. [101:7.2.2.5.4.1] 

14.6.4.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an up- 
ward direction to reach the level of exit discharge, special 
signs with directional indicators showing the direction to the 
level of exit discharge shall be provided at each floor level 
landing from which upward direction of travel is required, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.6.4.2.1 and 14.6.4.2.2, and the 
following also shall apply: 

(1) Such signage shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2 of 
NFPA 101. 

(2) Such signage shall be visible when the door is in the open 
or closed position. [101:7.2.2.5.4.2] 

14.6.4.2.1 The requirement of 14.6.4.2 shall not apply where 
signs required by 14.6.4.1 are provided. [101:7 .2.2. 5.4.2(A)] 



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14.6.4.2.2 The requirement of 14.6.4.2 shall not apply to 
stairs extending not more than one story below the level of 
exit discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious. 
[101:7. 2.2.5.4.2(B)] 

14.6.4.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall or on 
a separate sign securely attached to the wall. [101:7.2.2.5.4.3] 

14.6.4.4 The stairway identification letter shall be located at 
the top of the sign in minimum 1 in. (25 mm) high lettering 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.2.2.5.4.4] 

14.6.4.5 Roof access or the lack thereof shall be designated 
by a sign that reads ROOF ACCESS or NO ROOF ACCESS and 
located under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall 
be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) high and shall be in accor- 
dance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. [101:7. 2.2.5 .4.5] 

14.6.4.6 The floor level number shall be located in the 
middle of the sign in minimum 5 in. (125 mm) high numbers 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. Mezza- 
nine levels shall have the letter "M" or other appropriate iden- 
tification letter preceding the floor number, while basement 
levels shall have the letter "B" or other appropriate identifica- 
tion letter preceding the floor level number. [101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

14.6.4.7 Identification of the lower and upper terminus of 
the stairway shall be located at the bottom of the sign in mini- 
mum 1 in. (25 mm) high letters or numbers and shall be in 
accordance with 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. [101:7. 2.2.5 .4.7] 

14.7* Exit Passageways. 

14.7.1* General. Exit passageways used as exit components 
shall conform to the general requirements of Section 7.1 of 
NFPA 101 and to the special requirements of Section 14.7. 
[101:7.2.6.1] 

14.7.2 Enclosure. An exit passageway shall be separated from 
other parts of the building as specified in Section 1 4.3, and the 
following alternatives shall be permitted: 

(1) Fire windows in accordance with 8.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall 
be permitted to be installed in the separation in a build- 
ing protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) Existing fixed wired glass panels in steel sash shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in use in the separation in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[101:7.2.6.2] 

14.7.3 Stair Discharge. An exit passageway that serves as a dis- 
charge from a stair enclosure shall have not less than the same 
fire resistance rating and opening protective fire protection 
rating as those required for the stair enclosure. [101:7.2.6.3] 

14.7.4 Width. The width of an exit passageway shall be ad- 
equate to accommodate the aggregate required capacity of all 
exits that discharge through it, unless one of the following 
conditions applies: 

(1 ) *Where an exit passageway serves occupants of the level of 

exit discharge as well as other stories, the capacity shall 
not be required to be aggregated. 

(2) As provided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 of NFPA 101, 
an exit passageway in a mall building shall be permitted to 
accommodate occupant loads independently from the 
mall and the tenant spaces. (See 36.2.2. 7.2 and 37.2.2. 7.2 
of NFPA 101.) [101:7.2.6.4] 



14.8 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

14.8.1 Occupant Load. 

14.8.1.1 Sufficient Capacity for Occupant Load. The total ca- 
pacity of the means of egress for any story, balcony, tier, or 
other occupied space shall be sufficient for the occupant load 
thereof. [101:7.3.1.1] 

14.8.1.2* Occupant Load Factor. The occupant load in any 
building or portion thereof shall be not less than the num- 
ber of persons determined by dividing the floor area as- 
signed to that use by the occupant load factor for that use as 
specified in Table 14.8.1.2 and Figure 14.8.1.2. Where both 
gross and net area figures are given for the same occupancy, 
calculations shall be made by applying the gross area figure 
to the gross area of the portion of the building devoted to 
the use for which the gross area figure is specified and by 
applying the net area figure to the net area of the portion of 
the building devoted to the use for which the net area fig- 
ure is specified. [101:7.3.1.2] 

14.8.1.3 Occupant Load Increases. 

14.8.1.3.1 The occupant load in any building or portion 
thereof shall be permitted to be increased from the occupant 
load established for the given use in accordance with 14.8.1.2 
where all other requirements of this Code are also met, based 
on such increased occupant load. [101:7.3.1.3.1] 

14.8.1.3.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to require an ap- 
proved aisle, seating, or fixed equipment diagram to substan- 
tiate any increase in occupant load and shall be permitted to 
require that such a diagram be posted in an approved loca- 
tion. [101:7.3.1.3.2] 

14.8.1.4 Exits Serving More than One Story. Where an exit 
serves more than one story, only the occupant load of each 
story considered individually shall be used in computing the 
required capacity of the exit at that story, provided that the 
required egress capacity of the exit is not decreased in the 
direction of egress travel. [101:7.3.1.4] 

14.8.1.5 Capacity from a Point of Convergence. Where 
means of egress from a story above and a story below con- 
verge at an intermediate story, the capacity of the means of 
egress from the point of convergence shall be not less than 
the sum of the capacity of the two means of egress. 
[101:7.3.1.5] 

14.8.1.6 Egress Capacity from Balconies and Mezzanines. 

Where any required egress capacity from a balcony or mezza- 
nine passes through the room below, that required capacity 
shall be added to the required egress capacity of the room 
below. [101:7.3.1.6] 

14.8.2 Measurement of Means of Egress. 

14.8.2. 1 The width of means of egress shall be measured in 
the clear at the narrowest point of the exit component un- 
der consideration, unless otherwise provided in 14.8.2.2. 
[101:7.3.2.1] 

14.8.2.2 Projections within the means of egress of not more 
than 4V£ in. (114 mm) on each side shall be permitted at a height 
of 38 in. (965 mm) and below. [101:7.3.2.2] 



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Table 14.8.1.2 Occupant Load Factoir 



Table 14.8.1.2 Continued 



Use 


ft 2 (per person) 1 


m 2 (per person) * 


Assembly Use 






Concentrated use, 


7 net 


0.65 net 


without fixed 






seating 






Less concentrated 


15 net 


1.4 net 


use, without fixed 






seating 






Bench-type seating 


1 person/18 


1 person/455 




linear in. 


linear mm 


Fixed seating 


Number of fixed 


Number of fixed 




seats 


seats 


Waiting spaces 


See 12.1.7.2 and 


See 12.1.7.2 and 




13.1.7.2 of 


13.1.7.2 of 




NFPA 101 


NFPA 101 


Kitchens 


100 


9.3 


Library stack areas 


100 


9.3 


Library reading 


50 net 


4.6 net 


rooms 






Swimming pools 


50 (water surface) 


4.6 (water 
surface) 


Swimming pool 


30 


2.8 


decks 






Exercise rooms with 


50 


4.6 


equipment 






Exercise rooms 


15 


1.4 


without equipment 






Stages 


15 net 


1.4 net 


Lighting and access 


100 net 


9.3 net 


catwalks, galleries, 






gridirons 






Casinos and similar 


11 


1 


gaming areas 






Skating rinks 


50 


4.6 


Educational Use 






Classrooms 


20 net 


1.9 net 


Shops, laboratories, 


50 net 


4.6 net 


vocational rooms 






Bay-Care Use 


35 net 


3.3 net 


Health Care Use 






Inpatient treatment 


240 


22.3 


departments 






Sleeping 


120 


11.1 


departments 






Detention and 


120 


11.1 


Correctional Use 






Residential Use 






Hotels and 


200 


18.6 


dormitories 






Apartment buildings 


200 


18.6 


Board and care, large 


200 


18.6 


Industrial Use 






General and high 


100 


9.3 


hazard industrial 






Special purpose 


NA 


NA 


industrial 






Business Use 


100 


9.3 



Use 



ft 2 (per person) 1 mm 2 (per person) 1 



Storage Use (other 
than mercantile 
storerooms) 

Mercantile Use 
Sales area on street 

floor 2 ' 3 
Sales area on two or 

more street floors 3 
Sales area on floor 

below street 

floor 3 
Sales area on floors 

above street 

floor 3 
Floors or portions of 

floors used only 

for offices 
Floors or portions of 

floors used only 

for storage, 

receiving, and 

shipping, and not 

open to general 

public 
Mall buildings 4 



NA 



30 



40 



30 



60 



NA 



2.8 



3.7 



2.8 



5.6 



See business use in 
NFPA 101 

300 



See business use in 
NFPA 101 

27.9 



Per factors 
applicable to 
use of space 5 



Per factors 
applicable to 
use of space 5 



Note: NA = not applicable. The occupant load is the maximum prob- 
able number of occupants present at any time. 
'All factors are expressed in gross area unless marked "net." 
2 For the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies where, due to differences in grade of streets on different sides, 
two or more floors direcdy accessible from streets (not including al- 
leys or similar back streets) exist, each such floor is permitted to be 
considered a street floor. The occupant load factor is one person for 
each 40 ft 2 (3.7 m 2 ) of gross floor area of sales space. 
3 For the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies with no street floor, as defined in 3.3.216 of NFPA 101, but 
with access directly from the street by stairs or escalators, the floor at 
the point of entrance to the mercantile occupancy considered the 
street floor. 

4 For any food court or other assembly occupant load areas located in 
the mall that are not included as a portion of the gross leasable area of 
the mall building, the occupant load is calculated based on the occu- 
pant load factor for that use as specified in this table. The remaining 
mall area is not required to be assigned an occupant load, 
^he portions of the mall, that are considered a pedestrian way and 
not used as gross leasable area, are not required to be assessed an 
occupant load based on this table. However, means of egress from a 
mall pedestrian way are required to be provided for an occupant load 
determined by dividing the gross leasable area of the mall building 
(not including anchor stores) by the appropriate lowest whole num- 
ber occupant load factor from Figure 14.8.1.2. 

Each individual tenant space is required to have means of egress to 
the outside or to the mall based on occupant loads figured by using 
the appropriate occupant load factor from this table. 

Each individual anchor store is required to have means of egress 
independent of the mall. 
Source: Table 7.3.1.2 of NFPA 101. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



oo 






^*' 












***** 










,;- " 










s 




. 






. ,«:* : _ 




50 






-£ 










z 




CM 




> 


7 








/ 






,_ . 




/ 






o 45 




f 






o 




/ 






i? 




/ 










/ 






g 40 




/ 








/ 






, , 




* 






c 




/ 










/ 






f? 35 




/ 














o 










O 




















Ort 










< 


L^ 






^V 



100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 
Gross leasable area (ft 2 x 1000) 

Note: For SI units, 1ft 2 = 0.093 m 2 . 

FIGURE 14.8.1.2 Mall Building Occupant Load Factors. 
[101:Figure 7.3.1.2(b)] 



14.8.3 Egress Capacity. 

14.8.3.1 Egress capacity for approved components of means 
of egress shall be based on the capacity factors shown in 
Table 14.8.3.1. [107:7.3.3.1] 



Table 14.8.3.1 Capacity Factors 





Stairways (width 
per person) 


Level Components 

and Ramps (width 

per person) 


Area 


in. 


mm 


in. 


nun 


Board and care 


0.4 


10 


0.2 


5 


Health care, 


0.3 


7.6 


0.2 


5 


sprinklered 
Health care, 


0.6 


15 


0.5 


13 


nonsprinklered 
High hazard 


0.7 


18 


0.4 


10 


contents 










All others 


0.3 


7.6 


0.2 


5 



Source: Table 7.3.3.1 of NFPA 101. 



14.8.3.2 The required capacity of a corridor shall be the oc- 
cupant load that utilizes the corridor for exit access divided by 
the required number of exits to which the corridor connects, 
but the corridor capacity shall be not less than the required 
capacity of the exit to which the corridor leads. [101:7.3.3.2] 

14.8.3.3 Minimum Width. 

14.8.3.3.1 The width of any means of egress, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.8.3.3.1.1 through 14.8.3.3.1.3, shall be as follows: 

(1) Not less than that required for a given egress component 
in Chapter 7 or Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101 

(2) Not less than 36 in. (915 mm) [101:7.3.4.1] 



14.8.3.3.1.1* The width of exit access that is formed by furni- 
ture and movable partitions, that serves not more than six 
people, and that has a length not exceeding 50 ft (15 m) shall 
meet both of the following criteria: 

(1) The width shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) at and 
below a height of 38 in. (965 mm) , and not less than 28 in. 
(710 mm) above a height of 38 in. (965 mm). 

(2) A width of not less than 36 in. (915 mm) for new exit 
access, and not less than 28 in. (710 mm) for existing exit 
access, shall be capable of being provided without moving 
permanent walls. [101:7.3.4.1.1] 

14.8.3.3.1.2 In existing buildings, the width of exit access 
shall be permitted to be not less than 28 in. (710 mm). 
[101:7.3.4.1.2] 

14.8.3.3.1.3 The requirement of 14.8.3.3.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Doors as otherwise provided for in 7.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 

(2) Aisles and aisle accessways in assembly occupancies as 
otherwise provided in Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 of 
NFPA 101 

(3) Industrial equipment access as otherwise provided in 
Chapter 40 of NFPA 101 [101:7.3.4.1.3] 

14.8.3.3.2 Where a single exit access leads to an exit, its ca- 
pacity in terms of width shall be not less than the required 
capacity of the exit to which it leads. [101:7.3.4.2] 

14.8.3.3.3 Where more than one exit access leads to an exit, 
each shall have a width adequate for the number of persons it 
accommodates. [101:7.3.4.3] 

14.9 Number of Means of Egress. 

14.9.1 General. 

14.9.1.1 The number of means of egress from any balcony, 
mezzanine, story, or portion thereof shall be not less than two, 
except under one of the following conditions: 

(1) Where a single means of egress is permitted in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 1 01 

(2) Where a single means of egress is permitted for a mezza- 
nine or balcony and the common path of travel limita- 
tions of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 are 
met [101:7.4.1.1] 

14.9.1.2 The number of means of egress from any story or 
portion thereof, other than for existing buildings as permitted 
in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, shall be as 

follows: 

(1) Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000 — 
not less than 3 

(2) Occupant load more than 1000 — not less than 4 
[101:7.4.1.2] 

14.9.1.3 Accessible means of egress in accordance with 7.5.4 
of NFPA 101 that do not utilize elevators shall be permitted to 
serve as any or all of the required minimum number of means 
of egress. [101:7.4.1.3] 

14.9.1.4 The occupant load of each story considered indi- 
vidually shall be required to be used in computing the number 
of means of egress at each story, provided that the required 
number of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of 
egress travel. [101:7.4.1.4] 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-101 



14.9.1.5 Doors other than the hoistway door; the elevator car 
door; and doors that are readily openable from the car side 
without a key, a tool, special knowledge, or special effort, shall 
be prohibited at the point of access to an elevator car. 

[101:7.4.1.5] 

14.9.1.6 Elevator lobbies shall have access to at least one exit. 
Such exit access shall not require the use of a key, a tool, spe- 
cial knowledge, or special effort. [101:7.4.1.6] 

14.10 Arrangemeiniit of Means of Egress. 

14.10.1 General. 

14.10.1.1 Exits shall be located and exit access shall be ar- 
ranged so that exits are readily accessible at all times. 
[101:7.5.1.1] 

14.10.1.1.1* Where exits are not immediately accessible from 
an open floor area, continuous passageways, aisles, or corri- 
dors leading direcdy to every exit shall be maintained and 
shall be arranged to provide access for each occupant to not 
less than two exits by separate ways of travel, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [101:7.5.1.1.1] 

14.10.1.1.2 Exit access corridors shall provide access to not 
less than two approved exits, unless otherwise provided in 

14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [101:7.5.1.1.2] 

14.10.1.1.3 The requirement of 14.10.1.1.1 and 14.10.1.1.2 
shall not apply where a single exit is permitted in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [101:7.5.1.1.3] 

14.10.1.1.4 Where common paths of travel are permitted for 
an occupancy in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, 
such common paths of travel shall be permitted but shall not 
exceed the limit specified. [101:7.5.1.1.4] 

14.10.1.2 Corridors shall provide exit access without passing 
through any intervening rooms other than corridors, lobbies, 
and other spaces permitted to be open to the corridor, unless 
otherwise provided in 14.10.1.2.1 and 14.10.1.2.2. [101:7.5.1.2] 

14.10.1.2.1 Approved existing corridors that require passage 
through a room to access an exit shall be permitted to con- 
tinue to be used, provided that the following criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The path of travel is marked in accordance with Section 7.10 
of NFPA 101. 

(2) Doors to such rooms comply with 7.2.1 of NFPA 101. 

(3) Such arrangement is not prohibited by the applicable oc- 
cupancy chapter in NFPA 101. [101:7.5.1.2.1] 

14.10.1.2.2 Corridors that are not required to be fire resis- 
tance rated shall be permitted to discharge into open floor 
plan areas. [101:7.5.1.2.2] 

14.10.1.3 Remoteness shall be provided in accordance with 
14.10.1.3.1 through 14.10.1.3.7. [101:7.5.1.3] 

14.10.1.3.1 Where more than one exit is required from a 
building or portion thereof, such exits shall be remotely lo- 
cated from each other and shall be arranged and constructed 
to minimize the possibility that more than one has the poten- 
tial to be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condi- 
tion. [101:7.5.1.3.1] 

14.10.1.3.2* Where two exits or exit access doors are required, 
they shall be placed at a distance from one another not less 
than one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served, measured in a 
straight line between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit 



access doors, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.3.3 through 
14.10.1.3.5. [101:7.5.1.3.2] 

14.10.1.3.3 In buildings protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3, the minimum separation distance between 
two exits or exit access doors measured in accordance with 
14.10.1.3.2 shall be not less than one-third the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area 
to be served. [101:7.5.1.3.3] 

14.10.1.3.4 Where exit enclosures are provided as the re- 
quired exits in 14.10.1.3.2 and are interconnected by not less 
than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit separation 
shall be permitted to be measured along the line of travel 
within the corridor. [101:7.5.1.3.4] 

14.10.1.3.5 In existing buildings, where more than one exit 
or exit access door is required, such exits or exit access doors 
shall be permitted to be remotely located in accordance with 
14.10.1.3.1. [101:7.5.1.3.5] 

14.10.1.3.6 Where more than two exits or exit access doors 
are required, at least two of the required exits or exit access 
doors shall be arranged to comply with the minimum separa- 
tion distance requirement. [101:7.5.1.3.6] 

14.10.1.3.7 The balance of the exits or exit access doors 
specified in 14.10.1.3.6 shall be located so that, if one becomes 
blocked, the others shall be available. [101:7.5.1.3.7] 

14.10.1.4 Interlocking or scissor stairs shall comply with 
14.10.1.4.1 and 14.10.1.4.2. [101:7.5.1.4] 

14.10.1.4.1 New interlocking or scissor stairs shall be permit- 
ted to be considered only as a single exit. [101:7.5.1.4.1] 

14.10.1.4.2* Existing interlocking or scissor stairs shall be per- 
mitted to be considered separate exits if they meet the follow- 
ing criteria: 

(1) They are enclosed in accordance with 7.1.3.2 of NFPA 101. 

(2) They are separated from each other by 2-hour fire 
resistance-rated noncombustible construction. 

(3) No protected or unprotected penetrations or communi- 
cating openings exist between the stair enclosures. 
[101:7.5.1.4.2] 

14.10.1.5* Exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead 
ends in corridors, unless permitted by, and limited to the length 
specified in, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.5.1.5] 

14.10.1.6 Exit access from rooms or spaces shall be permitted 
to be through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, pro- 
vided that such rooms or areas are accessory to the area 
served. Foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as 
required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening 
rooms. Exit access shall be arranged so that it is not necessary 
to pass through any area identified under Protection from 
Hazards in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.5.1.6] 

14.10.2 Impediments to Egress. See also 7.1.9 and 7.2.1.5 of 
NFPA 101. [101:7.5.2] 

14.10.2.1 Access to an exit shall not be through kitchens, 
storerooms other than as provided in Chapter 36 and Chap- 
ter 37 of NFPA 101, restrooms, workrooms, closets, bed- 
rooms or similar spaces, or other rooms or spaces subject to 
locking, unless passage through such rooms or spaces is 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



permitted for the occupancy by Chapter 18, Chapter 19, 
Chapter 22, and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.5.2.1] 

14.10.2.2* Exit access and exit doors shall be designed and 
arranged to be clearly recognizable. [101:7.5.2.2] 

14.10.2.2.1 Hangings or draperies shall not be placed over 
exit doors or located so that they conceal or obscure any exit, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.10.2.2.2. [202:7.5.2.2.1] 

14.10.2.2.2 Curtains shall be permitted across means of 
egress openings in tent walls if the following criteria are met: 

(1) They are distinctly marked in contrast to the tent wall so 
as to be recognizable as means of egress. 

(2) They are installed across an opening that is at least 72 in. 
(1830 mm) width. 

(3) They are hung from slide rings or equivalent hardware so 
as to be readily moved to the side to create an unob- 
structed opening in the tent wall that is of the minimum 
width required for door openings. [202:7.5.2.2.2] 

14.10.2.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. 
[202:7.5.2.2.3] 

14.10.2.2.4 Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to any 
exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit. 

[202:7.5.2.2.4] 

14.10.3 Exterior Ways of Exit Access. 

14.10.3.1 Exit access shall be permitted to be by means of any 
exterior balcony, porch, gallery, or roof that conforms to the 
requirements of Chapter 7 of NFPA 101. [202:7.5.3.1] 

14.10.3.2 The long side of the balcony, porch, gallery, or simi- 
lar space shall be at least 50 percent open and shall be ar- 
ranged to restrict the accumulation of smoke. [202:7.5.3.2] 

14.10.3.3 Exterior exit access balconies shall be separated 
from the interior of the building by walls and opening protec- 
tives as required for corridors, unless the exterior exit access 
balcony is served by at least two remote stairs that can be ac- 
cessed without any occupant traveling past an unprotected 
opening to reach one of the stairs, or where dead ends on the 
exterior exit access do not exceed 240 in. (6100 mm). 
[202:7.5.3.3] 

14.10.3.4 Exterior exit access shall be arranged so that there 
are no dead ends in excess of those permitted for dead-end 
corridors in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[202:7.5.3.4] 

14.10.4 Accessible Means of Egress. 

14.10.4.1* Areas accessible to people with severe mobility im- 
pairment, other than in existing buildings, shall have not less 
than two accessible means of egress, unless otherwise provided 
in 14.10.4.1.2 through 14.10.4.1.4. [202:7.5.4.1] 

14.10.4.1.1 Access within the allowable travel distance shall 
be provided to not less than one accessible area of refuge or 
one accessible exit providing an accessible route to an exit 
discharge. [202:7.5.4.1.1] 

14.10.4.1.2 A single accessible means of egress shall be per- 
mitted from buildings or areas of buildings permitted to have 
a single exit. [202:7.5.4.1.2] 

14.10.4.1.3 Accessible means of egress shall not be required 
in health care occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3. [202:7.5.4.1.3] 



14.10.4.1.4 Exit access travel along the accessible means of 
egress shall be permitted to be common for the distances per- 
mitted as common paths of travel. [202:7.5.4.1.4] 

14.10.4.2 Where two accessible means of egress are required, 
the exits serving such means of egress shall be located at a dis- 
tance from one another not less than one-half the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to 
be served, measured in a straight line between the nearest edge 
of the exit doors or exit access doors, unless otherwise provided 
in 14.10.4.2.1 through 14.10.4.2.3. [202:7.5.4.2] 

14.10.4.2.1 Where exit enclosures are provided as the re- 
quired exits specified in 14.10.4.2 and are interconnected by 
not less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit sepa- 
ration shall be permitted to be measured along the line of 
travel within the corridor. [202:7.5.4.2.1] 

14.10.4.2.2 The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply to 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[202:7.5.4.2.2] 

14.10.4.2.3 The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply 
where the physical arrangement of means of egress prevents 
the possibility that access to both accessible means of egress 
will be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition 
as approved by the AHJ. [202:7.5.4.2.3] 

14.10.4.3 Each required accessible means of egress shall be 
continuous from each accessible occupied area to a public way 
or area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2 of NFPA 101. 
[202:7.5.4.3] 

14.10.4.4 Where an exit stair is used in an accessible means of 
egress, it shall comply with 7.2.12.2.3 of NFPA 101 and shall 
either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged story- 
level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge. 

[202:7.5.4.4] 

14.10.4.5 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, an elevator shall be in accordance with 7.2.12.2.4 of 
NFPA 101. [202:7.5.4.5] 

14.10.4.6 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 8.5 of 
NFPA 101 with not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, or a 
horizontal exit in accordance with 7.2.4 of NFPA 101, shall 
discharge to an area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12 of 
NFPA 101. [202:7.5.4.6] 

14.10.4.7 Accessible stories that are four or more stories 
above or below a story of exit discharge shall have not less than 
one elevator complying with 14.10.4.5. [202:7.5.4.7] 

14.11 Discharge from Exits. 

14.11.1* Exit Termination. Exits shall terminate directly, at a 
public way or at an exterior exit discharge, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.11.1.2 through 14.11.1.4. [202:7.7.1] 

14.11.1.1 Yards, courts, open spaces, or other portions of the 
exit discharge shall be of required width and size to provide all 
occupants with a safe access to a public way. [202:7.7.1.1] 

14.11.1.2 The requirement of 14.11.1 shall notapply to interior 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.2. [202:7.7.1.2] 



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14.11.1.3 The requirement of 14.11.1 shall not apply to rooftop 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.6. [101:7.7.1.3] 

14.11.1.4 Means of egress shall be permitted to terminate 
in an exterior area of refuge for detention and correctional 
occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chap- 
ter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7. .7.1 .4] 

14.11.2 Discharge through Areas on Level of Exit Discharge. 
Not more than 50 percent of the capacity of the required num- 
ber of exits, and not more than 50 percent of the required 
egress capacity, shall be permitted to discharge through areas 
on the level of exit discharge, unless otherwise permitted in 
14.11.2.1 and 14.11.2.2, provided that the criteria of 14.11.2.3 
through 14.11.2.6 are met. [101:7.7.2] 

14.11.2.1 One hundred percent of the exits shall be permit- 
ted to discharge through areas on the level of exit discharge in 
detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided 
in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.7.2.1] 

14.11.2.2 In existing buildings, the 50 percent limit on egress 
capacity shall not apply if the 50 percent limit on the required 
number of exits is met. [101:7.7.2.2] 

14.11.2.3 The discharge specified in 14.11.2 shall lead to a 
free and unobstructed way to the exterior of the building, and 
such way shall be readily visible and identifiable from the 
point of discharge from the exit. [101:7.7.2.3] 

14.11.2.4 The level of discharge shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3, or the portion of the level of discharge used 
for discharge shall be protected by an approved, automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and shall be 
separated from the nonsprinklered portion of the floor by a 
fire resistance rating meeting the requirements for the enclo- 
sure of exits. (See 7.1.3.2.1 of NFPA 101.) [101:7.7.2.4] 

14.11.2.5 The requirement of 14.1 1.2.4 shall not apply where 
the discharge area is a vestibule or foyer that meets all of the 
following criteria: 

( 1 ) The depth from the exterior of the building shall be not 
more than 120 in. (3050 mm), and the length shall be not 
more than 360 in. (9140 mm). 

(2) The foyer shall be separated from the remainder of the 
level of discharge by construction providing protection 
not less than the equivalent of wired glass in steel frames. 

(3) The foyer shall serve only as means of egress and shall 
include an exit directly to the outside. [101:7.7.2.5] 

14.11.2.6 The entire area on the level of discharge shall be 
separated from areas below by construction having a fire resis- 
tance rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.11.2.7. [101:7.7.2.6] 

14.11.2.7 Levels below the level of discharge in an atrium 
shall be permitted to be open to the level of discharge where 
such level of discharge is protected in accordance with 8.6.7 of 
NFPA 101. [101:7.7.2.7] 

14.11.3 Arrangement and Marking of Exit Discharge. The exit 
discharge shall be arranged and marked to make clear the 
direction of egress to a public way. Stairs shall be arranged so 
as to make clear the direction of egress to a public way. Stairs 
that continue more than one-half story beyond the level of exit 
discharge shall be interrupted at the level of exit discharge by 
partitions, doors, or other effective means. [101:7.7.3] 



14.11.4 Components of Exit Discharge. Doors, stairs, ramps, 
corridors, exit passageways, bridges, balconies, escalators, 
moving walks, and other components of an exit discharge 
shall comply with the detailed requirements of this chapter for 
such components. [101:7.7.4] 

14.11.5 Signs. See 7.2.2.5.4 of NFPA 101. 

14.11.6 Discharge to Roof. Where approved by the AHJ, exits 
shall be permitted to discharge to roofs or other sections of 
the building or an adjoining building where the following cri- 
teria are met: 

( 1 ) The roof/ceiling assembly construction has a fire resistance 
rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure. 

(2) A continuous and safe means of egress from the roof is 
available. [101:7.7.6] 

14.12 Hluuraimation of Means of Egress. 

14.12.1 General. 

14.12.1.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 14.12 for every building and struc- 
ture where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101. For the purposes of this requirement, exit access 
shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, 
escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the pur- 
poses of this requirement, exit discharge shall include only 
designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, 
and exit passageways leading to a public way. [101:7.8.1.1] 

14.12.1.2 Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous 
during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that 
the means of egress be available for use, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 14.12.1.2.2. [101:7.8.1.2] 

14.12.1.2.1 Artificial lighting shall be employed at such loca- 
tions and for such periods of time as are necessary to maintain 
the illumination to the minimum criteria values herein speci- 
fied. [101:7.8.1.2.1] 

14.12.1.2.2 Automatic, motion sensor-type lighting switches 
shall be permitted within the means of egress, provided that 
the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation, the 
illumination timers are set for a minimum 15-minute dura- 
tion, and the motion sensor is activated by any occupant move- 
ment in the area served by the lighting units. [101:7.8.1.2.2] 

14.12.1.3* The floors and other walking surfaces within an 
exit and within the portions of the exit access and exit dis- 
charge designated in 14.12.1.1 shall be illuminated as follows: 

( 1 ) During conditions of stair use, the minimum illumination 
for new stairs shall be at least 10 ft-candle (108 lux) , mea- 
sured at the walking surfaces. 

(2) The minimum illumination for floors and walking sur- 
faces, other than new stairs, shall be to values of at least 
1 ft-candle (10.8 lux) measured at the floor. 

(3) In assembly occupancies, the illumination of the floors of 
exit access shall be at least 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) during 
periods of performances or projections involving directed 
light. 

(4)*The minimum illumination requirements shall not apply 
where operations or processes require low lighting levels. 
[101:7.8.1.3] 

14.12.1.4* Required illumination shall be arranged so that the 
failure of any single lighting unit does not result in an illumi- 
nation level of less than 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) in any desig- 
nated area. [101:7.8.1.4] 



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14.12.1.5 The equipment or units installed to meet the re- 
quirements of Section 7.10 of NFPA 101 also shall be permit- 
ted to serve the function of illumination of means of egress, 
provided that all requirements of Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 for 
such illumination are met. [707:7.8.1.5] 

14.12.2 Sources of niuinuiation. 

14.12.2.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be from a 
source considered reliable by the AHJ. [707:7.8.2.1] 

14.12.2.2 Battery-operated electric lights and other types of 
portable lamps or lanterns shall not be used for primary illu- 
mination of means of egress. Battery-operated electric lights 
shall be permitted to be used as an emergency source to the 
extent permitted under Section 7.9 of NFPA 101. [707:7.8.2.2] 

14.13 Emergency Lighting. 

14.13.1 General. 

14.13.1.1* Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 14.13 for the 
following: 

(1) Buildings or structures where required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Underground and limited access structures as addressed 
in Section 11.7 of NFPA 101 

(3) High-rise buildings as required by NFPA 101 

(4) Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks 

(5) Stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, for 
which the following also apply: 

(a) The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to in- 
clude a standby generator that is installed for the 
smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equip- 
ment. 

(b) The standby generator shall be permitted to be used 
for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting 
power supply. [707:7.9.1.1] 

14.13.1.2 For the purposes of 14.13.1.1, exit access shall in- 
clude only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escala- 
tors, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of 
14.13.1.1, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, 
ramps, aisles, walkways, and escalators leading to a public way. 
[707:7.9.1.2] 

14.13.1.3 Where maintenance of illumination depends on 
changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not 
more than 10 seconds shall be permitted. [701:7.9.1.3] 

14.13.2 Periodic Testing of Emergency Lighting Equipment. 

14.13.2.1 Required emergency lighting systems shall be 
tested in accordance with one of the three options offered by 
14.13.2.1.1, 14.13.2.1.2, or 14.13.2.1.3. [707:7.9.3.1] 

14.13.2.1.1 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Functional testing shall be conducted at 30-day intervals 
for not less than 30 seconds. 

(2) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than VA hours if the emergency lighting system is 
battery powered. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 
14.13.2.1.1(1) and 14.13.2.1.1(2). 



(4) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be 
kept by the owner for inspection by the AHJ. 
[707:7.9.3.1.1] 

14.13.2.1.2 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall automatically perform not less 
than once every 30 days a test for not less than 30 seconds 
and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a status 
indicator. 

(4) A visual inspection shall be performed at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 30 days. 

(5) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than IV2 hours. 

(6) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the du- 
ration of the IV2 hour test. 

(7) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept 
by the owner for inspection by the AHJ. [707:7.9.3.1 .2] 

14.13.2.1.3 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Computer-based, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated 
emergency lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform not less than once every 30 days a test for not less 
than 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform annually a test for not less than 1 ¥2 hours. 

(4) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 
14.13.2.1.3(2) and 14.13.2.1.3(3). 

(5) The computer-based system shall be capable of providing 
a report of the history of tests and failures at all times. 
[707:7.9.3.1.3] 

14.14 Marking of Means of Egress. 

14.14.1 General. 

14.14.1.1 Where Required. Means of egress shall be marked in 
accordance with Section 14.14 where required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [707:7.10.1.1] 

14.14.1.2* Exits. Exits, other than main exterior exit doors 
that obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be 
marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any 
direction of exit access. [707:7.10.1.2] 

14.14.1.3 Exit Stair Door Tactile Signage. Tactile signage shall 
be provided to meet the following criteria, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.14.1.4: 

(1) Tactile signage shall be located at each exit door requir- 
ing an exit sign. 

(2) Tactile signage shall read as follows: EXIT. 

(3) Tactile signage shall comply with CABO/ANSI A117.1, 
American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Build- 
ings and Facilities. [707:7.10.1.3] 

14.14.1.4 Existing Exemption. The requirements of 14.14.1.3 
shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occu- 
pancy classification does not change. [707:7.10.1.4] 



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14.14.1.5 ExitAccess. 

14.14.1.5.1 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, 
readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach 
the exit is not readily apparent to the occupants. 
[701:7.10.1.5.1] 

14.14.1.5.2* New sign placement shall be such that no point in 
an exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing dis- 
tance or 100 ft (30 m), whichever is less, from the nearest sign. 
[101:7.10.1.5.2] 

14.14.1.6* Floor Proximity Exit Signs. Where floor proximity 
exit signs are required in Chapter 1 1 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101, such signs shall be located near the floor level in 
addition to those signs required for doors or corridors. The 
signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 7.10.5 of NFPA 
101. Externally illuminated signs shall be sized in accordance 
with 7.10.6.1 of NFPA 101. The bottom of the sign shall be not 
less than 6 in. (150 mm) but not more than 18 in. (455 mm) 
above the floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted on 
the door or adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the 
sign within 4 in. (100 mm) of the doorframe. [101:7.10.1.6] 

14.14.1.7* Floor Proximity Egress Path Marking. Where floor 
proximity egress path marking is required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, a listed and approved floor 
proximity egress path marking system that is internally illumi- 
nated shall be installed within 18 in. (455 mm) of the floor. 
The system shall provide a visible delineation of the path of 
travel along the designated exit access and shall be essentially 
continuous, except as interrupted by doorways, hallways, cor- 
ridors, or other such architectural features. The system shall 
operate continuously or at any time the building fire alarm 
system is activated. The activation, duration, and continuity of 
operation of the system shall be accordance with 7.9.2 of NFPA 
101. [101:7.10.1.7] 



14.14.1.8* 'VisibMity. Every sign required in Section 14.14 shall 
be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it 
is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, 
interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or 
equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. 
No brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), 
display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required 
exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall 
be permitted. [101:7.10.1.8] 

14.14.1.9 Mounting Location. The bottom of new egress 
markings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more 
than 80 in. (2030 mm) above the top edge of the egress 
opening intended for designation by that marking. Egress 
markings shall be located at a horizontal distance of not 
more than the required width of the egress opening, as 
measured from the edge of the egress opening intended for 
designation by that marking to the nearest edge of the 
marking. [101:7.10.1.9] 

14.14.2* Directional Signs. A sign complying with 7.10.3 of 
NFPA 101 with a directional indicator showing the direction of 
travel shall be placed in every location where the direction of 
travel to reach the nearest exit is not apparent. [101:7.10.2] 

14.14.3* Sign Legend. 

14.14.3.1 Signs required by 14.14.1 and 14.14.2 shall read as 
follows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording 
shall be used: EXIT. [101:7.10.3.1] 



14.14.3.2* Where approved by the AHJ, pictograms shall be 
permitted. [101:7.10.3.2] 

14.14.4* Power Source. Where emergency lighting facilities 
are required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 for individual occupan- 
cies, the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs, 
shall be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. 
The level of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance 
with 14.14.5.2.1 or 14.14.5.2.2 for the required emergency 
lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1 of NFPA 101. How- 
ever, the level of illumination shall be permitted to decline 
to 60 percent at the end of the emergency lighting dura- 
tion. [101:7.10.4] 

14.14.5 Illunniination of Signs. 

14.14.5.1* General. Every sign required by 14.14.1.2 or 
14.14.1.4, other than where operations or processes require 
low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable 
light source. Externally and internally illuminated signs shall 
be legible in both the normal and emergency lighting mode. 
[101:7.10.5.1] 

14.14.5.2* Continuoms ffluiminatiom. 

14.14.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 14.14.6.3 
and 14.14.6.4 shall be continuously illuminated as required 
under the provisions of Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 unless other- 
wise provided in 14.14.5.2.2. [101:7.10.5.2.1] 

14.14.5.2.2* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash 
on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system. 
[101:7.10.5.2.2] 

14.14.6 Externally ffluinimffited Signs. 
14.14.6.1* Size of Signs. 



14.14.6.1.1 Externally illuminated signs required by 14.14.1 
and 14.14.2, other than approved existing signs, unless other- 
wise provided in 14.14.6.1.2, shall read EXIT, or other appro- 
priate wording shall be used, in plainly legible letters sized as 
follows: 

(1) For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 6 in. 
(150 mm) high, with the principal strokes of letters not 
less than S A in. (19 mm) wide. 

(2) For existing signs, the required wording shall be permit- 
ted to be in plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. 
(100 mm) high. 

(3) The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 
2 in. (51 mm), except the letter I, and the minimum spac- 
ing between letters shall be not less than % in. (9.5 mm). 

(4) Sign legend elements larger than the minimum estab- 
lished in 14.14.6.1.1(1) through 14.14.6.1.1(3) shall use 
letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their 
height. [101:7.10.6.1.1] 

14.14.6.1.2 The requirements of 14.14.6.1.1 shall not apply to 
marking required by 14.14.1.3 and 14.14.1.5. [101:7.10.6.1.2] 

14.14.6.2* Size and Location of Directional Indicator. 

14.14.6.2.1 Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided 
in 14.14.6.2.2, shall comply with the following: 

(1) The directional indicator shall be located outside of 
the EXIT legend, not less than 3 /s in. (9.5 mm) from any 
letter. 



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(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

(5) 



The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as 
shown in Figure 14.14.6.2.1. 

The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a direc- 
tional indicator at a distance of 40 ft (12 m). 
A directional indicator larger than the minimum estab- 
lished for compliance with 14.14.6.2.1 (3) shall be propor- 
tionately increased in height, width, and stroke. 
The directional indicator shall be located at the end of 
the sign for the direction indicated. [101:7.10.6.2.1] 




FIGURE 14.14.6.2.1 Chevron-Type Indicator. [101:Figure 
7.10.6.2.1] 



14.14.6.2.2 The requirements of 14.14.6.2.1 shall not apply 
to approved existing signs. [101:7.10.6.2.2] 

14.14.6.3* Level of Illumination. Externally illuminated signs 
shall be illuminated by not less than 5 ft-candles (54 lux) at the 
illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less 
than 0.5. [101:7.10.6.3] 

14.14.6.4 Internally Illuminated Signs. 

14.14.6.4.1 Listing. Internally illuminated signs, shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 924, Standard for Emergency Light- 
ing and Power Equipment, unless they meet one of the following 
criteria: 

(1) They are approved existing signs. 

(2) They are existing signs having the required wording in 
legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high. 

(3) They are signs that are in accordance with 14.14.1.3 and 
14.14.1.6 [101:7.10.7.1]. 

14.14.6.4.2* Photoluminescent Signs. The face of a photolu- 
minescent sign shall be continually illuminated while the 
building is occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the 
photoluminescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. 
The charging illumination shall be a reliable light source as 
determined by the AHJ. The charging light source shall be of a 
type specified in the product markings. [101:7.10.7.2] 

14.14.6.5 Special Signs. 

14.14.6.5.1 Sign Illumination. 

14.14.6.5.1.1 Where required by other provisions of this Code, 
special signs shall be illuminated. [101:7.10.8.1.1] 

14.14.6.5.1.2 Where emergency lighting facilities are re- 
quired by the applicable provisions of Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, the required illumination of special 
signs shall additionally be provided under emergency lighting 
conditions. [101:7.10.8.1.2] 

14.14.6.5.2 Characters. Special signs, where required by 
other provisions of this Code, shall comply with the visual char- 
acter requirements of ICC/ ANSI All 7.1 American National 



Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. 
[101:7.10.8.2] 

14.14.6.5.3* No Exit. 

14.14.6.5.3.1 Any door, passage, or stairway that is neither an 
exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or arranged so 
that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be identified by 
a sign that reads as follows: NO EXIT. [101:7.10.8.3.1] 

14.14.6.5.3.2 The NO EXIT sign shall have the word NO in 
letters 2 in. (51 mm) high, with a stroke width of % in. 
(9.5 mm), and the word EXIT in letters 1 in. (25 mm) high, 
with the word EXIT below the word NO, unless such sign is an 
approved existing sign. [101:7.10.8.3.2] 

14.15 Secondary Means of Escape. 

14.15.1 
101. 



Secondary means of escape shall comply with NFPA 



14.15.2 Where approved on secondary means of egress, secu- 
rity bars, grates, grilles, or similar devices shall be equipped 
with approved release mechanisms that are releasable from 
the inside without the use of a tool, a key, special knowledge, 
or force greater than that which it takes for normal operation 
of the door or window. 



Chapter 15 Planned Building Groups 

15.1 Applicability. Chapter 15 shall apply to planned building 
groups in suburban and rural areas that the AHJ determines 
would be impacted by one or more of the following during a 
fire: 

( 1 ) Limited water supply 

(2) Limited fire department resources 

(3) Extended fire department response time 

(4) Delayed alarms 

(5) Limited access 

(6) Hazardous vegetation 

(7) Unusual terrain 

(8) Other unusual characteristics 

15.1.1 This chapter does not apply to farms or to mobile 
homes or recreational vehicle parks. (See Chapter 27.) 

15.2 Compliance. Planned building groups shall comply with 
NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building 
Groups. 

15.3 Plans. Plans for the planned building group shall be sub- 
mitted to the AHJ for review and approval. 



Chapter 16 Safeguards During Building 

Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations 

16.1 General Requirements. 

16.1.1 Structures undergoing construction, alteration, or 
demolition operations, including those in underground lo- 
cations, shall comply with NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguard- 
ing Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations, and 
this chapter. 

16.1.2 A fire protection plan shall be established where re- 
quired by the AHJ. 



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16.1.3 In buildings under construction, adequate escape fa- 
cilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of construc- 
tion workers. Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walkways, 
stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved means 
or devices arranged in accordance with the general principles 
of NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code 9 , insofar as they can reasonably 
be applied to buildings under construction. [101:4.6.11.2] 

16.1.4 Fire department access roads provided in accordance 
with Section 18.2 of this Code shall be provided at the start of a 
project and shall be maintained throughout construction. 

16.1.5 Permanent fire department access road markings shall 
not be required until the building is complete or occupied for 
use. 

16.2 Processes and Hazards. 

16.2.1 Temoporanry Heating Equipment. 

16.2.1.1 Temporary heating equipment shall be listed and 
shall be installed, used, and maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. [241:5.2.1] 

16.2.1.2 Chimney or vent connectors, where required from 
direct-fired heaters, shall be maintained at least 18 in. 
(457 mm) from combustibles and shall be installed in accor- 
dance with 11.5.4. [241:5.2.2] 

16.2.1.3 Oil-fired heaters shall comply in design and installa- 
tion features with Section 11.5. [241:5.2.3] 

16.2.1.4 Fuel supplies for liquefied petroleum gas-fired heat- 
ers shall comply with Chapter 69. [241:5.2.4] 

16.2.1.5* Refueling operations shall be conducted in an ap- 
proved manner. [241:5.2.5] 

16.2.1.6 Heating devices shall be situated so that they are 
secured. [241:5.2.6] 

16.2.1.7 Heating devices shall be installed in accordance with 
their listing, including clearance to combustible material, 
equipment, or construction. [241:5.2.7] 

16.2.1.8* Temporary heating equipment, where utilized, shall 
be monitored for safe operation and maintained by properly 
trained personnel. [241:5.2.8] 

16.2.2 Waste Disposal. 

16.2.2.1* Accumulations of combustible waste material, dust, 
and debris shall be removed from the structure and its imme- 
diate vicinity at the end of each work shift or more frequently 
as necessary for safe operations. [241:5.4.1] 

16.2.2.2 Rubbish shall not be burned on the premises with- 
out first obtaining a permit from the AHJ. [241:5.4.2] 

16.2.2.3 Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such 
as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. 
[241:5.4.3] 

16.2.2.4* When a trash chute is used, an approved safety plan 
shall be submitted to the AHJ. [241:5.4.4] 

16.2.3 Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Flammable 



16.2.3.1 Storage. 

16.2.3.1.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 66. 

Exception: Where modified by 16.2.3. [241:5.5.1.1] 



16.2.3.1.2* Storage of Class I and Class II liquids shall not 
exceed 60 gal (227 L) within 50 ft (15 m) of the structure. 
[241:5.5.1.2] 

16.2.3.1.3 Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, 
and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. 

[241:5.5.1.3] 

16.2.3.1.4 Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted 
in flammable and combustible liquids storage areas. 

[241:5.5.1.4] 

16.2.3.1.5 Such storage areas shall be appropriately posted as 
"no smoking" areas. [241:5.5.1.5] 

16.2.3.2 Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids at 
Point of Final Use. 

16.2.3.2.1 Class I and Class II liquids shall be kept in ap- 
proved safety containers. [241:5.5.2.1] 

16.2.3.2.2 Means shall be provided to dispose of leakage and 
spills promptly and safely. [241:5.5.2.2] 

16.2.3.2.3* Class I liquids shall be dispensed only where there 
are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the 
possible path of vapor travel. [241:5.5.2.3] 

16.2.3.3 Storage and Handling of Combustible and Flam- 
mable Gases. 

16.2.3.3.1 Storage and handling of combustible and flammable 
gases shall be in accordance with Chapter 69. [241:5.5.3.1] 

16.2.3.3.2 Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted 
in flammable gas storage areas. [241:5.5.3.2] 

16.3 Fke Protection. 

16.3.1 Fire Safety Program. An overall construction or demo- 
lition fire safety program shall be developed; essential items to 
be emphasized include the following: 

(1) Good housekeeping 

(2) On-site security 

(3) Installation of new fire protection systems as construction 
progresses 

(4) Preservation of existing systems during demolition 

(5) Organization and training of an on-site fire brigade 

(6) Development of a prefire plan with the local fire department 

(7) Rapid communication 

(8) Consideration of special hazards resulting from previous 
occupancies 

(9) Protection of existing structures and equipment from ex- 
posure fires resulting from construction, alteration, and 
demolition operations [241:7.1] 

16.3.2 Owner's Responsibility for Fine Protection. 

16.3.2.1* The owner shall designate a person who shall be 
responsible for the fire prevention program and who shall en- 
sure that it is carried out to completion. [241:7.2.1] 

16.3.2.1.1 This fire prevention program manager shall have 
the authority to enforce the provisions of this and other appli- 
cable fire protection standards. [241:7.2.1.1] 

16.3.2.1.2 The fire prevention program manager shall have 
knowledge of the applicable fire protection standards, avail- 
able fire protection systems, and fire inspection procedures. 

[241:7.2.1.2] 

16.3.2.1.3 Inspection records shall be available for review by 
the AHJ. [241:7.2.1.3] 



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16.3.2.2 Where guard service is provided, the manager shall 
be responsible for the guard service. [241:7.2.2] 

16.3.3* Prefire Plans. 

16.3.3.1 Where there is public fire protection or a private fire 
brigade, the manager shall be responsible for the develop- 
ment of prefire plans in conjunction with the fire agencies. 
[241:7.2.3.1] 

16.3.3.2 Prefire plans shall be updated as necessary. 
[241:7.2.3.2] 

16.3.3.3 The prefire plan shall include provisions for on-site 
visits by the fire agency. [241:7.2.3.3] 

16.3.4 Program Manager Responsibilities. 

16.3.4.1 The manager shall be responsible for ensuring that 
proper training in the use of protection equipment has been 
provided. [241:7.2.4.1] 

16.3.4.2 The manager shall be responsible for the presence 
of adequate numbers and types of fire protection devices and 
appliances and for their proper maintenance. [241:7.2.4.2] 

16.3.4.3 The manager shall be responsible for supervising 
the permit system for hot work operations. (See Section 5.1 of 
NFPA241.) [241:7.2.4.3] 

16.3.4.4 A weekly self-inspection program shall be imple- 
mented with records maintained and made available. 

[241:7.2.4.4] 

16.3.4.5* Impairments to the fire protection systems or fire 
alarm, detection, or communications systems shall be au- 
thorized only by the fire prevention program manager. 

[241:7.2.4.5] 

16.3.4.6 Temporary protective coverings used on fire protec- 
tion devices during renovations, such as painting, shall be re- 
moved prompdy when work has been completed in the area. 
[241:7.2.4.6] 

16.3.5 Site Security. 

16.3.5.1* Guard service shall be provided where required by 
theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.1] 

16.3.5.2* Where guard service is provided, the guard (s) shall 
be trained in the following: 

(1) Notification procedures that include calling the fire de- 
partment and management personnel 

(2) Knowledge of fire protection equipment 

(3) Familiarization with fire hazards 

(4) Use of construction elevators [241:7.2.5.2] 

16.3.5.3 Guards shall be informed of any special status of 
emergency equipment or hazards. [241:7.2.5.3] 

16.3.5.4* Security fences shall be provided where required by 
theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.4] 

16.3.5.5* Entrances (e.g., doors and windows) to the structure 
under construction, alteradon, or demolition shall be secured 
where required by theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.5] 

16.3.6* Fire Alarm Reporting. 

16.3.6.1 There shall be a readily available public fire alarm 
box near the premises, telephone service to the responding 
fire department, or equivalent facilities. [241:7.4.1] 



16.3.6.2 Instructions shall be issued for the immediate notifi- 
cation of the fire department in the case of a fire. Where tele- 
phone service is employed, the local fire department number 
and site address shall be conspicuously posted near each tele- 
phone. [241:7.4.2] 

16.3.7 Access for Fire Fighting. 

16.3.7.1 Asuitable location at the site shall be designated as a 
command post and provided with plans, emergency informa- 
tion, keys, communications, and equipment, as needed. 

[241:7.5.1] 

16.3.7.2 The person in charge of fire protection shall re- 
spond to the location command post whenever fire occurs. 
[241:7.5.2] 

16.3.7.3 Where access to or within a structure or an area is 
unduly difficult because of secured openings or where imme- 
diate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting pur- 
poses, the AHJ shall be permitted to require a key box to be 
installed in an accessible location. [241:7.5.3] 

16.3.7.4 The key box shall be an approved type and shall 
contain keys to gain access as required by theAHJ. [241:7.5.4] 

16.3.7.5 Stairs. 

16.3.7.5.1 In all buildings over one story in height, at least 
one stairway shall be provided that is in usable condition at all 
times and that meets the requirements of NFPA 101 m , Life 
Safety Code®. [241:7.5.6.1] 

16.3.7.5.2 This stairway shall be extended upward as each 
floor is installed in new construction and maintained for each 
floor still remaining during demolition. [241:7.5.6.2] 

16.3.7.5.3 The stairway shall be lighted. [241:7.5.6.3] 

16.3.7.5.4 During construction, the stairway shall be en- 
closed where the building exterior walls are in place. 
[241:7.5.6.4] 

16.3.8 Standpipes. In all new buildings in which standpipes 
are required or where standpipes exist in buildings being al- 
tered or demolished, such standpipes shall be maintained in 
conformity with the progress of building construction in such 
a manner that they are always ready for use. [241:7.6] 

16.3.9* First-Aid Fire-Fighting Equipment. 

16.3.9.1* The suitability, distribution, and maintenance of 
extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 13.6. 

[241:7.7.1] 

16.3.9.2 Wherever a toolhouse, storeroom, or other shanty is 
located in or adjacent to the building under construction or 
demolition, or where a room or space within that building is 
used for storage, a dressing room, or a workshop, at least one 
approved extinguisher shall be provided and maintained in 
an accessible location. 

Exception: This requirement shall be permitted to be waived where the 
structure does not exceed 150 ft 2 (14 m 2 ) in floor area or is equipped 
with automatic sprinklers or other approved protection. [241: 7. 7. 2] 

16.3.9.3 At least one approved fire extinguisher also shall be 
provided in plain sight on each floor at each usable stairway as 
soon as combustible material accumulates. [241:7.7.3] 

16.3.9.4 Suitable fire extinguishers shall be provided on self- 
propelled equipment. [241:7.7.4] 



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16.3.9.5* Free access to permanent, temporary, or portable 
first-aid fire equipment shall be maintained at all times. 

[241:7.7.5] 

16.4 Safeguarding Construction and Alteration Operations. 
16.4.1* Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forms. 

16.4.1.1 Accumulations of unnecessary combustible forms or 
form lumber shall be prohibited. [241:8.2.1] 

16.4.1.2 Combustible forms or form lumber shall be brought 
into the structure only when needed. [241:8.2.2] 

16.4.1.3 Combustible forms or form lumber shall be re- 
moved from the structure as soon as stripping is complete. 

[241:8.2.3] 

16.4.1.4 Those portions of the structure where combustible 
forms are present shall not be used for the storage of other 
combustible building materials. [241:8.2.4] 

16.4.1.5* During forming and stripping operations, portable fire 
extinguishers or charged hose lines shall be provided to protect 
the additional combustible loading adequately. [241:8.2.5] 

16.4.2 Temporary Separation Walls. 

16.4.2.1 Protection shall be provided to separate an occupied 
portion of the structure from a portion of the structure undergo- 
ing alteration, construction, or demolition operations when such 
operations are considered as having a higher level of hazard than 
the occupied portion of the building. [241:8.6.2.1] 

16.4.2.2 Walls shall have at least a 1-hour fire resistance rat- 
ing. [241:8.6.2.2] 

16.4.2.3 Opening protectives shall have at least a 45-minute 
fire protection rating. [241:8.6.2.3] 

16.4.2.4* Nonrated walls and opening protectives shall be per- 
mitted when an approved automatic sprinkler system is in- 
stalled. [241:8.6.2.4] 

16.4.3 Fire Protection During Construction. 

16.4.3.1 Water Supply. 

16.4.3.1.1* A water supply for fire protection, either tempo- 
rary or permanent, shall be made available as soon as combus- 
tible material accumulates. [241:8.7.2.1] 

16.4.3.1.2 There shall be no delay in the installation of fire 
protection equipment. (SeeA.8.2.5 ofNFPA 241.) [241:8.7.2.2] 

1 6.4.3. 1 .3 Where underground water mains and hydran ts are 
to be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and in ser- 
vice prior to construction work. [241:8.7.2.3] 

16.4.3.2 Sprinkler Protection. 

16.4.3.2.1* If automatic sprinkler protection is to be provided, 
the installation shall be placed in service as soon as practi- 
cable. [241:8.7.3.1] 

16.4.3.2.2 The details of installation shall be in accordance 
with Section 13.3. [241:8.7.3.2] 

16.4.3.2.3 Where sprinklers are required for safety to life, the 
building shall not be occupied until the sprinkler installation 
has been entirely completed and tested so that the protection 
is not susceptible to frequent impairment caused by testing 
and correction. 



Exception: This provision shall not prohibit occupancy of the lower 
floors of a building, even where the upper floors are in various 
stages of construction or protection, provided the following condi- 
tions are satisfied: 

(1) The sprinkler protection of the lower occupied floors is completed 
and tested in accordance with 8. 7.3.3 ofNFPA 241. 

(2) The sprinkler protection of the upper floors is supplied by entirely 
separate systems and separate control valves so that the absence or 
incompleteness of protection in no way impairs the sprinkler pro- 
tection of the occupied lower floors. [241:8. 7.3.3] 

16.4.3.2.4 The operation of sprinkler control valves shall be 
permitted only by properly authorized personnel and shall be 
accompanied by the notification of duly designated parties. 
[241:8.7.3.4] 

16.4.3.2.5 Where the sprinkler protection is regularly turned 
off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed seg- 
ments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end 
of each work shift to ascertain that protection is in service. 

[241:8.7.3.5] 

16.4.3.3 Stan 



16.4.3.3.1 General. 

16.4.3.3.1.1* The pipe size, hose valves, hose, water supply, 
and other details for new construction shall be in accordance 
with Section 13.2. [241:8.7.4.1.1] 

16.4.3.3.1.2* On permanent Type II and Type III standpipes, 
hose and nozzles shall be provided and made ready for use as 
soon as the water supply is available to the standpipe. 

Exception: In combined systems where occupant hose is not required, 
temporary hose and nozzles shall be provided during construction. 
[241:8.7.4.1.2] 

16.4.3.3.2 Standpipe Installations in Buildings under Con- 
struction. Where required by the AHJ, in buildings under con- 
struction, a standpipe system, either temporary or permanent 
in nature, shall be installed in accordance with 16.4.3.3.2.1 
through 16.4.3.3.2.9. [241:8.7.4.2] 

16.4.3.3.2.1 The standpipes shall be provided with conspicu- 
ously marked and readily accessible fire department connec- 
tions on the outside of the building at the street level and shall 
have at least one standard hose oudet at each floor. 
[241:8.7.4.2.1] 

16.4.3.3.2.2 The pipe sizes, hose valves, hose, water supply, 
and other details for new construction shall be in accordance 
with this Code. [241:8.7.4.2.2] 

16.4.3.3.2.3 The standpipes shall be securely supported and 
restrained at each alternate floor. [241:8.7.4.2.3] 

16.4.3.3.2.4* At each floor level, at least one approved hose 
valve for attaching fire department hose shall be provided. 

[241:8.7.4.2.4] 

16.4.3.3.2.5 Valves shall be kept closed at all times and 
guarded against mechanical injury. [241:8.7.4.2.5] 

16.4.3.3.2.6 A hose valve(s) shall have NH standard external 
threads for the valve size specified in accordance with 
NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections. 

Exception: Where local fire department connections do not conform to 
NFPA 1963, the AHJ shall designate the connection to be used. 
[241:8.7.4.2.6] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



16.4.3.3.2.7* The standpipes shall be extended up with each 
floor and shall be securely capped at the top. [241:8.7.4.2.7] 

16.4.3.3.2.8 Top hose oudets shall be not more than one 
floor below the highest forms, staging, and similar combus- 
tibles at all times. [241:8.7.4.2.8] 

16.4.3.3.2.9 Temporary standpipes shall remain in service 
until the permanent standpipe installation is complete. 
[241:8.7.4.2.9] 

16.4.4 Alteration of Buildings. 

16.4.4.1 Where the building is protected by fire protection 
systems, such systems shall be maintained operational at all 
times during alteration. 

16.4.4.2 Where alteration requires modification of a portion 
of the fire protection system, the remainder of the system shall 
be kept in service and the fire department shall be notified. 

16.4.4.3 When it is necessary to shut down the system, the 
AHJ shall have the authority to require alternate measures of 
protection until the system is returned to service. 

16.4.4.4 The fire department shall be notified when the sys- 
tem is shut down and when the system is returned to service. 

16.4.4.5 All required exit components shall be maintained in 
accordance with this Code as deemed necessary by the AHJ. 

16.4.4.6 Fire-resistive assemblies and construction shall be 
maintained. 

16.5 Fire Safety During Demolition. 

16.5.1 If a building intended to be demolished contains a 
sprinkler system, such system shall not be rendered inopera- 
tive without approval of the AHJ. 

16.5.2 Demolition operations involving the use of cutting 
and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 41 of 
this Code. 

16.5.3 Combustible waste material shall not be burned at the 
demolition site unless approved by the AHJ. Combustible ma- 
terials shall be removed from the site as often as necessary to 
minimize the hazards therefrom. 

16.5.4 Where in the opinion of the AHJ the demolition site is 
of a hazardous nature, qualified personnel shall serve as an 
on-site fire watch. 

16.6 Torch-Applied Roofing Systems. 

16.6.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

16.6.2 Torch-applied roofing systems shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguard- 
ing Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations. 

16.7 Tar Kettles. 
16.7.1 General. 

16.7.1.1 The provisions of Section 16.6 shall apply to any type 
of equipment including, but not limited to, chassis-mounted 
equipment used for preheating or heating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for roofs, floors, pipes, or similar objects. 

16.7.1.2 Permits, where required, shall comply with 1.12.19. 

16.7.1.3 Operating ketdes shall not be located inside of or on 
the roof of any building. 



16.7.1.4 Tar Kettle Location. The kettle shall be operated in a 
controlled area. The area shall be identified by the use of traf- 
fic cones, barriers, and other suitable means as approved by 
the AHJ. 

16.7.1.5 Kettle Supervision. 

16.7.1.5.1 An operating ketde shall be attended by a mini- 
mum of one employee who is knowledgeable of the opera- 
tions and hazards. 

16.7.1.5.2 The employee shall be within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the 
ketde and shall have the kettle within sight. 

16.7.1.6 Fire Extinguishers. 

16.7.1.6.1 Two approved 20-B:C fire extinguishers shall be 
provided and maintained within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the operating 
ketde. 

16.7.1.6.2 Fire extinguishers shall be mounted in an acces- 
sible and visible or identified location. 

16.7.1.7 Exits. 

16.7.1.7.1 Roofing kettles shall not block exits, means of 
egress, gates, roadways, or entrances. 

16.7.1.7.2 Ketdes shall not be closer than 10 ft (3 m) from 
exits or means of egress. 

16.7.2 Fuel System. 

16.7.2.1 Fuel containers shall be constructed and approved 
for the use for which they were designed. 

16.7.2.2 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) containers, hose, 
regulators, and burners shall conform to the specifications in 
Chapter 69. 

16.7.2.3 LP-Gas cylinders shall be secured to prevent acciden- 
tal tipover. 

16.7.2.4 LP-Gas cylinders, hose, regulators, and burners shall 
conform to the requirements of Chapter 69. 

16.7.2.5 Regulators shall be required on any cylinders. 

16.7.2.6 Where, in the opinion of the AHJ, there is danger of 
physical damage to the container, protection shall be pro- 
vided to prevent such physical damage. 

16.7.2.7 LP-Gas containers for roofing ketdes shall not be 
used in any building. 

16.7.3 Maintenance. 

16.7.3.1 Roofing ketdes and all integral working parts shall 
be in good working condition and shall be maintained free of 
excessive residue. 

16.7.3.2 All piping used for pumping heated material to the 
roof shall be installed in a manner to prevent loss of heated 
material. 

16.7.3.3 Flexible steel piping shall not be used on the vertical 
extension of piping systems. 

16.7.3.4 Flexible steel piping shall be limited to those con- 
nections that are immediately adjacent to the pump kettle or 
discharge outlet. 

16.7.3.5 No single length of flexible piping shall exceed 6 ft 
(1.8 m) in length, and all piping shall be able to withstand a 
pressure of at least four times the working pressure of the 
pump. 



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1-111 



16.7.3.6 Roofing Kettle Boors. 

16.7.3.6.1 All roofing kettles shall have doors permanently 
attached. 

16.7.3.6.2 Roofing kettle doors shall be installed in a work- 
manlike manner and shall be provided with handles that allow 
them to be opened without the operator having to stand in 
front of same. 

16.7.3.6.3 All ketdes shall have an approved, working visible 
temperature gauge that indicates the temperature of the ma- 
terial being heated. 

16.7.3.7 All ketde doors shall be tighdy closed and latched 
when in transit. 

16.7.4 Construction. 

16.7.4.1 The materials and methods of construction of roof- 
ing ketdes shall be acceptable to the AHJ. 

16.7.4.2 Minim rmiim Requirements. 

16.7.4.2.1 Paragraph 16.7.4.2 shall apply to all roofing ketdes 
or tar pots in excess of 1 gal (3.8 L) capacity. 

16.7.4.2.2 No roofing ketde shall have a capacity in excess of 
five barrels. 

16.7.4.2.3 Roofing ketdes of two-barrel capacity or less shall 
be constructed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less 
than 0.105 in. (No. 12 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge). 
Ketdes of more than two-barrel capacity shall be constructed 
of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 0.135 in. (No. 
10 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge). All supports, corners, 
and the top and bottom of the fire box shall be bound with 
angle iron or other reinforcements approved by the AHJ. All 
doors shall be hinged, closely fitted, and adequately latched. 
Fire boxes shall be of sufficient height from the ground or 
shall be provided with a system of shields or insulation to pre- 
vent heat damage to the street surface. 

16.7.4.2.4 Lids that can be gravity operated shall be provided 
on all roofing ketdes. The tops and covers of all kettles shall be 
constructed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 
0.075 in. (No. 14 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge) that is 
close fitting and attached to the ketde with hinges that allow 
gravity to close the lid. 

16.7.4.2.5 The chassis shall be substantially constructed and 
capable of carrying the load imposed upon it whether it is 
standing still or being transported. 

16.7.4.2.6 Fuel containers, burners, and related appurte- 
nances of roofing ketdes in which LP-Gas is used for heating 
shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 69. 

16.7.4.2.7 Fuel containers that operate under air pressure 
shall not exceed 20 gal (76 L) in capacity and shall be subject 
to the approval of the AHJ. 

16.7.4.2.8 All fuel containers shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with applicable NFPA codes and standards or shall be at 
least 10 ft (3 m) from the burner flame or at least 2 ft (0.6 m) 
therefrom when properly insulated from heat or flame. 

16.8 Asbestos Removal. 

16.8.1 Notification. The AHJ and the fire department shall be 
notified 24 hours prior to the commencement and closure of 
asbestos removal operations. 



16.8.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

16.8.3 Signs. Approved signs shall be posted at the entrance, 
exit and exit access door, decontamination areas, and waste 
disposal areas for asbestos removal operations. 

16.8.3.1 The signs shall state that asbestos is being removed 
from the area, that asbestos is a suspected carcinogen, and 
that proper respiratory protection is required. 

16.8.3.2 Signs shall have a reflective surface and lettering 
shall be a minimum of 2 in. (5 cm) high. 



Chapter 17 WHdlaed Urban Interface 

17.1 General. The planning, construction, maintenance, edu- 
cation, and management elements for the protection of life and 
property from wildfire shall comply with NFPA 1144, Standard for 
Protection of Life and Properly from Wildfire, and Chapter 17. 

17.2 Plans. The plans for construction and development 
within the wildland urban interface shall be submitted to the 
AHJ for review and approval. 

17.3 WMdland Fire-Prone Areas. 

17.3.1* Safeguards. Safeguards to prevent the occurrence of 
fires and to provide adequate fire protection and mitigation 
measures in hazardous fire areas shall be provided and main- 
tained in accordance with Section 17.3. 

17.3.2* Permits and Approvals. Permits for use of hazardous 
areas shall not be issued when public safety would be at risk, as 
determined by the AHJ. (See 1.12.19 for additional requirements 
for permits.) 

17.3.3 Restricted Entry. 

17.3.3.1 The AHJ shall determine and publicly announce 
when hazardous fire areas shall be closed to entry, and when 
such areas shall again be opened to entry. 

17.3.3.2 Unauthorized persons shall not be permitted to en- 
ter or remain in closed hazardous fire areas. 

17.3.3.3 Signs. Approved signs prohibiting entry by unautho- 
rized persons shall be placed on every closed area and access 
point. 

17.3.4 Use of Flammable Materials and Procedures. 

17.3.4.1 Smoking. Lighting, igniting, or otherwise setting fire 
to any smoking material shall be prohibited unless within 
structures or smoking areas approved by the AHJ. (See Section 
10.10 for additional requirements on smoking.) 

17.3.4.2 Tracer Bullets, Tracer Charges, Rockets, and Model 
Aircraft. 

17.3.4.2.1 Tracer bullets and tracer charges shall not be pos- 
sessed, fired, or caused to be fired into or across hazardous fire 



17.3.4.2.2 Rockets, model planes, gliders, and balloons pow- 
ered with an engine, propellant, or other feature liable to start 
or cause fire shall not be fired or projected into or across 
hazardous fire areas. 

17.3.4.3 Explosives and Blasting. Explosives shall not be pos- 
sessed, kept, stored, sold, offered for sale, given away, used, 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE T 



discharged, transported, or disposed of within hazardous fire 
areas except as permitted by the AHJ. (See Chapter 65 for addi- 
tional guidance. ) 

17.3.4.4 Fireworks. Fireworks shall not be used or possessed 
in hazardous fire areas unless permitted by the AHJ. (See Chap- 
ter 65 for additional guidance.) 

17.3.4.5 Apiaries. Lighted and smoldering material used in 
connection with smoking bees shall not be allowed in or upon 
hazardous fire areas except by permit from the AHJ. 

17.3.4.6 Open-Flanie Devices. 

17.3.4.6.1* Welding torches, tar pots, decorative torches, and 
other devices, machines, or processes liable to start or cause 
fire shall not be operated or used in or upon hazardous fire 
areas, except by permit from the AHJ. 

17.3.4.6.2 Flame-employing devices, such as lanterns or kero- 
sene road flares, and fuses shall not be operated or used as a 
signal or marker in or upon hazardous fire areas unless at the 
scene of emergencies or railroad operations. (See Chapter 16 
and Chapter 65 for additional guidance.) 

17.3.4.7 Outdoor Fires. 

17.3.4.7.1* Outdoor fires shall not be built, ignited, or main- 
tained in or upon hazardous fire areas, except by permit from 
the AHJ. 

17.3.4.7.2 Permanent barbecues, portable barbecues, out- 
door fireplaces, or grills shall not be used for the disposal of 
rubbish, trash, or combustible waste material. (See Section 10. 11 
for additional guidance.) 

17.3.4.8 Incinerators and Fireplaces. 

17.3.4.8.1 Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, permanent bar- 
becues, and grills shall not be built, installed, or maintained in 
hazardous fire areas without prior approval of the AHJ. 

17.3.4.8.2 Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, permanent bar- 
becues, and grills shall be maintained in good repair and in a 
safe condition at all times. 

17.3.4.8.3 Openings in incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, per- 
manent barbecues, and grills shall be provided with an ap- 
proved spark arrester, screen, or door. 

17.3.4.9 Spark Arresters. Chimneys used in conjunction with 
outdoor fireplaces, barbecues, incinerators, or heating appli- 
ances in which solid or liquid fuel is used, upon buildings, 
structures, or premises located within 10 ft (3.05 m) of hazard- 
ous vegetation shall be provided with a spark arrester in accor- 
dance with Section 8.7 of NFPA 1144, Standard for Protection of 
Life and Property from Wildfire. 

17.3.5 Clearance of Brush and Vegetative Growth. 

17.3.5.1 Electrical Transmission Lines. 

17.3.5.1.1 Clearance of brush and vegetative growth from 
electrical transmission and distribution line(s) shall be pro- 
vided and maintained in accordance with 17.3.5.1. 

17.3.5.1.2 A combustible-free space around poles and towers 
shall consist of a clearing of not less than 1 ft (3.05 m) in each 
direction from the outer circumference of the pole or tower 
during such periods of time as designated by the AHJ. 

17.3.5.1.3 Trininiing Clearance. ■ 

17.3.5.1.3.1 At the time of trimming, clearances not less than 
those established by Table 17.3.5.1.3.1 shall be provided. 



Table 17.3.5.1.3.1 Minimum Clearances between Vegetation 
and Electrical Lines at Time of Trininiing 

Minimal Radial Clearance 
from Condiictor 



Line 



ft 



2400-72,000 
72,001-110,000 
110,001-300,000 
300,001 or more 



4 

6 

10 

15 



1.2 

1.8 
3.0 
4.6 



17.3.5.1.3.2 The radial clearances in Table 17.3.5.1.3.1 are 
minimum clearances that shall be established at time of trim- 
ming between the vegetation and the energized conductors 
and associated live parts. 

17.3.5.1.4 Clearances not less than those established by Table 
17.3.5.1.4 shall be maintained during such periods of time as 
designated by the AHJ. 

Table 17.3.5.1.4 Minimmn Clearances between Vegetation 
and Electrical Limes to Be Maintained 

Minimum Clearance 



Line 



ge 



Ml. 



750-35,000 

35,001-60,000 

60,001-115,000 

115,001-230,000 

230,001-500,000 



6 

12 

19 

30.5 

115 



15.2 
30.5 
48.3 
77.5 
292 



17.3.5.1.4.1 The site-specific clearance achieved, at the 
time of pruning, shall vary based on species' growth rates, 
the utility company specific trim cycle, the potential line 
sway due to wind, line sway due to electrical loading and 
ambient temperature, and the tree's location in proximity 
to the high voltage lines. 

17.3.5.1.4.2 The AHJ shall establish minimum clearances dif- 
ferent than those specified by Table 17.3.5.1.4 when evidence 
substantiating such other clearances is submitted to the AHJ 
and approved. 

17.3.5.1.5* Electrical Power Line Emergencies. During emer- 
gencies, the utility company shall perform the required work 
to the extent necessary to clear the hazard. 

17.3.5.2 Structures. 

17.3.5.2.1 Persons owning, leasing, controlling, operating, 
or maintaining buildings or structures in, upon, or adjoin- 
ing hazardous fire areas, and persons owning, leasing, or 
controlling land adjacent to such buildings or structures, 
shall maintain an effective defensible space in accordance 
with NFPA 1144, Standard for Protection of Life and Property 
from Wildfire. 

17.3.5.2.2 Where required by the AHJ because of extra haz- 
ardous conditions, additional areas shall be maintained to in- 
clude additional defensible space from buildings or struc- 
tures, trees adjacent to or overhanging a building shall be 



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maintained free of deadwood, and the roof of a structure shall 
be free of leaves, needles, or other dead vegetative growth. 

17.3.5.3 Roadways. Areas within 10 ft (3 m) on each side of 
portions of highways and private streets shall be cleared of 
combustible vegetation and other combustible growth. Single 
specimens of trees, shrubbery, or cultivated ground cover such 
as green grass, ivy, succulents, or similar plants used as ground 
covers, shall be permitted to be exempt provided that they do 
not form a means of readily transmitting fire. 

17.3.6 Unusual Circumstances. The AHJ shall determine that 
difficult terrain, danger of erosion, or other unusual circum- 
stances could require additional safeguards. 

17.3.7 Fine Roads, Firebreaks, and Emergency Access. 

17.3.7.1 The provisions of 17.3.9, NFPA 1141, Standard far Fire 
Protection in Planned Building Groups, and NFPA 1 1 44, Standard 
for Protection of Life and Property from Wildfire, shall be used to 
determine the design, clearances, and provisions for emer- 
gency access (ingress and egress). 

17.3.7.2 Unauthorized vehicles shall not be driven upon fire 
roads or firebreaks. Vehicles shall not be parked in a manner 
that obstructs the entrance to a fire road or firebreak. 

17.3.7.3 Radio and television aerials, guy wires, and other 
obstructions shall not be installed or maintained on fire roads 
or firebreaks unless the vertical clearance is sufficient to allow 
the movement of fire and emergency apparatus. 

17.3.7.4 Motorcycles, motor scooters, and motor vehicles 
shall not be operated within hazardous fire areas, except upon 
clearly established public or private roads. 

17.3.8 Tampering with Fine Safety Equipjnment See Section 10.8 
for requirements on tampering with fire safety equipment 

17.3.9 Maintenance. See Section 10.4 for requirements on 
maintenance. 



Chapter 18 Fire Departmeml Access and 
Water Sepply 

18.1 General. Fire department access and water supplies shall 
comply with this chapter. 

E8.2 Fine Department Access. 

18.2.1 Fire department access roads shall be provided and 
maintained in accordance with Section 18.2. 

18.2.2 Fire Department Access Roads. 

18.2.2.1 Required Access. Fire department access roads shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 18.2 for every facility, 
building, or portion of a building hereafter constructed or 
relocated. 

18.2.2.1.1 When there are not more than two one- and two- 
family dwellings or private garages, carports, sheds, and agri- 
cultural buildings, the requirements of 18.2.2.1 and 18.2.2.2 
shall be permitted to be modified by the AHJ. 

18.2.2.1.2 When access roads cannot be installed due to loca- 
tion on property, topography, waterways, nonnegotiable 
grades, or other similar conditions, the AHJ shall be autho- 
rized to require additional fire protection. 



18.2.2.2 Access to Building. A fire department access road 
shall extend to within 50 ft (15 m) of a single exterior door 
providing access to the interior of the building. 

18.2.2.3 Additional Requirements. 

18.2.2.3.1 Fire department access roads shall be provided 
such that any portion of the facility or any portion of an exte- 
rior wall of the first story of the building is located not more 
than 150 ft (46 m) from fire department access roads as mea- 
sured by an approved route around the exterior of the build- 
ing or facility. 

18.2.2.3.2 When buildings are protected with an approved 
automatic fire sprinkler system that is installed in accordance 
with NFPA 13, NFPA 13D, or NFPA 13R, the distance shall be 
permitted to be increased to 450 ft (137 m). 

18.2.2.4 Multiple Access Roads. More than one fire depart- 
ment access road shall be provided when it is determined by 
the AHJ that access by a single road could be impaired by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions, 
or other factors that could limit access. 

18.2.2.5 Specifications. 

18.2.2.5.1 Dimensions. 

18.2.2.5.1.1 Fire department access roads shall have an unob- 
structed width of not less than 20 ft (6.1 m) and an unob- 
structed vertical clearance of not less than 13 ft 6 in. (4.1 m). 

18.2.2.5.1.2 Vertical clearance shall be permitted to be re- 
duced, provided such reduction does not impair access by fire 
apparatus, and approved signs are installed and maintained 
indicating the established vertical clearance when approved. 

18.2.2.5.1.3 Vertical clearances or widths shall be increased 
when vertical clearances or widths are not adequate to accom- 
modate fire apparatus. 

18.2.2.5.2 Surface. Fire department access roads shall be de- 
signed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire 
apparatus and shall be provided with a surface suitable for 
all-weather driving capabilities. 

18.2.2.5.3 Turning Radius. The turning radius of a fire de- 
partment access road shall be as approved by the AHJ. 

18.2.2.5.4 Dead Ends. Dead-end fire department access roads 
in excess of 150 ft (46 m) in length shall be provided with 
approved provisions for the turning around of fire apparatus. 

18.2.2.5.5 Bridges. 

18.2.2.5.5.1 When a bridge is required to be used as part of a 
fire department access road, it shall be constructed and main- 
tained in accordance with nationally recognized standards. 

18.2.2.5.5.2 The bridge shall be designed for a live load suffi- 
cient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. 

18.2.2.5.5.3 Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both en- 
trances to bridges where required by the AHJ. 

18.2.2.5.6 Grade. 

18.2.2.5.6.1 The gradient for a fire department access road 
shall not exceed the maximum approved. 

18.2.2.5.6.2* The angle of approach and departure for any 
means of fire department access shall not exceed 1 ft drop in 
20 ft (0.3 m drop in 6 m) , and the design limitations of the fire 



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apparatus of the fire department shall be subject to approval 
bytheAHJ. 

18.2.2.5.7 Marking of Fire Apparatus Access Road. Where re- 
quired by the AHJ, approved signs or other approved notices 
shall be provided and maintained for fire department access 
roads to identify such roads, or prohibit the obstruction 
thereof, or both. 

18.2.3* Obstruction and Control of Fire Department Access 
Road. 

18.2.3.1 General. 

18.2.3.1.1 The required width of a fire department access 
road shall not be obstructed in any manner, including by the 
parking of vehicles. 

18.2.3.1.2 Minimum required widths and clearances estab- 
lished under 18.2.2.5.1 shall be maintained at all times. 

18.2.3.1.3 Entrances to roads, trails, or other accessways that 
have been closed with gates and barriers in accordance with 
18.2.3.2.1 shall not be obstructed by parked vehicles. 

18.2.3.2 Closure of Accessways. 

18.2.3.2.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to require the instal- 
lation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades 
across roads, trails, or other accessways, not including public 
streets, alleys, or highways. Where required, gates and barri- 
cades shall be secured in an approved manner. 

18.2.3.2.2 Roads, trails, and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by 18.2.3.2.1 
shall not be trespassed upon or used unless authorized by the 
owner and the AHJ. 

18.2.3.2.3 Public officers acting within their scope of duty 
shall be permitted to access restricted property identified in 
18.2.3.2.1. 

18.2.3.2.4 Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, 
signs, tags, or seals that have been installed by the fire depart- 
ment or by its order or under its control shall not be removed, 
unlocked, destroyed, tampered with, or otherwise vandalized 
in any manner. 

18.2.3.2.5 When authorized by the AHJ, public officers acting 
within their scope of duty shall be permitted to obtain access 
through secured means identified in 18.2.3.2.1. 

18.3 Water Supplies and Fire Hydrants. 

18.3.1* An approved water supply capable of supplying the 
required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to all 
premises upon which facilities, buildings, or portions of build- 
ings are hereafter constructed or moved into the jurisdiction. 

18.3.2* Where no adequate or reliable water distribution sys- 
tem exists, approved reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, 
fire department tanker shutdes, or other approved systems 
capable of providing the required fire flow shall be permitted. 

18.3.3* The number and type of fire hydrants and connec- 
tions to other approved water supplies shall be capable of de- 
livering the required fire flow and shall be provided at ap- 
proved locations. 

18.3.4 Fire hydrants and connections to other approved wa- 
ter supplies shall be accessible to the fire department. 



18.3.5 Private water supply systems shall be tested and main- 
tained in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, 
Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 



Chapter 19 Combustible Waste and Refuse 

19.1 General. 

19.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

19.1.2 No person owning or having control of any property 
shall allow any combustible waste material to accumulate in 
any area or in any manner that creates a fire hazard to life or 
property. 

19.1.3 Combustible waste or refuse shall be properly stored 
or disposed of to prevent unsafe conditions. 

19.1.4 Fire extinguishing capabilities approved by the AHJ 
including, but not limited to, fire extinguishers, water supply 
and hose, and earth-moving equipment shall be provided at 
waste disposal sites. 

1 9. 1 .5 Burning debris shall not be dumped at a waste disposal 
site except at a remote location on the site where fire extin- 
guishment can be accomplished before compacting, covering, 
or other disposal activity is carried out. (See Section 10.11 for 
additional guidance. ) 

19.1.6 Electrical Wiring. 

19.1.6.1 Electrical wiring and equipment in any combustible 
fiber storage room or building shall be installed in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 11.1 and NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code' 3 , for Class III hazardous locations. 

19.1.6.2 The AHJ shall be responsible for designating the 
areas that require hazardous location electrical classifications 
and shall classify the areas in accordance with the classification 
system set forth in NFPA 70. 

19.1.7 No Smoking. 

19.1.7.1 No smoking or open flame shall be permitted in any 
area where combustible fibers are handled or stored or within 
50 ft (15 m) of any uncovered pile of such fibers. 

19.1.7.2 "No Smoking" signs shall be posted. 

19.1.8 Vehicles or Conveyances Used to Transport Combus- 
tible Waste or Refuse. 

19.1.8.1 Vehicles or conveyances used to transport combus- 
tible waste or refuse over public thoroughfares shall have all 
cargo space covered and maintained tight enough to ensure 
against ignition from external fire sources and the scattering 
of burning and combustible debris that can come in contact 
with ignition sources. 

19.1.8.2 Transporting burning waste or refuse shall be 
prohibited. 

19.1.8.3 Trucks or automobiles, other than mechanical han- 
dling equipment and approved industrial trucks as listed in 
NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks In- 
cluding Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, 
and Operation, shall not enter any fiber storage room or build- 
ing but shall be permitted to be used at loading platforms. 



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19.2 Combustible Waste and Refuse. 
19.2.1 Rubbish Containers. 

19.2.1.1 General. Rubbish containers kept outside of rooms 
or vaults shall not exceed 40.5 ft 3 (1.15 m ) capacity. 

19.2.1.1.1 Containers exceeding a capacity of 5V6 ft 3 [40 gal 
(0.15 m 3 )] shall be provided with lids. 

19.2.1.1.2 Such containers and lids as described in 19.2.1.1.1 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or nonme- 
tallic materials complying with 19.2.1.2. 

19.2.1.2 NonmetaBic Containers. 

19.2.1.2.1 Nonmetallic rubbish containers exceeding a ca- 
pacity of 5'/3 ft 3 [40 gal (0.15 m 3 )] shall be manufactured of 
materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 
300 kW/m 2 at a flux of 50 kW/m 2 when tested in accordance 
with nationally recognized standards. 

19.2.1.2.2 Such containers shall be permanendy labeled indi- 
cating capacity and peak rate of heat release. 

19.2.1.3 Removal. Combustible rubbish stored in containers 
outside of noncombustible vaults or rooms shall be removed 
from buildings at least once each working day. 

19.2.1.4 Rubbish within Dumpsters. Dumpsters and contain- 
ers with an individual capacity of 1.5yd 3 [40.5ft 3 (1.15 m 3 )] or 
more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 10 ft 
(3 m) of combustible walls, openings, or combustible roof 
eave lines. 

19.2.1.4.1 Areas containing dumpsters or containers shall be 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system and en- 
closed with a fire resistance rating of 1 hour. 

19.2.1.4.2 Structures of Types I and II fire-resistive construc- 
tion used for dumpster or container storage shall be located 
not less than 10 ft (3 m) from openings and other buildings. 

19.2.1.5 Comnieirdal Rubbish-Handling Operations. Occu- 
pancies exclusively performing commercial rubbish handling 
or recycling shall maintain rubbish or product to be processed 
or recycled in one of the following ways: 

( 1 ) In approved vaults 

(2) In covered metal or metal-lined receptacles or bins 

(3) Completely baled and stacked in an orderly manner in an 
approved location 



Chapter 20 Occupancy Fire Safety 

20.1 Assembly Occupancies. 

20.1.1 Application. New and existing assembly occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.1 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.1.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

20.1.2 Flame-Retardant Requirements. 



20.1.2.1 Combustible scenery of cloth, film, vegetation (dry), 
and similar materials shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of 
Textiles and Films. [101:12.4.5.11.1; 101:13.4.5.11.1] 



20. 1 .2.2 Foamed plastics (see definition of cellular or foamed plas- 
tic in 3.3.30 of NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be used only by 
specific approval of the AHJ. [101:12.4.5.11.2; 101:13.4.5.11.2] 

20.1.2.3 Scenery and stage properties not separated from 
the audience by proscenium opening protection shall be of 
either noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. 
[101:12.4.5.11.3;101:13.4.5.11.3] 

20.1.2.4 In theaters, motion picture theaters, and television 
stage settings, with or without horizontal projections, and in 
simulated caves and caverns of foamed plastic, any single fuel 
package shall have a heat release rate not to exceed 100 kW 
where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests 
for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. [101:12.4.5.11.4; 
101:13.4.5.11.4] 

20.1.3* Special Aniusement Buildings. 

20.1.3.1* General. Special amusement buildings, regardless of 
occupant load, shall meet the requirements for assembly occu- 
pancies in addition to the requirements of 12.4.7 of NFPA 101, 
unless the special amusement building is a multilevel play 
structure that is not more than 120 in. (3050 mm) in height 
and has aggregate horizontal projections not exceeding 
160 ft' (15 m 2 ). [101:12.4.7.1; 101:13.4.7.1] 

20.1.3.2* Automatic Sprinklers. Every special amusement 
building, other than buildings or structures not exceeding 
120 in. (3050 mm) in height and not exceeding 160 ft 2 
(15 m 2 ) in aggregate horizontal projection, shall be protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system installed and maintained in accordance with Section 
13.3 . [101:12.4.7.2; 101:13.4.7.2] 

20.1.3.3 Temporary Water Supply. Where the special amuse- 
ment building required to be sprinklered by 20.1.3.2 is mov- 
able or portable, the sprinkler water supply shall be permit- 
ted to be provided by an approved, temporary means. 

[101:12.4.7.3; 101:13.4.7.3] 

20.1.3.4 Smoke Detection. Where the nature of the special 
amusement building is such that it operates in reduced light- 
ing levels, the building shall be protected throughout by an 
approved automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4. [101:12.4.7.4; 101:13.4.7.4] 

20.1.3.5 Alarm Initiation. Actuation of any smoke detection 
system device shall sound an alarm at a constandy attended 
location on the premises. [101:12.4.7.5, 101:13.4.7.5] 

20.1.3.6 Uluminaition. Actuation of the automatic sprinkler 
system, or any other suppression system, or actuation of a 
smoke detection system having an approved verification or 
cross-zoning operation capability shall provide the following: 

(1) Cause illumination in the means of egress to increase to 
that required by Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 

(2) Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visuals 
[101:12.4.7.6; 101:13.4.7.6] 

20.1.3.7 Exit Marking. 

20.1.3.7.1 Exit marking shall be in accordance with Section 
7.10 of NFPA 101. [101:12.4.7.7.1; 101:13.4.7.7.1] 

20. 1 .3.7.2 Floor proximity exit signs shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 7.10.1.6 of NFPA 101. [101:12.4.7.7.2; 101:13.4.7.7.2] 



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20.1.3.7.3* In special amusement buildings where mazes, mir- 
rors, or other designs are used to confound the egress path, ap- 
proved directional exit marking that becomes apparent in an 
emergency shall be provided. [101:12.4,7.7.3; 201:13.4.7.7.3] 

20.1.3.8 Interior Finish. Interior wall and ceiling finish mate- 
rials complying with Section 10.2 of NFPA 101 shall be Class A 
throughout. [101:12.4.7.8; 101:13.4.7.8] 

20.1.4 Operating Features. 

20.1.4.1 Special Provisions for Food Service Operations. 

20.1.4.1.1 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be installed and operated to avoid hazard to the 
safety of occupants. [101:12.7.1.1; 101:13.7.1.1] 

20.1.4.1.2 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be of an approved type and shall be installed in an 
approved manner. [101:12.7.1.2; 101:13.7.1.2] 

20.1.4.1.3 Food preparation facilities shall be protected in 
accordance with 9.2.3 of NFPA 101 and shall not be required 
to have openings protected between food preparation areas 
and dining areas. [101:12.7.1.3; 101:13.7.1.3] 

20.1.4.1.4 Portable cooking equipment that is not flue- 
connected shall be permitted only as follows: 

(1) Equipment fueled by small heat sources that can be 
readily extinguished by water, such as candles or alcohol- 
burning equipment, including solid alcohol, shall be per- 
mitted to be used, provided that precautions satisfactory 
to the AHJ are taken to prevent ignition of any combus- 
tible materials. 

(2) Candles shall be permitted to be used on tables used for 
food service where securely supported on substantial non- 
combustible bases located to avoid danger of ignition of 
combustible materials and only where approved by the 
AHJ. 

(3) Candle flames shall be protected. 

(4) "Flaming sword" or other equipment involving open 
flames and flamed dishes, such as cherries jubilee or 
crepe suzette, shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions subject to the approval of the AHJ are taken. 

(5)*Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food service 
appliances shall be permitted to be used where in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 
[101:12.7.1.4; 101:13.7.1.4] 

20.1.4.1.4.1 Peraiits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with 1.12.19. 

20.1.4.2 Open Flame Devices and Pyrotechnics. No open flame 
devices or pyrotechnic devices shall be used in any assembly 
occupancy, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Pyrotechnic special effect devices shall be permitted to be 
used on stages before proximate audiences for ceremo- 
nial or religious purposes, as part of a demonstration in 
exhibits, or as part of a performance, provided that both 
of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Precautions satisfactory to the AHJ are taken to pre- 
vent ignition of any combustible material. 

(b) Use of the pyrotechnic device complies with 
NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a 
Proximate Audience. 

(2) Flame effects before an audience shall be permitted in 
accordance with NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before 
an Audience. 



(3) Open flame devices shall be permitted to be used in the 
following situations, provided that precautions satisfac- 
tory to the AHJ are taken to prevent ignition of any com- 
bustible material or injury to occupants: 

(a)*For ceremonial or religious purposes 

(b) On stages and platforms where part of a performance 

(c) Where candles on tables are securely supported on 
substantial noncombustible bases and candle flame is 
protected 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to heat-producing 
equipment complying with 9.2.2 of NFPA 101. 

(5) This requirement shall not apply to food service opera- 
tions in accordance with 12.7.1 of NFPA 101. 

(6) Gas lights shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions are taken, subject to the approval of the 
AHJ, to prevent ignition of any combustible materials. 
[101:12.7.2; 101:13.7.2] 

20.1.4.2.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with 1.12.19. 

20.1.4.3 Furnishings, Decorations, and Scenery. 

20.1.4.3.1 Fabrics and films used for decorative purposes, all 
draperies and curtains, and similar furnishings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 20.1.4.3.2. [101:12.7.3.1; 
101:13.7.3.1] 

20.1.4.3.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [101:10.3.1] 

20.1.4.3.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. [101:10.3.5] 

20.1.4.3.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to re- 
tain the effectiveness of the treatment under service condi- 
tions encountered in actual use. [101:10.3.6] 

20.1.4.3.5 The AHJ shall impose controls on the quantity and 
arrangement of combustible contents in assembly occupan- 
cies to provide an adequate level of safety to life from fire. 
[101:12.7.3.2; 101:13.7.3.2] 

20.1.4.3.6* Exposed foamed plastic materials and unpro- 
tected materials containing foamed plastic used for decorative 
purposes or stage scenery shall have a heat release rate not 
exceeding 100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, 
Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Pur- 
poses. [101:12.7.3.3; 101:13.7.3.3] 

20.1.4.3.7 The requirement of 20.1.4.3.6 shall not apply to 
individual foamed plastic items and items containing foamed 
plastic where the foamed plastic does not exceed 1 lb (0.45 kg) 
in weight. [101:12.7.3.4; 101:13.7.3.4] 

20.1.4.4 Special Provisions for Exposition Facilities. 

20.1.4.4.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with 1.12.19. 

20.1.4.4.2 General. No display or exhibit shall be installed or 
operated to interfere in any way with access to any required 
exit or with the visibility of any required exit or required exit 
sign; nor shall any display block access to fire-fighting equip- 
ment. [101:12.7.4.1; 101:13.7.4.1] 



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20.1.4.4.3 Materials Not on Display. Astorage room having an 
enclosure consisting of a smoke barrier having a fire resistance 
rating of 1 hour and protected by an automatic extinguishing 
system shall be provided for combustible materials not on dis- 
play, including combustible packing crates used to ship ex- 
hibitors' supplies and products. [101:12.7.4.2; 101:13.7.4.2] 

20.1.4.4.4 Exhibits. 

20.1.4.4.4.1 Exhibits shall comply with 20.1.4.4.4.2 through 
20.1.4.4.4.11. [101:12.7.4.3.1; 101:13.7.4.3.1] 

20.1.4.4.4.2 The travel distance within the exhibit booth or 
exhibit enclosure to an exit access aisle shall not exceed 50 ft 
(15 m). [101:12.7.4.3.2; 101:13.7.4.3.2] 

20. 1 .4.4.4.3 The upper deck of multilevel exhibits exceeding 
300 ft 2 (28 m 2 ) shall have not less than two remote means of 
egress. [101:12.7.4.3.3; 101:13.7.4.3.3] 

20.1.4.4.4.4 Exhibit booths shall be constructed of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Noncombustible or limited-combustible materials 

(2) Wood exceeding l A in. (6.3 mm) nominal thickness or wood 
not exceeding Vt in. (6.3 mm) nominal thickness that is 
pressure-treated, fire-retardant wood meeting the require- 
ments of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated 
Wood and Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials 

(3)*Flame-retardant materials complying with NFPA 701, 
Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles 
and Films 

(4) Textile wall coverings, such as carpeting and similar prod- 
ucts used as wall or ceiling finishes, complying with the 
provisions of 10.2.2 and 10.2.4 of NFPA 101 

(5) Plastics limited to those that comply with 12.3.3 and Sec- 
tion 10.2 of NFPA 101 

(6) Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics 
having a heat release rate for any single fuel package that 
does not exceed 100 kW where tested in accordance with 
UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes 

(7) Cardboard, honeycombed paper, and other combustible 
materials having a heat release rate for any single fuel 
package that does not exceed 150 kW where tested in ac- 
cordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed 
Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes [101:12.7.4.3.4; 
101:13.7.4.3.4] 

20.1.4.4.4.5 Curtains, drapes, and decorations shall comply 
with the applicable portions of 20.1.4.3.2. [101:12.7.4.3.5; 
101:13.7.4.3.5] 

20.1.4.4.4.6 Acoustical and decorative material including, 
but not limited to, cotton, hay, paper, straw, moss, split bam- 
boo, and wood chips shall be flame-retardant treated to the 
satisfaction of the AHJ. [101:12.7.4.3.6; 101:13.7.4.3.6] 

(A) Materials that cannot be treated for flame retardancy 
shall not be used. [101:12.7.4.3.6.1; 101:13.7.4.3.6.1] 

(B) Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics 
and used as decorative objects such as, but not limited to, man- 
nequins, murals, and signs shall have a heat release rate for 
any single fuel package that does not exceed 150 kW where 
tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for 
Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. [101:12.7.4.3.6.2; 
101:13.7.4.3.6.2] 



(C) Where the aggregate area of acoustical and decorative 
materials is less than 10 percent of the individual floor or wall 
area, such materials shall be permitted to be used subject to 
the approval of the AHJ. [101:12.7.4.3.6.3; 101:13.7.4.3.6.3] 

20.1.4.4.4.7 The following shall be protected by automatic 
extinguishing systems: 

(1) Single-level exhibit booths exceeding 300 ft 2 (28 m 2 ) and 
covered with a ceiling 

(2) Each level of multilevel exhibit booths, including the up- 
permost level where the uppermost level is covered with a 
ceiling [101:12.7.4.3.7; 101:13.7.4.3.7] 

(A) The requirements of 20.1.4.4.4.7 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Ceilings that are constructed of open grate design or 
listed dropout ceilings in accordance with NFPA 13, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall not be con- 
sidered ceilings within the context of 20.1.4.4.4.7. 

(2) Vehicles, boats, and similar exhibited products having 
over 100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ) of roofed area shall be provided with 
smoke detectors acceptable to the AHJ. 

(3)*The requirement of 20.1.4.4.4.7(2) shall not apply 
where fire protection of multilevel exhibit booths is 
consistent with the criteria developed through a life 
safety evaluation of the exhibition hall in accordance 
with 12.4.1 of NFPA 101, subject to approval of the AHJ. 
[101:12.7.4.3.7.1; 101:13.7.4.3.7.1] 

(B) A single exhibit or group of exhibits with ceilings that do 
not require sprinklers shall be separated by a distance of not 
less than 120 in. (3050 mm) where the aggregate ceiling ex- 
ceeds 300 ft 2 (28 m 2 ). [101:12.7.4.3.7.2; 101:13.7.4.3.7.2] 

(C) The water supply and piping for the sprinkler system 
shall be permitted to be of an approved, temporary means that 
is provided by a domestic water supply, a standpipe system, or 
a sprinkler system. [101:12.7.4.3.7.3; 101:13.7.4.3.7.3] 

20.1.4.4.4.8 Open flame devices within exhibit booths shall 
comply with 20.1.4.2. [101:12.7.4.3.8; 101:13.7.4.3.8] 

20.1.4.4.4.9 Cooking and food-warming devices in exhibit 
booths shall comply with 12.7.1 of NFPA 101 and the following: 

(1) Gas-fired devices shall comply with the following: 

(a) Natural gas-fired devices shall comply with 9.1.1 of 
NFPA 101. 

(b) The requirement of 20.1. 4.4.4.9(1) (a) shall not apply 
to compressed natural gas where permitted by the 
AHJ. 

(c) The use of LP-Gas cylinders shall be prohibited. 

(d) Nonrefillable LP-Gas cylinders shall be approved for 
use where permitted by the AHJ. 

(2) The devices shall be isolated from the public by not less 
than 48 in. (1220 mm) or by a barrier between the devices 
and the public. 

(3) Multi-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall comply with 9.2.3 of NFPA 101. 

(4) Single-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall meet the following criteria: 

(a) They shall have lids available for immediate use. 

(b) They shall be limited to 288 in. 2 (0.2 m 2 ) of cooking 
surface. 

(c) They shall be placed on noncombustible surface 
materials. 



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(d) They shall be separated from each other by a horizon- 
tal distance of not less than 24 in. (610 mm). 

(e) The requirement of 20. 1.4.4. 4.9(4) (d) shall not apply 
to multiple single-well cooking equipment where the 
aggregate cooking surface area does not exceed 
288 in." (0.2 m 2 ). 

(f) They shall be kept at a horizontal distance of not less 
than 24 in. (610 mm) from any combustible material. 

(5) A portable fire extinguisher in accordance with 9.7.4.1 of 
NFPA 101 shall be provided within the booth for each 
device, or an approved automatic extinguishing system 
shall be provided. [102:12.7.4.3.9; 101:13.7.4.3.9] 

20.1.4.4.4.10 Combustible materials within exhibit booths 
shall be limited to a one-day supply. Storage of combustible 
materials behind the booth shall be prohibited. (See 20.1.4.3.5 
and 20.1.4.4.3.) [101:12.7.4.3.10; 101:13.7.4.3.10] 

20.1.4.4.4.11 Plans for the exposition, in an acceptable form, 
shall be submitted to the AHJ for approval prior to setting up 
any exhibit. [101:12.7.4.3.11; 101:13.7.4.3.11] 

(A) The plan shall show all details of the proposed exposi- 
tion. [101:12.7.4.3.11.1; 101:13.7.4.3.11.1] 

(B) No exposition shall occupy any exposition facility without 
approved plans. [101:12.7.4.3.11.2; 101:13.7.4.3.11.2] 

20.1.4.4.4.12 Vehicles. Vehicles on display within an exposi- 
tion facility shall comply with 20.1.4.4.4.12(A) through 
20.1.4.4.4.12(E). [101:12.7.4.4; 101:13.7.4.4] 

(A) All fuel tank openings shall be locked and sealed in an ap- 
proved manner to prevent the escape of vapors; fuel tanks shall 
not contain in excess of one-half their capacity or contain in ex- 
cess of 10 gal (38 L) of fuel, whichever is less. [101:12.7.4.4.1; 
101:13.7.4.4.1] 

(B) At least one battery cable shall be removed from the batter- 
ies used to start the vehicle engine and the disconnected battery 
cable shall then be taped. [101:12.7.4.4.2; 101:13.7.4.4.2] 

(C) Batteries used to power auxiliary equipment shall be per- 
mitted to be kept in service. [101:12.7.4.4.3; 201:13.7.4.4.3] 

(D) Fueling or defueling of vehicles shall be prohibited. 
[102:12.7.4.4.4; 101:13.7.4.4.4] 

(E) Vehicles shall not be moved during exhibit hours. 
[101:12.7.4.4.5; 101:13.7.4.4.5] 

20.1.4.4.4.13 The following items shall be prohibited within 
exhibit halls: 

(1) Compressed flammable gases 

(2) Flammable or combustible liquids 

(3) Hazardous chemicals or materials 

(4) Class II or greater lasers, blasting agents, and explosives 
[101:12.7.4.5.1; 101:13.7.4.5.1] 

20. 1 .4.4.4. 14 The AHJ shall be permitted to allow the limited 
use of any items specified in 20.1.4.4.4.13 under special cir- 
cumstances. [101:12.7.4.5.2; 101:13.7.4.5.2] 

20.1.4.5* Crowd Managers. 

20.1.4.5.1 In assembly occupancies having occupant loads ex- 
ceeding 1000, trained crowd managers or crowd manager su- 
pervisors shall be provided at a ratio of 1 crowd manager/ 
supervisor for every 250 occupants, unless otherwise 
permitted by the following: 



( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
used exclusively for religious worship with an occupant 
load not exceeding 2000. 

(2) The ratio of trained crowd managers to occupants shall be 
permitted to be reduced where, in the opinion of the 
AHJ, the existence of an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system and the nature of the event warrant. 
[101:12.7.5.1, 101:13.7.5.1] 

20. 1 .4.5.2 The crowd manager shall receive approved training 
in crowd management techniques. [101:12.7.5.2; 101:13.7.5.2] 

20.1.4.6* Drills. 

20.1.4.6.1 The employees or attendants of assembly occupan- 
cies shall be trained and drilled in the duties they are to per- 
form in case of fire, panic, or other emergency to effect or- 
derly exiting. [101:12.7.6.1; 101:13.7.6.1] 

20.1.4.6.2 Employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment where 
provided. [101:12.7.6.2; 102:13.7.6.2] 

20.1.4.6.3* In the following assembly occupancies, an audible 
announcement shall be made, or a projected image shall be 
shown, prior to the start of each program that notifies occu- 
pants of the location of the exits to be used in case of a fire or 
other emergency: 

(1) Theaters 

(2) Motion picture theaters 

(3) Auditoriums 

(4) Other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
exceeding 300 where there are noncontinuous programs 
[201:12.7.6.3; 101:13.7.6.3] 

20.1.4.6.4 The requirement of 20.1.4.6.3 shall not apply to 
assembly occupancies in schools where used for nonpublic 
events. [101:12.7.6.4; 101:13.7.6.4] 

20.1.4.7 Smoking. 

20.1.4.7.1 Smoking in assembly occupancies shall be regu- 
lated by the AHJ. (See Section 10.10 for additional requirements.) 
[101:12.7.7.1; 101:13.7.7.1] 

20.1.4.7.2 In rooms or areas where smoking is prohibited, 
plainly visible signs shall be posted that read as follows: 

NO SMOKING. 

[101:12.7.7.2; 101:13.7.7.2] 

20.1.4.7.3 No person shall smoke in prohibited areas that are 
so posted, unless permitted by the AHJ under both of the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

(1) Smoking shall be permitted on a stage only where it is a 
necessary and rehearsed part of a performance 

(2) Smoking shall be permitted only where the smoker is a 
regular performing member of the cast. [101:12.7.7.3; 
101:13.7.7.3] 

20.1.4.7.4 Where smoking is permitted, suitable ashtrays or 
receptacles shall be provided in convenient locations. 
[101:12.7.7.4; 101:13.7.7.4] 

20.1.4.8 Seating. 

20.1.4.8.1 Secured Seating. 

20.1.4.8.1.1 Seats in assembly occupancies accommodating 
more than 200 persons shall be securely fastened to the floor, 



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except where fastened together in groups of not less than 
three and not exceeding seven and as permitted by 20.1.4.8.2. 
[101:12.7.8.1.1; 101:13.7.8.1.1] 

20.1.4.8.1.2 All seats in balconies and galleries shall be se- 
curely fastened to the floor, except in places of religious wor- 
ship. [101:12.7.8.1.2; 101:13.7.8.1.2] 

20.1.4.8.2 Unsecured Seating. 

20.1.4.8.2.1 Seats not secured to the floor shall be permitted in 
restaurants, night clubs, and other occupancies where fastening 
seats to the floor might be impracticable. [101:12.7.8.2.1; 
101:13.7.8.2.1] 

20.1.4.8.2.2 Unsecured seats shall be permitted, provided 
that, in the area used for seating, excluding such areas as 
dance floors and stages, there is not more than one seat for 
each 15 ft 2 (1.4 m 2 ) of net floor area, and adequate aisles to 
reach exits are maintained at all times. [101:12.7.8.2.2; 
101:13.7.8.2.2] 

20.1.4.8.2.3 Seating diagrams shall be submitted for approval 
by the AHJ to permit an increase in occupant load per 7.3.1.3 
of NFPA 101. [101:12.7.8.2.3; 101:13.7.8.2.3] 

20.1.4.8.3 Occupant Load Posting. 

20.1.4.8.3.1 Every room constituting an assembly occupancy 
and not having fixed seats shall have the occupant load of the 
room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from 
the room. [101:12.7.8.3.1; 101:13.7.8.3.1] 

20.1.4.8.3.2 Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible 
manner by the owner or authorized agent. [101:12.7.8.3.2; 
101:13.7.8.3.2] 

20.1.4.8.3.3 Signs shall be durable and shall indicate the 
number of occupants permitted for each room use. 

[101:12.7.8.3.3; 101:13.7.8.3.3] 

20.1.4.9 Clothing. Clothing and personal effects shall not be 
stored in corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
13.7.1.4. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [101:12.7.11; 101:13.7.11] 

20.1.4.10 Projection Room. Film or video projectors or spot- 
lights utilizing light sources that produce particulate matter, 
or toxic gases or light sources that produce hazardous radia- 
tion, without protective shielding, shall be located within a 
projection room complying with 12.3.2.1.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:12.4.6.3; 101:13.4.6.3] 

20.1.4.11 Every projection room shall be of permanent con- 
struction consistent with the construction requirements for 
the type of building in which the projection room is located 
and shall comply with the following: 

(1) Openings shall not be required to be protected. 

(2) The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 ft 2 
(7.4 m 2 ) for a single machine and not less than 40 ft 2 
(3.7 m 2 ) for each additional machine. 

(3) Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight, or 
similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working 



space of not less than 30 in. (760 mm) on each side and at 
its rear, but only one such space shall be required between 
adjacent projectors. [101:12.4.6.4; 101:13.4.6.4] 

20.2 Educational Occupancies. 

20.2.1 AppEcatiom. New and existing educational occupan- 
cies shall comply with Section 20.2 and the referenced edition 
of NFPA 101. 

20.2.2 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

20.2.2.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of 20.2.2 as modified by 20.2.2.2 
through 20.2.2.4. [101:14.4.3.1; 101:15.4.3.1] 

20.2.2.2 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons shall 
have two or more means of egress entering into separate atmo- 
spheres. [101:14.4.3.2; 101:15.4.3.2] 

20.2.2.2.1 Where three or more means of egress are re- 
quired, the number of means of egress permitted to enter into 
the same atmosphere shall not exceed two. [101:14.4.3.3; 
101:15.4.3.3] 

20.2.2.3 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have walls 
and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised plans or 
diagrams have been approved by the AHJ. [101:14.4.3.4; 
101:15.4.3.4] 

20.2.2.4 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. [101:14.4.3.5; 101:15.4.3.5] 

20.2.3 Operating Features. 

20.2.3.1 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

20.2.3.1.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
Section 10.6 and 20.2.3.1.2 through 20.2.3.1.3. [101:14.7.2.1; 
101:15.7.2.1] 

20.2.3.1.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and relo- 
cation drills shall be conducted, and not less than 
four shall be conducted before the drills are 
deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for educational occupancies that are open on 
a year-round basis, shall be required within the first 
30 days of operation. [101:14.7.2.2; 101:15.7.2.2] 

20.2.3.1.3 All emergency and relocation drill alarms shall be 
sounded on the fire alarm system. [101:14.7.2.3; 101:15.7.2.3] 

20.2.3.2 Inspection. 

20.2.3.2.1* It shall be the duty of principals and teachers to in- 
spect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all stairways, doors, and 
other exits are in proper condition. [101:14.7.3.1; 101:15.7.3.1] 



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20.2.3.2.2 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveil- 
lance to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruc- 
tion and are obvious. [101:14.7.3.2; 702:15.7.3.2] 

20.2.3.3 Furnishings and Becorations. 

20.2.3.3.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in educational occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1 of NFPA 202. [101:14.7.4.1; 
101:15.7.4.1] 

20.2.3.3.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [101:10.3.1] 

20.2.3.3.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. [101:10.3.5] 

20.2.3.3.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to re- 
tain the effectiveness of the treatment under service condi- 
tions encountered in actual use. [101:10.3.6] 

20.2.3.3.5 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.3. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
13.7.1.4. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [101:14.7.4.2; 101:15.7.4.2] 

20.2.3.3.6 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted 
to be attached directly to the walls in accordance with the 
following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:14.7.4.3; 
102:15.7.4.3] 

20.2.3.4 Unvented Fuel-Fired Heating Equipment. Unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment, other than gas space heaters in 
compliance with NFPA 54/ ANSI Z223.1, National Fuel Gas 
Code, shall be prohibited. [102:14.5.2.2; 201:15.5.2.2] 

20.3 Day-Care Occupancies. 

20.3.1 AppEcation. New and existing day-care occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.3 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 207. 

20.3.1.1 Where a facility houses more than one age group or 
self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements appli- 
cable to any group present shall apply throughout the day-care 
occupancy or building, as appropriate to a given area, unless 
the area housing such a group is maintained as a separate fire 
area. [102:16.1.1.4; 202:17.1.1.4] 

20.3.1.2 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 20.3 where providing day care 



while services are being held in the building. [202:16.1.1.5; 
202:17.1.1.5] 

20.3.1.3 General. Occupancies that include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age, shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 14. [202:16.1.4.1; 202:17.1.4.1] 

20.3.1.4 Adult Day-Care Occupancies. 

20.3.1.4.1 Adult day-care occupancies shall include any 
building or portion thereof used for less than 24 hours per day 
to house more than three adults requiring care, maintenance, 
and supervision by other than their relative(s). [202:16.1.4.2.1; 
201:17.1.4.2.1] 

20.3.1.4.2 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall be am- 
bulatory or semiambulatory and shall not be bedridden. 
[201:16.1.4.2.2; 202:17.1.4.2.2] 

20.3.1.4.3 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall not ex- 
hibit behavior that is harmful to themselves or to others. 
[202:16.1.4.2.3; 202:17.1.4.2.3] 

20.3.2 General Requirements. 

20.3.2.1 Unvented fuel-fired room heaters, other than gas 
space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54/ ANSI Z223.1, Na- 
tional Fuel Gas Code, shall not be permitted. [202:16.5.2.2; 
202:17.5.2.2] 

20.3.2.2* Closet Doors. Every closet door latch shall be such 
that clients can open the door from inside the closet. 
[202:16.2.2.2.4; 202:17.2.2.2.4] 

20.3.2.3 Bathroom Doors. Every bathroom door lock shall be 
designed to allow opening of the locked door from the outside 
by an opening device that shall be readily accessible to the 
staff. [202:16.2.2.2.5; 101:17.2.2.2.5] 

20.3.2.4 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

20.3.2.4.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall com- 
ply with the requirements of 20.3.2.4 as modified by 20.3.2.4.2 
through 20.3.2.4.4. [101:16.4.3.1; 101:17.4.3.1] 

20.3.2.4.2 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised plans 
or diagrams have been approved by the AHJ. [101:16.4.3.2; 
101:17.4.3.2] 

20.3.2.4.3 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. [101:16.4.3.3; 101:17.4.3.3] 

20.3.2.4.4 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons 
shall have two or more means of egress entering into separate 
atmospheres. [101:16.4.3.4; 101:17.4.3.4] 

20.3.2.4.5 Where three or more means of egress are re- 
quired, the number of means of egress permitted to enter into 
a common atmosphere shall not exceed two. [101:16.4.3.5; 
101:17.4.3.5] 

20.3.3 Day-Care Homes. 

20.3.3.1 Classification. 

20.3.3.1.1 The requirements of Section 16.6 of NFPA 101 
shall apply to day-care homes in which more than 3, but not 
more than 12, clients receive care, maintenance, and supervi- 
sion by other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) for less 



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than 24 hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. (See 
also 16.6.1.4 ofNFPA 101.) [101:16.6.1.1.2; 101:17.6.1.1.2] 

20.3.3.1.2 Where a facility houses more than one age group 
or one self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements 
applicable to any group present shall apply throughout the 
day-care home or building, as appropriate to a given area, 
unless the area housing such a group is maintained as a sepa- 
rate fire area. [101:16.6.1.1.3; 101:17.6.1.1.3] 

20.3.3.1.3 Facilities that supervise clients on a temporary ba- 
sis with a parent or guardian in close proximity shall not be 
required to meet the provisions of Section 16.6 of NFPA 101. 
[101:16.6.1.1.4; 101:17.6.1.1.4] 

20.3.3.1.4 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 16.6 ofNFPA 101 where oper- 
ating a nursery while services are being held in the building. 
[101:16.6.1.1.5; 101:17.6.1.1.5] 

20.3.3.2 Operating Features. 

20.3.3.2.1* Emergency Plans. Emergency plans shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 4.8 ofNFPA 101. [101:16.7.1; 
101:17.7.1] 

20.3.3.2.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

20.3.3.2.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
Section 10.6 and 20.3.3.2.2. [101:16.7.2.1; 101:17.7.2.1] 

20.3.3.2.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and relo- 
cation drills shall be conducted, and not less than 
four shall be conducted before the drills are 
deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for day-care occupancies that are open on a 
year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days 
of operation. [101:16.7.2.2; 101:17.7.2.2] 

20.3.3.2.3 Inspections. 

20.3.3.2.3.1 Fire prevention inspections shall be conducted 
monthly by a trained senior member of the staff, after which 
copy of the latest inspection report shall be posted in a 
conspicuous place in the day-care facility. [101:16.7.3.1; 
101:17.7.3.1] 

20.3.3.2.3.2* It shall be the duty of site administrators and staff 
members to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all 
stairways, doors, and other exits are in proper condition. 
[101:16.7.3.2; 101:17.7.3.2] 

20.3.3.2.3.3 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveil- 
lance to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruc- 
tion and are obvious. [101:16.7.3.3; 101:17.7.3.3] 



20.3.3.2.3.4 Furnishings and Decoration. 

(A) Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings and deco- 
rations in day-care occupancies shall be in accordance with the 
provisions of 20.3.3.2.3.4(B). [101:16.7.4.1; 201:17.7.4.1] 

(B) Where required by the applicable provisions of this Code, 
draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging furnish- 
ings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demonstrated 
by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Standard Methods of 
Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles andFilms. [101:10.3.1] 

(C) Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in cor- 
ridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.3. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
13.7.1.4. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [101:16.7.4.2; 101:17.7.4.2] 

(D) Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted to be 
attached directly to the walls in accordance with the following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:16.7.4.3; 
201:17.7.4.3] 

(E)* Day-Care Staff. Adequate adult staff shall be on duty, 
alert, awake, and in the facility at all times where clients are 
present. [101:16.7.5; 101:17.7.5] 

20.4 Health Care Occupancies. 

20.4.1 Application. New and existing health care occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.4 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.4.2* Operating Features. 

20.4.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

20.4.2.1.1 The administration of every health care occupancy 
shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, 
written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the 
event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, and for their 
evacuation from the building when necessary. [101:18.7.1.1; 
101:19.7.1.1] 

20.4.2.1.2* All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 20.4.2.1.1. [102:18.7.1.2; 202:19.7.1.2]. 

20.4.2.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 20.4.2.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. [202:18.7.1.3; 202:19.7.1.3] 

20.4.2.1.4 The provisions of Section 10.6 and 20.4.2.1.2 
through 20.4.2.2.3 shall apply. 

20.4.2.1.5 Fire drills in health care occupancies shall include 
the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emer- 
gency fire conditions. [102:18.7.1.4; 101:19.7.1.4] 



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20.4.2.1.6 Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required 
to be moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the 
building. [101:18.7.1.5; 101:19.7.1.5] 

20.4.2.1.7 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. [101:18.7.1.6; 
101:19.7.1.6] 

20.4.2.1.8 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 
[101:18.7.1.7; 101:19.7.1.7] 

20.4.2.1.9 Employees of health care occupancies shall be in- 
structed in life safety procedures and devices. [101:18.7.1.8; 
101:19.7.1.8] 

20.4.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

20.4.2.2.1* Protection of Patient. 

20.4.2.2.1.1 For health care occupancies, the proper protec- 
tion of patients shall require the prompt and effective response 
of health care personnel. [101:18.7.2.1.1; 101:19.7.2.1.1] 

20.4.2.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the health care occu- 
pancy's fire safety plan [101:18.7.2.1; 101:19.7.2.1] 

20.4.2.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written health care occupancy 
fire safety plan shall provide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire [101:18.7.2.2; 101:19.7.2.2] 

20.4.2.2.3 Staff Response. 

20.4.2.2.3.1 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of and response to fire alarms. [101:18.7.2.3.1; 
101:19.7.2.3.1] 

20.4.2.2.3.2 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission 
of an alarm under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 
[101:18.7.2.3.2; 101:19.7.2.3.2] 

20.4.2.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall 
first activate the building fire alarm using the nearest manual 
fire alarm box, then shall execute immediately their duties as 
oudined in the fire safety plan. [101:18.7.2.3.3; 101:19.7.2.3.3] 



20.4.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

20.4.2.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure 
the dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 
[101:18.7.3.1; 101:19.7.3.1] 

20.4.2.3.2 Health care occupancies that find it necessary to 
lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate staff quali- 
fied to release locks and direct occupants from the immediate 
danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or other emer- 
gency. [101:18.7.3.2; 101:19.7.3.2] 

20.4.2.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In health care occupancies where smoking is prohibited 
and signs are prominendy placed at all major entrances, 
secondary signs with language that prohibits smoking 
shall not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 20.4.2.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into 
which ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available 
to all areas where smoking is permitted. [101:18.7.4; 
101:19.7.4] 

20.4.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.4.2.5. 1 * Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in health 
care occupancies shall be in accordance with the provisions of 

20.4.2.5.2 {see 18.3.5.6 of NFPA 1 01 ) and the following also shall 
apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 
[101:18.7.5.1; 101:19.7.5.1] 

20.4.2.5.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [101:10.3.1] 

20.4.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within 
health care occupancies shall meet the criteria specified when 
tested in accordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 
10.3.3 of NFPA 101. [101:18.7.5.2; 101:19.7.5.2 ] 

20.4.2.5.4 For existing health care occupancies, the require- 
ment of 20.4.2.5.3 shall not apply to upholstered furniture 
belonging to the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes 
where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Asmoke detector shall be installed in such rooms. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [101:19.7.5.3] 

20.4.2.5.5 Newly introduced mattresses within health care oc- 
cupancies shall meet the criteria specified when tested in ac- 



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cordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. [101:18.7.5.4; 101:19.7.5.4] 

20.4.2.5.6 For existing health care occupancies, the require- 
ment of 20.4.2.5.5 shall not apply to mattresses belonging to 
the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes where the 
following criteria are met: 

(1) Asmoke detector shall be installed in such rooms. 

(2) Battery-powered, single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [101:19.7.5.5] 

20.4.2.5.7 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in 
any health care occupancy unless one of the following criteria 
is met: 

(1) They are flame-retardant. 

(2) They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. [101:18.7.5.6; 101:19.7.5.6] 

20.4.2.5.8 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall 
not exceed 32 gal (121 L) in capacity and shall meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 0.5 gal/ft 2 (20.4 L/m 2 ). 

(2) A capacity of 32 gal (121 L) shall not be exceeded within 
any 64 ft (16 m 2 ) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 32 gal (121 L) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. [101:18.7.5.7; 101:19.7.5.7 ] 

20.4.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all health care occupan- 
cies, unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are permitted to be used only in nonsleep- 
ing staff and employee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
212°F (100°C). [101:18.7.8; 101:19.7.8] 

20.5 Residential Boamril and Came Occupancies. 

20.5.1 Application. New and existing residential board and 
care occupancies shall comply with Section 20.5 and the refer- 
enced edition of NFPA 101. 

20.5.2 Operating Features. 
20.5.2.1 Emergency Plan. 

20.5.2.1.1 The administration of every residential board and 
care facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory 
personnel, written copies of a plan for protecting all persons 
in the event of fire, for keeping persons in place, for evacuat- 
ing persons to areas of refuge, and for evacuating persons 
from the building when necessary. [101:32.7.1.1; 101:33.7.1.1] 

20.5.2.1.2 The emergency plan shall include special staff re- 
sponse, including the fire protection procedures needed to 
ensure the safety of any resident, and shall be amended or 
revised whenever any resident with unusual needs is admitted 
to the home. [101:32.7.1.2; 101:33.7.1.2] 

20.5.2.1.3 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties and responsibilities 
under the plan, and such instruction shall be reviewed by the 
staff not less than every 2 months. [101:32.7.1.3; 101:33.7.1.3] 



20.5.2.1.4 For existing health care occupancies, the require- 
ment of 20.4.2.5.3 shall not apply to upholstered furniture 
belonging to the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes 
where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Asmoke detector shall be installed in such rooms. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [101:19.7.5.3] 

20.5.2.2 Resident Training. 

20.5.2.2.1 All residents participating in the emergency plan 
shall be trained in the proper actions to be taken in the event 
of fire. [101:32.7.2.1; 101:33.7.2.1] 

20.5.2.2.2 The training required by 20.5.2.2.1 shall include 
actions to be taken if the primary escape route is blocked. 

[101:32.7.2.2; 101:33.7.2.2] 

20.5.2.2.3 If a resident is given rehabilitation or habitation 
training, training in fire prevention and the actions to be 
taken in the event of a fire shall be a part of the training pro- 
gram. [101:32.7.2.3; 101:33.7.2.3] 

20.5.2.2.4 Residents shall be trained to assist each other in 
case of fire to the extent that their physical and mental abili- 
ties permit them to do so without additional personal risk. 
[101:32.7.2.4; 101:33.7.2.4] 

20.5.2.3 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. Emergency 
egress and relocation drills shall be conducted in accordance 
with 20.5.2.3.1 through 20.5.2.3.6. [101:32.7.3; 101:33.7.3] 

20.5.2.3.1 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted not less than six times per year on a bimonthly 
basis, with not less than two drills conducted during the night 
when residents are sleeping, as modified by 20.5.2.3.5 and 
20.5.2.3.6. [101:32.7.3.1; 101:33.7.3.1] 

20.5.2.3.2 The drills shall be permitted to be announced in 
advance to the residents. [101:32.7.3.2; 101:33.7.3.2] 

20.5.2.3.3 The drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all 
residents to an assembly point as specified in the emergency 
plan and shall provide residents with experience in egressing 
through all exits and means of escape required by the Code. 
[101:32.7.3.3; 101:33.7.3.3] 

20.5.2.3.4 Exits and means of escape not used in any drill 
shall not be credited in meeting the requirements of this Code 
for board and care facilities. [101:32.7.3.4; 101:33.7.3.4] 

20.5.2.3.5 Actual exiting from windows shall not be required 
to comply with 20.5.2.3; opening the window and signaling 
for help shall be an acceptable alternative. [101:32.7.3.5; 
101:33.7.3.5] 

20.5.2.3.6 If the board and care facility has an evacuation 
capability classification of impractical, those residents who 
cannot meaningfully assist in their own evacuation or who 
have special health problems shall not be required to actively 
participate in the drill. Section 18.7 of NFPA 101 shall apply in 
such instances. [101:32.7.3.6; 101:33.7.3.6] 

20.5.2.4 Smoking. 

20.5.2.4.1* Smoking regulations shall be adopted by the ad- 
ministration of board and care occupancies. (See Section 10.10 
for additional requirements.) [101:32.7.4.1; 101:33.7.4.1] 

20.5.2.4.2 Where smoking is permitted, noncombustible 
safety-type ashtrays or receptacles shall be provided in conve- 
nient locations. [101:32.7.4.2; 101:33.7.4.2] 



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20.5.2.5* Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.5.2.5.1 New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations in board and care facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.1 of 
NFPA 702. [207:32.7.5.1; 202:33.7.5.1] 

20.5.2.5.2* New upholstered furniture within board and 
care facilities shall comply with 20.5.2.5.2.1 or 20.5.2.5.2.2. 
[202:32.7.5.2; 202:33.7.5.2] 

20.5.2.5.2.1 New upholstered furniture shall be tested in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 10.3.2(1) and 10.3.3 of NFPA 
707. [702:32.7.5.2.1; 202:33.7.5.2.1] 

20.5.2.5.2.2 Upholstered furniture belonging to residents in 
sleeping rooms shall not be required to be tested, provided 
that a smoke alarm is installed in such rooms, battery-powered 
single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted in such rooms. 
[202:32.7.5.2.2; 202:33.7.5.2.2] 

20.5.2.5.2.3* New mattresses within board and care facilities 
shall comply with 20.5.2.5.2.3(A) or 20.5.2.5.2.3(B). 
[202:32.7.5.3; 202:33.7.5.3] 

(A) New upholstered furniture shall be tested in accordance 
with the provisions of 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. 
[707:32.7.5.3.1; 707:33.7.5.3.1] 

(B) Mattresses belonging to residents in sleeping rooms shall 
not be required to be tested, provided that a smoke alarm is 
installed in such rooms; battery-powered single-station smoke 
alarms shall be permitted in such rooms. [702:32.7.5.3.2; 
202:33.7.5.3.2] 

20.5.2.5.3 No stove or combustion heater shall be located to 
block escape in case of fire caused by the malfunction of the 
stove or heater. [202:32.2.5.2.2; 202:33.2.5.2.2] 

20.5.2.5.4 Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall not be used in 
any residential board and care facility. [202:32.2.5.2.3; 
202:33.2.5.2.3] 

20.6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers. 

20.6.1 Application. New and existing ambulatory health care 
centers shall comply with Section 20.6 and the referenced edi- 
tion of NFPA 707. 

20.6.2* Operating Features. 

20.6.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

20.6.2.1.1 The administration of every ambulatory health 
care facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory 
personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all 
persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of 
refuge, and for their evacuation from the building when nec- 
essary. [707:20.7.1.1; 707:21.7.1.1] 

20.6.2.1.1.1 All employees shall be periodically instructed 
and kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan 
required by 20.7.1.1 of NFPA 707. [202:20.7.1.2; 202:21.7.1.2] 

20.6.2.1.1.2 A copy of the plan required by 20.7.1.1 of NFPA 
101 shall be readily available at all times in the telephone op- 
erator's position or at the security center. [207:20.7.1.3; 
202:21.7.1.3] 

20.6.2.1.1.3 The provisions of Section 10.6 and 20.6.2.1.2 
through 20.6.2.2.3 shall apply. 



20.6.2.1.2* Fire drills in ambulatory health care facilities shall 
include the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation 
of emergency fire conditions. [202:20.7.1.4; 207:21.7.1.4] 

20.6.2.1.2.1 Patients shall not be required to be moved dur- 
ing drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 
[202:20.7.1.5; 202:21.7.1.5] 

20.6.2.1.2.2 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift 
to familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. [202:20.7.1.6; 
202:21.7.1.6] 

20.6.2.1.2.3 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 
[202:20.7.1.7; 202:21.7.1.7] 

20.6.2.1.3 Employees of ambulatory health care facilities 
shall be instructed in life safety procedures and devices. 
[202:20.7.1.8; 202:21.7.1.8] 

20.6.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

20.6.2.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

20.6.2.2.1.1 For ambulatory health care facilities, the proper 
protection of patients shall require the prompt and effective re- 
sponse of ambulatory health care personnel. [202:20.7.2.1.1; 
202:21.7.2.1.1] 

20.6.2.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the facility's fire 
safety plan [702:20.7.2.1.2; 202:21.7.2.1.2] 

20.6.2.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written fire safety plan shall pro- 
vide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire [202:20.7.2.2; 202:21.7.2.2] 

20.6.2.2.3 Staff Response. 

20.6.2.2.3.1 All personnel shall be instructed in the use of 
and response to fire alarms. [202:20.7.2.3.1; 202:21.7.2.3.1] 

20.6.2.2.3.2 All health care personnel shall be instructed in 
the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission of an alarm 
under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 
[202:20.7.2.3.2; 202:21.7.2.3.2] 

20.6.2.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall 
first activate the building fire alarm using the nearest fire 



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alarm box, then shall execute immediately their duties as out- 
lined in the fire safety plan. [101:20.7.2.3.3; 101:21.7.2.3.3] 

20.6.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

20.6.2.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure 
the dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 
[101:20.7.3.1; 101:21.7.3.1] 

20.6.2.3.2 Ambulatory health care occupancies that find it 
necessary to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate 
staff qualified to release locks and direct occupants from the 
immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or 
other emergency. [101:20.7.3.2; 101:21.7.3.2] 

20.6.2.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In ambulatory health care facilities where smoking is pro- 
hibited and signs are placed at all major entrances, sec- 
ondary signs with language that prohibits smoking shall 
not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 20.6.2.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into 
which ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available 
to all areas where smoking is permitted. [101:20.7.4; 
101:21.7.4] 

20.6.2.5 Fmrnishimgs, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.6.2.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging 
fabrics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in 
ambulatory health care occupancies shall be in accordance 
with the provisions of 10.3.1 of NFPA 101, and the following 
also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 
[101:20.7.5.1; 101:21.7.5.1] 

20.6.2.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [101:10.3.1] 

20.6.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall 
meet the criteria specified when tested in accordance with 
the methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3 of NFPA 101. 
[101:20.7.5.2; 101:21.7.5.2] 

20.6.2.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the crite- 
ria specified when tested in accordance with the methods 
cited in 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. [101:20.7.5.3; 
101:21.7.5.3] 

20.6.2.5.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited un- 
less one of the following criteria is met: 



(1) They are flame-retardant. 

(2) They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. [101:20.7.5.4; 101:21.7.5.4] 

20.6.2.5.6 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall 
not exceed 32 gal (121 L) in capacity and shall meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 0.5 gal/ft 2 (20.4 L/m 2 ). 

(2) A capacity of 32 gal (121 L) shall not be exceeded within 
any 64 ft (6 m 2 ) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 32 gal (121 L) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. [101:20.7.5.5, 101:21.7.5.5] 

20.6.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all ambulatory health 
care occupancies, unless both of the following criteria are 
met: 

(1) Such devices are used only in nonsleeping staff and em- 
ployee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
212°F (100°C). [101:20.7.8; 101:21.7.8] 

20.7 Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

20.7.1 Application. New and existing detention and correc- 
tional occupancies shall comply with Section 20.7 and the ref- 
erenced edition of NFPA 101. 

20.7.2 Operating Features. 

20.7.2.1 Attendants, Evacuation Plan, and Fire Drills. 

20.7.2.1.1 Detention and correctional facilities, or those por- 
tions of facilities having such occupancy, shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing, and the following requirements also 
shall apply: 

(1) Staff shall be within three floors or a 300 ft (91 m) hori- 
zontal distance of the access door of each resident hous- 
ing area. 

(2) In addition, for Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and 
Use Condition V, the arrangement shall be such that the 
staff involved starts the release of locks necessary for emer- 
gency evacuation or rescue and initiates other necessary 
emergency actions within 2 minutes of alarm. 

(3) The following shall apply to areas in which all locks are 
unlocked remotely in compliance with 22.2.11.7 of 
NFPA 101: 

(a) Staff shall not be required to be within three floors or 
300 ft (91 m) of the access door. 

(b) The 10-lock, manual key exemption of 22.2.11.7.2 of 
NFPA 101 shall not be permitted to be used in conjunc- 
tion with this alternative requirement. [101:22.7.1.1; 
101:23.7.1.1] 

20.7.2.1.2* Provisions shall be made so that residents in Use 
Condition III, Use Condition IV, and Use Condition V shall 
be able to notify staff of an emergency. [101:22.7.1.2; 
101:23.7.1.2] 

20.7.2.1.3* The administration of every detention or correc- 
tional facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervi- 
sory personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of 



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all persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of 
refuge, and for evacuation from the building when necessary. 
[707:22.7.1.3; 707:23.7.1.3] 

20.7.2.1.3.1 All employees shall be instructed and drilled 
with respect to their duties under the plan. [707:22.7.1.3.1; 

[707:23.7.1.3.1] 

20.7.2.1.3.2 The plan shall be coordinated with and reviewed 
by the fire department legally committed to serve the facility. 
[107:22.7.1.3.2; 707:23.7.1.3.2] 

20.7.2.1.4 Employees of detention and correctional occupan- 
cies shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. 
[707:22.7.1.4; 707:23.7.1.4] 

20.7.2.1.4.1 Such training shall be provided to new staff 
promptly upon commencement of duty. [707:22.7.1.4.1; 
[707:23.7.1.4.1] 

20.7.2.1.4.2 Refresher training shall be provided to exist- 
ing staff at not less than annual intervals. [707:22.7.1.4.2; 
707:23.7.1.4.2] 

20.7.2.2 Combustible Personal Property. Books, clothing, 
and other combustible personal property allowed in sleeping 
rooms shall be stored in closable metal lockers or a fire- 
resistant container. [707:22.7.2; 707:23.7.2] 

20.7.2.3 Heat-Producing Appliances. The number of heat- 
producing appliances, such as toasters and hot plates, and the 
overall use of electrical power within a sleeping room shall be 
controlled by facility administration. [707:22.7.3; 707:23.7.3] 

20.7.2.4* Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.7.2.4.1 Draperies and curtains, including privacy cur- 
tains, in detention and correctional occupancies shall be in 
accordance with the provisions of 20.7.2.4.2 [707:22.7.4.1; 
107:23.7.4.1]. 

20.7.2.4.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [707:10.3.1] 

20.7.2.4.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within de- 
tention and correctional occupancies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3 of NFPA 101. 
[707:23.7.4.2] 

20.7.2.4.4* Newly introduced mattresses within detention 
and correctional occupancies shall be tested in accordance 
with the provisions of 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. 
[707:23.7.4.3] 

20.7.2.4.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in 
any detention or correctional occupancy unless flame- 
retardant. [707:22.7.4.4; 707:23.7.4.4] 

20.7.2.4.6 Wastebaskets and other waste containers shall be 
of noncombustible or other approved materials. Waste con- 
tainers with a capacity exceeding 20 gal (76 L) shall be pro- 
vided with a noncombustible lid or lid of other approved ma- 
terial. [707:22.7.4.5; 707:23.7.4.5] 

20.7.2.5 Keys. All keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identified by both 
touch and sight. [707:22.7.5; 707:23.7.5] 



20.7.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all detention and cor- 
rectional occupancies. [707:22.7.6; 707:23.7.6] 

20.8 Hotels and Dormitories. 

20.8.1 Application. New and existing hotels and dormitories 
shall comply with Section 20.8 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.8.2 Operating Features. 

20.8.2.1 Hotel Emergency Organization. 

20.8.2.1.1* Employees of hotels shall be instructed and drilled 
in the duties they are to perform in the event of fire, panic, or 
other emergency. [707:28.7.1.1; 707:29.7.1.1] 

20.8.2.1.2* Drills of the emergency organization shall be held 
at quarterly intervals and shall cover such points as the opera- 
tion and maintenance of the available first aid fire appliances, 
the testing of devices to alert guests, and a study of instructions 
for emergency duties. [701:28.7.1.2; 707:29.7.1.2] 

20.8.2.2 Emergency Duties. Upon discovery of a fire, employ- 
ees shall carry out the following duties: 

(1) Activate the facility fire protection signaling system, if 
provided 

(2) Notify the public fire department 

(3) Take other action as previously instructed [707:28.7.2; 
707:29.7.2] 

20.8.2.3 Drills in Doraiitories. Emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be regularly conducted in accordance with 
Section 10.6. [707:28.7.3; 707:29.7.3] 

20.8.2-4 Emergency Instructions for Residents or Guests. 

20.8.2.4.1* A floor diagram reflecting the actual floor ar- 
rangement, exit locations, and room identification shall be 
posted in a location and manner acceptable to the AHJ on, 
or immediately adjacent to, every guest room door in hotels 
and in every resident room in dormitories. [707:28.7.4.1; 
707:29.7.4.1] 

20.8.2.4.2 Fire safety information shall be provided to allow 
guests to make the decision to evacuate to the outside, to 
evacuate to an area of refuge, to remain in place, or to 
employ any combination of the three options. [707:28.7.4.2; 
707:29.7.4.2] 

20.8.2.5 Furnishings and Decorations. 

20.8.2.5.1* New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations in hotels and dormito- 
ries shall be in accordance with the provisions of 20.8.2.5.2. 
[707:28.3.3.4; 707:29.3.3.4] 

20.8.2.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Films. [707:10.3.1] 

20.8.2.6 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
other than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall not be used. [701:28.5.2.2; 
107:29.5.2.2] 



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20.9 Apartment Buildings. 

20.9.1 Application. New and existing apartment buildings 
shall comply with Section 20.9 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.9.2 Operating Features. 

20.9.2.1 Emergency Instructions for Residents of Apartment 
Buildings. Emergency instructions shall be provided annually 
to each dwelling unit to indicate the location of alarms, egress 
paths, and actions to be taken, both in response to a fire in the 
dwelling unit and in response to the sounding of the alarm 
system. [101:30.7; 101:31.7] 

20.9.2.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
other than gas space heater in compliance with NFPA 54, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall not be used. [101:30.5.2.2; 
101:31.5.2.2] 

20.10 Lodging or Rooming Houses. 

20.10.1 Application. New and existing lodging or rooming 
houses shall comply with Section 20.10 and the referenced 
edition of NFPA 101. 

20.10.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
other than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, Na- 
tional Fuel Gas Code, shall not be used. [101:26.5.2.2] 

20.11 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured 
Housing. 

20.11.1 Application. New and existing one- and two-family 
dwellings shall comply with Section 20.11 and the referenced 
edition of NFPA 101. 

20.11.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used unless they are listed and approved. [101:24.5.1 .2] 

20.11.3 Manufactured Housing. New manufactured housing 
shall comply with Section 20.11 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing. 

20.12 Mercantile Occupancies. 

20.12.1 Application. New and existing mercantile occupan- 
cies shall comply with Section 20.12 and the referenced edi- 
tion of NFPA 101. 

20.12.2 Operating Features. 

20.12.2.1 Brills. In every Class A or Class B mercantile occu- 
pancy, employees shall be periodically trained in accordance 
with Section 10.6. [101:36.7.1; 101:37.7.1] 

20.12.2.2 Extinguisher Irainimg. Employees of mercantile oc- 
cupancies shall be periodically instructed in the use of por- 
table fire extinguishers. [101:36.7.2; 101:37.7.2] 

20.13 Business Occupancies. 

20.13.1 Application. New and existing business occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.13 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.13.2 Operating Features. 

20.13.2.1 Drills. In all business occupancy buildings occupied 
by more than 500 persons, or by more than 100 persons above 
or below the street level, employees and supervisory personnel 
shall be periodically instructed in accordance with Section 
10.6 and shall hold drills periodically where practicable. 
[101:38.7.1; 101:39.7.1] 



20.13.2.2 Extinguisher Training. Designated employees of 
business occupancies shall be periodically instructed in the 
use of portable fire extinguishers. [101:38.7.2; 101:39.7.2] 

20.14 Industrial Occupancies. 

20.14.1 Application. New and existing industrial occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.14 and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

20.15 Storage Occupancies. 



20.15.1 Application. New and existing storage occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.15, appropriate codes or stan- 
dards referenced in Chapter 2, and NFPA 101. 

20.15.1.1 Peiroiits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

20.15.1.2 Plans and Specifications Submittal. At the time of 
permit application, plans and specifications shall be submit- 
ted for review and approval. 

20.15.1.2.1 Following approval of the plans, a copy of the 
approved plans shall be maintained on the premises in an 
approved location. 

20.15.1.2.2 The plans shall include the following: 

( 1 ) Floor plan of the building showing locations and dimen- 
sions of high-piled storage areas 

(2) Usable storage height for each storage area 

(3) Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable 

(4) Commodity clearance between top of storage and the 
sprinkler deflector for each storage arrangement 

(5) Aisle dimensions between each storage array 

(6) Maximum pile volume for each storage array 

(7) Location and classification of commodities in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprin- 
kler Systems 

(8) Location of commodities that are banded or encapsulated 

(9) Location of required fire department access doors 

(10) Type of fire suppression and fire detection systems 

(11) Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceiling 
and in-rack sprinklers 

(12) Type, location, and specifications of smoke-removal and 
curtain board systems 

(13) Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal 
flue spaces 

(14) Additional information regarding required design fea- 
tures, commodities, storage arrangement, and fire pro- 
tection features within the high-piled storage area to be 
provided at the time of permit, when required by the 
AHJ 

20.15.1.3 Aisle Maintenance. 

20.15.1.3.1 When restocking is not being conducted, aisles 
shall be kept clear of storage, waste material, and debris. 

20.15.1.3.2 Fire department access doors, aisles, and exit 
doors shall not be obstructed. 

20.15.1.3.3 During restocking operations using manual 
stocking methods, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 
24 in. (61 cm) shall be maintained in 48 in. (122 cm) or 
smaller aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of one 
half of the required aisle width shall be maintained in aisles 
greater than 48 in. (122 cm). 



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20.15.1.3.4 During mechanical stocking operations, a 
minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 in. (112 m) shall 
be maintained. 

20.15.1.4* High hazard commodities without protective con- 
tainers shall not be stored or displayed within 100 ft (30 m) of 
the main entrance/exit doors. 

20.15.1.5 Emergency Plan and Employee Training. 

20.15.1.5.1 There shall be in effect an approved written plan 
for the emergency egress and relocation of occupants. 
[107:36.4.5.6.1; 101:37.4.5.6.1] 

20.15.1.5.2 All employees shall be instructed and periodi- 
cally drilled with respect to their duties under the plan. 
[101:36.4.5.6.2; 101:37.4.5.6.2] 

20.15.2 Special Provisions. 

20.15.2.1* Where required to be protected with an automatic 
sprinkler system by another section of this Code, the storage of 
combustibles shall also comply with NFPA 230, Standard for the 
Fire Protection of Storage. (See 13.3.2.23.) 

20.15.2.2 The storage, arrangement, protection, and quanti- 
ties of hazardous commodities shall be in accordance with the 
applicable portions of the following: 

( 1 ) NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage 

(5) NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 

(6) NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations 

(7) NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides 

(8) NFPA1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage, 
and Retail Sales of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles 
[101:36.4.5.3.1; 101:37.4.5.3.1] 

20.15.3 Bulk Storage Elevators. Bulk storage elevators shall 
comply with 20.15.3.1 and NFPA61, Standard for the Prevention 
of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing 
Facilities. 

20.15.3.1 Bulk storage elevators shall include all of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) All facilities that receive, handle, process, dry, blend, use, 
mill, package, store, or ship dry agricultural bulk materi- 
als, their by-products, or dusts that include grains, oil- 
seeds, agricultural seeds, legumes, sugar, flour, spices, 
feeds, and other related materials 

(2) All facilities designed for manufacturing and handling 
starch, including drying, grinding, conveying, processing, 
packaging, and storing dry or modified starch, and dry 
products and dusts generated from these processes 

(3) Those seed preparation and meal-handling systems of oil- 
seed processing plants not covered by NFPA 36, Standard 
for Solvent Extraction Plants [61:1.1.1] 

20.15.3.2 NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust 
Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, shall not 
apply to oilseed extraction plants that are covered by NFPA 36, 
Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants. [61:1.1.2] 

20.15.3.3 Applicability. Unless otherwise noted, the provi- 
sions of 20.15.3 on bulk storage elevators shall not be applied 
to facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that were 



existing or approved for construction or installation prior to 
the effective date of this Code, except in those cases where it is 
determined by the AHJ that the existing situation involves a 
distinct hazard to life or adjacent property. 

20.15.3.3.1 The requirements of Chapter 11 of NFPA 61, 
Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricul- 
tural and Food Processing Facilities, shall apply to all facilities. 

20.15.4 Rubber Tire Storage. 

20.15.4.1 Storage of rubber tires shall comply with NFPA230, 
Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. 

20.15.4.1.1 Existing buildings storing rubber tires shall be 
exempted from complying with 20.15.4.1. 

20.15.4.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

20.15.5 Record Storage. 

20.15.5.1 Records protection equipment, facilities, and 
records-handling techniques that provide protection from the 
hazards of fire shall comply with 20.15.5 and NFPA 232, Stan- 
dard for the Protection of Records. 

20.15.5.2* Because of the volume of records, 20.15.5.1 shall 
not cover large archives or records storage buildings. 

20.15.6 Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film Storage. The 

storage and handling of cellulose nitrate film records shall 
comply with 20.15.5 and NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and 
Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film. 

20.15.6.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

20.15.7 High-Piled Storage. 

20.15.7.1 Scope. Buildings containing high-piled storage 
shall comply with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprin- 
kler Systems, NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage, 
and 20.15.7. 

20.15.7.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with 1.12.19. 

20.15.7.2 Commodity Clearance. 

20.15.7.2.1 The clearance between top of storage and sprin- 
kler deflectors shall conform to NFPA13, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems. [230:5.2.2.1] 

20.15.7.2.2* If the commodity is stored above the lower chord 
of roof trusses, not less than 1 ft (30.5 cm) of clear space shall 
be maintained to allow wetting of the truss, unless the truss is 
protected with 1-hour fireproofing. [230:5.2.2.2] 

20.15.7.2.3 Storage clearance from ducts shall be maintained 
in accordance with NFPA91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air 
Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate 
Solids. [230:5.2.2.3] 

20.15.7.2.4 The clearance between stored materials and unit 
heaters, radiant space heaters, duct furnaces, and flues shall 
not be less than 3 ft (0.9 m) in all directions or shall be in 
accordance with the clearances shown on the approval agency 
label. [230:5.2.2.4] 

20.15.7.2.5* Clearance shall be maintained to lights or light 
fixtures to prevent ignition. [230:5.2.2.5] 



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20.15.7.2.6 Clearance shall be maintained around the path 
of fire door travel to ensure proper operation and inspection. 

[230:5.2.2.6] 

20.15.7.3 Smoking. 

20.15.7.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited except in locations 
designated as smoking areas. [230:5.4.5.1] 

20.15.7.3.2 Signs that read "No Smoking" shall be posted in 
prohibited areas. [230:5.4.5.2] 

20.15.7.4 Storage Arrangement. 

20.15.7.4.1* Rack Loading. Racks shall not be loaded beyond 
their design capacity. [230:7.3.2] 

20.15.7.5 Access Doors. 

20.15.7.5.1 General. 

20.15.7.5.1.1 When building access is required by the AHJ, 
fire department access doors shall be provided in accordance 
with this Code. 

20.15.7.5.1.2 Access doors shall be accessible without the use 
of a ladder. 

20.15.7.5.2 Number of Doors Required. One or more access 
doors shall be provided in each 100 lineal ft (30.5 m), or major 
fraction thereof, of the exterior walls that face required access 
roadways. 

20.15.7.5.3 Door Size and Type. 

20.15.7.5.3.1 Access doors shall not be less than 3 ft (0.9 m) 
in width and 6 ft 8 in. (2 m) in height. 

20.15.7.5.3.2 Roll-up doors shall not be used unless 
approved. 

20.15.7.5.4 Locking Devices. Only approved locking devices 
shall be used. 

20.15.7.6 Fire Department Hose Connections. 

20.15.7.6.1 When any portion of the high-piled combustible 
storage area is greater than 200 ft (61 m) from a fire depart- 
ment access door, Class I standpipe outlets connected to a 
system sized to deliver 250 gpm (946.4 L/min) at the most 
hydraulically remote oudet sball be provided in accordance 
with 20.15.7.6. 

20.15.7.6.2 The oudet shall be permitted to be supplied from 
the sprinkler system and shall be hydraulically calculated. 

20.15.7.6.3 Standpipe outlets shall be provided at each of the 
following locations: 

(1) In each exit passageway at the entrance from the storage 
areas into the passageway 

(2) At each intermediate landing between floor levels in every 
required exit stairway serving the storage area 

(3) At exterior entrances into the storage area 

20.16 Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings. 
20.16.1 Application. 

20.16.1.1 New and existing special structures and high-rise 
buildings shall comply with the referenced edition of NFPA 101. 

20.16.1.2 Motion picture and television production studio 
soundstages and approved production facilities shall comply 
with NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Produc- 
tion Studio Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities. 



20.17 Historical Buildings. 

20.17.1 The provisions of this Code relating to the construc- 
tion, repair, alteration, enlargement, restoration, and moving 
of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing 
buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or 
local government authority as historic buildings where such 
buildings are judged by the AHJ to be safe and to not consti- 
tute a serious life safety hazard. 

20.17.2* Historic buildings shall comply with NFPA 909, Code 
for the Protection of Cultural Resources. 



Onapter %1 Airports amd Heliports 

21.1 Hangars. The construction and protection of aircraft 
hangars from fire shall comply with this section; NFPA 409, 
Standard on Aircraft Hangars; NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft 
Maintenance, and Section 40.6 and Section 42.6 of NFPA 101 . 

21.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

21.1.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Section 

18.2 for all aircraft hangars. 

21.1.3 Smoking. 

21.1.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft hangars. 

21.1.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 

21.2 Tenminals. 

21.2.1 Application. Airport terminal buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 21.2 and NFPA 415, Standard 
on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Load- 
ing Walkways. 

21.2.2 General. 

21.2.2.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

21.2.2.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Section 
18.2 for all airport terminal buildings. 

21.2.2.3 Smoking. 

21.2.2.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited in fuel ramp areas 
and loading walkways. 

21.2.2.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 

21.2.3 General. 

21.2.3.1* Airport terminal buildings shall be of Type I, Type II, 
or Type IV construction, as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on 
Types of Building Construction. [415:4.1.1] 

21.2.3.2* Interior finish shall be limited to that permitted in 
ClassAplaces of assembly as specified in NFPA 101®, LifeSafety 
Code®. [415:4.1.2] 

21.2.3.3 Aircraft fueling facilities and ramps shall be de- 
signed in accordance with NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel 
Servicing, and Chapter 5 of NFPA 41 5, Standard on Airport Termi- 
nal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways. 
[415:4.1.3] 



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21.2.3.4 Belowgrade areas or blind spaces in airport terminal 
buildings shall be protected against flammable fuel or vapor 
penetration or shall be mechanically ventilated to provide at 
least four complete air changes per hour. The mechanical ven- 
tilation system shall be installed in accordance with Chapters 2 
and 3 of NFPA91, Standard for Exhaust Systems far Air Conveying 
of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids. 
[415:4.1.4] 

21.2.3.5* Glazing Material Covered Openings Facing the 
Ramp. 

21.2.3.5.1 Openings covered with glazing material that have 
the lowest part of the glazing material not less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 
above each finished floor level shall not be required to comply 
with 21.2.3.5.3. [415:4.1.5.1] 

21.2.3.5.2 Openings covered with glazing material listed for 
use in a fire barrier and installed in accordance with the listing 
shall not be required to comply with 21.2.3.5.3. [415:4.1.5.2] 

21.2.3.5.3 Where potential fuel spill points are located less 
than 100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from glazing material cov- 
ered openings in airport terminal building walls facing the 
airport ramp, they shall be provided with an automatically 
activated water spray system in accordance with 21.2.3.5.3.1 
or an automatically activated, listed fire shutter system in 
accordance with 21.2.3.5.3.2. (See Annex C of NFPA 415.) 
[415:4.1.5.3] 

21.2.3.5.3.1 Where an automatically activated water spray sys- 
tem (s) is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. 
[415:4.1.5.3.1] 

(A) The system shall be designed to provide a density of at 
least 0.25 gpm/ft 2 [10.2 (L/min)/m 2 ] over the exterior sur- 
face area of the glazing material. [415:4.1.5.3.1.1] 

(B) Where multiple water spray systems are used, the water 
supply shall be capable of supplying all systems that could 
be expected to operate as a result of one fire incident. 
[415:4.1.5.3.1.2] 

(C) The detection system design analysis for the water spray 
system shall include consideration of false alarms and detector 
response time. [415:4.1.5.3.1.3] 

21.2.3.5.3.2 Where an automatically activated, listed fire 
shutter is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with its 
listing. [415:4.1.5.3.2] 

21.2.4 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

21.2.4.1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 11.2 and Section 
11.5, as applicable. 

21.2.4.2* Air supply intake and exhaust openings for air condi- 
tioning or ventilating equipment serving the terminal building, if 
located on the ramp side, shall be not less than 10 ft (3 m) above 
the grade level of the ramp and shall be at least 50 ft (15 m) from 
any point of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.2] 

21.2.4.3* Openings to rooms containing coal-, gas-, or oil-fired 
equipment, or any rooms containing any other open flame 
device, that face the ramp side of the terminal shall be above 
ramp grade and 50 ft (15 m) from any point of flammable 
vapor release. [415:4.2.3] 

21.2.4.4 Stacks or chimneys from a boiler, heater, or incinera- 
tor shall terminate at least 20 ft (6.1 m) above ramp grade and 



above the roof of the building. Stacks or chimneys from boil- 
ers or heaters using solid fuel or from any incinerator shall be 
fitted with double screening to control fly ash and sparks. 
Such stacks or chimneys shall be located so the outlet is at least 
100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from any aircraft position or point 
of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.4] 

21.2.5* In addition to exit signage requirements specified in 
NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code 9 , doors serving as exits that dis- 
charge onto an airport ramp and are provided solely for the 
purpose of meeting emergency egress requirements from 
public areas shall be placarded "Emergency Exit Only" in let- 
ters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. [415:4.3.2] 

21.2.6* Fine Protection — Sprinkler Systems. 

21.2.6.1 The airport terminal building with more than 
12,000 ft 2 (1115 m ) total floor area for the assembly portion 
of the occupancy shall be provided with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. [415:4.5.1.1] 

21.2.6.2 Terminal buildings with less than 12,000 ft 2 
(1115 m 2 ) total floor area for the assembly portion of the oc- 
cupancy shall not be required to be provided with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system. [415:4.5.1.2] 

21.2.6.2.1 Passenger handling areas shall be classified as Or- 
dinary Hazard Group 1 Occupancy, as defined in NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, for the purpose 
of sprinkler system design. [415:4.5.1.3] 

21.2.6.2.2 Baggage, package, and mail handling areas shall 
be classified as Ordinary Hazard Group 2 Occupancy, as de- 
fined in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 
for the purpose of sprinkler system design. [415:4.5.1.4] 

21.2.6.2.3* Other areas of the airport terminal building shall 
be classified in accordance with 3.8.1 of NFPA 13, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, based on the occupancy of 
the area. [415:4.5.1.5] 

21.2.6.2.4 Covered Plane-Loading Positions. Airport termi- 
nal buildings having canopy areas or roofed-over recesses at 
aircraft loading positions that, in effect, place the aircraft 
totally or substantially under such canopies or roofs shall 
have these canopies or roofs protected by automatic sprin- 
kler systems in accordance with NFPA 409, Standard on Air- 
craft Hangars. [415:4.5.1.6] 

21.2.6.3 Fire Alarm and Communications Systems. A fire 
alarm and communications system shall be installed as re- 
quired by 8.3.4 of NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. [415:4.5.2] 

21.2.6.3.1 Means to alert the public fire department or the 
airport fire station shall be available through manual fire 
alarm pull stations. Manual fire alarm services shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. 

[415:4.5.2.1] 

21.2.6.3.2* Annunciation for all building fire alarm signals 
shall be provided near the front entrance of the building. 
[415:4.5.2.2] 

21.2.6.3.3 If the public fire department has two-way voice 
communication with a constantly attended location, 21.2.6.3.3 
shall not apply. [415:4.5.2.3] 

21.2.6.4 Fire Hydrants. Fire hydrants shall be provided on 
both the ramp and street sides of airport terminal buildings. 
Such hydrants shall be located so that no portion of the termi- 



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AIRPORTS AND HELIPORTS 



1-131 



nal building is more than 500 ft (152.4 m) from a hydrant. 

[415:4.5.3] 

21.2.6.5 Standpipe and Hose Systems. Standpipe and hose 
systems shall be provided for all airport terminal buildings in 
excess of two stories [35 ft (10.7 m)] in height or 100 ft 
(30.5 m) in shortest horizontal dimension. Standpipe and 
hose systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 
13.2. [415:4.5.4] 

21.2.6.5.1 Class I standpipe systems shall be provided in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Each 2 ] /2 in. (63.5 mm) hose connection 
shall be equipped with a 2 l A in. x IV2 in. (63.5 mm x 38 mm) 
reducer and cap. [415:4.5.4.1] 

21.2.6.5.2 Class III standpipe systems shall be provided in 
nonsprinklered buildings. Paragraphs 5.3.3.1 and 5.3.3.2 of 
NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Sys- 
tems, for Class III systems shall be applicable to this require- 
ment. [415:4.5.4.2] 

21.2.6.6 Portable Fire Extinguishers. Portable fire extinguish- 
ers shall be provided throughout the airport terminal building 
in accordance with Section 13.6. [415:4.5.6] 

21.3 Rooftop Heliport Construction and Protection. 

21.3.1 Application. Rooftop heliport construction and pro- 
tection shall comply with Section 21.3, and NFPA 418, Standard 
for Heliports. 

21.3.1.1 Section 21.3 does not apply to ground level helicop- 
ter hangars. All hangars not covered by this standard shall 
comply with NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars. 

21.3.1.2 Temporary landing sites and emergency evacuation 
facilities are outside the scope of Section 21.3. 

21.3.2 General. 



21.3.2.1 
1.12.19. 



ermits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 



21.3.2.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access 
roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with 
Section 18.2 for all buildings with a rooftop heliport. 

21.3.2.3 Smoking. 

21.3.2.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited at rooftop heliports. 

21.3.2.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 

21.3.3 General Requirements — Land-Based Facilities. 



21.3.3.1* Plans. Plans for construction and protection of heli- 
ports shall be approved by the AHJ. [418:2.1] 

21.3.3.2 Tank Locations. 

21.3.3.2.1 Storage, handling, and use of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 66. 
[418:2.2.1] 

21.3.3.2.2 Oxygen and other medical gases shall be stored 
and used in accordance with 5.1.3.3.1.6 and Section 9.4 of 
NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. [418:2.2.2] 

21.3.3.2.3 Aboveground flammable liquid storage tanks, com- 
pressed gas storage tanks, and liquefied gas storage tanks shall be 
laterally located at least 50 ft (15.2 m) from the edge of the final 
approach and takeoff (FATO) area as defined in FAAA/C 150/ 
5390-2A, Heliport Design Advisory Circular. [418:2.2.3] 



21.3.3.3 Fire-Fighting Access. 

21.3.3.3.1 The heliport shall have at least one access point for 
fire-fighting/ rescue personnel. Where practical, a second ac- 
cess point shall be available and located as remotely as possible 
from the other. [418:2.3.1] 

21.3.3.3.2 Fences shall not prevent rapid access by fire- 
fighting/ rescue personnel. [418:2.3.2] 

21.3.3.4 Landing Pad Pitch. The heliport shall be pitched or 
sloped so that drainage flows away from access points and pas- 
senger holding areas. [418:2.4] 

21.3.3.5 No Smoking. No smoking shall be permitted within 
50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge. No smoking signs shall 
be erected at access/egress points to the heliport. [418:2.5] 

21.3.3.6 Feeling System. Fueling systems shall be designed in 
accordance with Section 42.4. [418:2.6] 

21.3.3.6.1 Fixed fueling dispensing equipment shall be lo- 
cated outside of rooftop hangars. Fueling equipment shall not 
hinder or obstruct access to exits or fire-fighting equipment. 
3:2.6.1] 



21.3.3.6.2 Fuel pump manifolds shall be located 25 ft (7.6 m) 
from rooftop hangars and fixed fire protection equipment. 

[418:2.6.2] 

21.3.4 Rooftop Landing Facilities — Additional Protection. 

21.3.4.1 Structural Support. Main structural support mem- 
bers that could be exposed to a fuel spill shall be made fire 
resistant using listed materials and methods to provide a fire- 
resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [418:3.1] 

21.3.4.2 Landing Pad Pitch. The rooftop landing pad shall 
be pitched to provide drainage at a slope of 0.5 percent to 
2 percent. The pitch of the pad shall be designed to protect, 
at a minimum, the primary egress path, passenger holding 
area, rooftop hangar, and fire protection activation systems. 
Flow shall not penetrate alternate egress points, stairways, 
ramps, hatches, and other openings not designed for drain- 
age. [418:3.2] 

21.3.4.3 Landing Pad Construction Materials. The rooftop 
landing pad surface shall be constructed of noncombustible, 
nonporous materials that are approved. The contiguous build- 
ing roof covering within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge 
shall have a Class A rating. [418:3.3] 

21.3.4.4* Means of Egress. At least two approved means of 
egress from the rooftop landing pad edge shall be provided 
and shall be remotely located from each other to the extent 
practical. [418:3.4] 

21.3.4.4.1 For heliports occupied by 50 or more people, two 
approved means of egress from the roof shall be provided and 
shall be remotely located from each other to the extent prac- 
tical, but shall not be located less than 30 ft (9.1 m) from each 
other. For heliports occupied by fewer than 50 people, one 
approved means of egress from the roof shall be provided. 
[418:3.4.1] 

21.3.4.4.2 Means of egress from the rooftop landing pad and 
roof shall not obstruct flight operations. [418:3.4.2] 

21.3.5 Fire-Fighting Access. The helicopter rooftop landing 
pad shall have at least two access points for fire-fighting pur- 
poses. Access for fire-fighting personnel through the landing 
pad egress shall be permitted. [418:3.5] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 1 



21.3.6 Fire Protection. A foam fire-extinguishing system shall 
be designed and installed to protect the rooftop landing pad. 

Exception No. 1: A foam fire-extinguishing system shall not be re- 
quired for heliports located on parking garages, unoccupied buildings, 
or other similar unoccupied structures. 

Exception No. 2: For H-1 heliports, two portable foam extinguishers, 
each having a rating of 20-A:160-B, shall be permitted to be used to 
satisfy this requirement. [418:3.6]. 

21.3.6.1* The foam discharge rate shall be as shown in Table 
21.3.6.1. [418:3.6.1] 



Table 21.3.6.1 


Foam 


Discharge Rates 








Discharge 


Rate 


Foam 


gpm/ft z 


(L/min)/m 2 


AFFF 

Fluoroprotein 

Protein 




0.10 
0.16 
0.20 


4.1 
6.5 
8.1 



Source: Table 3.6.1 of NFPA418. 



21.3.6.2 The area of application of foam discharge for fixed 
discharge outlet systems shall be the entire rooftop landing 
pad. The duration shall be 5 minutes. [418:3.6.2] 

21.3.6.3* The area of application of foam discharge for hose 
line systems shall be the practical critical fire area for the cat- 
egory of the helicopter landing facility, as shown in Table 
21.3.6.3. The duration shall be 2 minutes. [418:3.6.3] 



21.3.6.5 The foam components shall be installed in a readily 
accessible area of the heliport and shall not penetrate the ap- 
proach takeoff surface, transitional surfaces, and safety area as 
defined in FAAA/C 150/5390-2A, Heliport Design Advisory Cir- 
cular. [418:3.6.5] 

21.3.6.6 At facilities where there is more than one rooftop 
landing pad, the supply of foam available shall be sufficient to 
cover an incident on at least one of the pads. [418:3.6.6] 

21.3.6.7 Where fixed foam systems utilizing fixed deck 
nozzles or oscillating foam turrets, or both, are installed, 
system components shall be listed or approved. [418:3.6.7] 

21.3.6.8 Standpipes. If a building with a rooftop heliport is 
supplied with a standpipe system, a Class II standpipe shall be 
extended to the roof level on which the rooftop heliport is 
located. Such standpipe systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 13.2. [418:3.7] 

21.3.6.9 Fire Alarm. Where buildings are provided with a fire 
alarm system, a manual pull station shall be provided for each 
designated means of egress from the roof. (See 21.3.4.4.1.) 

[418:3.8] 

21.3.6.10 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

21.3.6.10.1 Quantity and Rating. At least one portable fire ex- 
tinguisher as specified in Table 21.3.6.10.1 shall be provided 
for each takeoff and landing area, parking area, and fuel stor- 
age area. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to unattended ground 
level heliports. [418: 7. 1] 

Table 21.3.6.10.1 Minimum Ratings of Portable Fire 
Extinguishers for Heliport Categories 



Table 21.3.6.3 Practical Critical Fire Areas 






Category 
H-1 
H-2 

H-3 


Helicopter Overall 
Length^ 

Up to but not including 

50 ft (15.2 m) 

From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to 

but not including 80 ft 

(24.4 m) 

From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to 

but not including 120 ft 

(36.6 m) 


Minimum Rating 




Helicopter Overall Length^ 

Up to but not including 

50 ft (15.2 m) 

From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to 

but not including 80 ft 

(24.4 m) 

From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to 

but not including 120 ft 

(36.6 m) 


Practical Critical 
Fire Area 


4-A80-B 


Category 

H-1 
H-2 


ft 2 

375 

840 

1440 


m 

34.8 

78.0 

133.8 


10-A:120-B 
30-A240-B 


H-3 


+ Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
Source: Table 7.1 of NFPA418. 

21.3.6.10.2 Servicine. Portable fire extinguishers shall comolv 



+ Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
Source: Table 3.6.3 of NFPA418. 



with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, Chapters 
1, 4, 5, and 6. [418:7.2] 



21.3.6.4 The water supply for the foam system shall be from a 
reliable source, approved by the AHJ. [418:3.6.4] 

21.3.6.4.1 Fire pumps, if used, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 13.4. [418:3.6.4.1] 

21.3.6.4.2 Standpipes and hose stations, if used, shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 13.2. [418:3.6.4.2] 

21.3.6.4.3 Where freezing is possible, adequate freeze protec- 
tion shall be provided. [418:3.6.4.3] 



Chapter 22 Automobile Wrecking Yards 

22.1 General. Automobile wrecking yards shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter. 

22.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

22.3 Fire Department Access Roads. Fire department access 
roads shall be in accordance with Section 18.2. 



2003 Edition 



GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-1 33 



22.4 Welding and Cutting. Welding and cutting operations 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 41. 

22.5 Housekeeping. Housekeeping practices shall be in ac- 
cordance with 1 0. 1 . 1 . 

22.6 Fine Extinguishers. Fire extinguishers shall be placed 
and sized in accordance with Section 13.6. 

22.7 Tire Storage. The storage of tires shall be in accordance 
with 20.15.4. 

22.8 Burning Operations. Burning operations shall be in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.11. 

22.9 Motor Vehicle Fluids and Hazardous Materials. 

22.9.1 General. The storage, use, and handling of motor ve- 
hicle fluids and hazardous materials shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 60 and Chapter 66. 

22.9.2 Motor Vehicle Fluids. 

22.9.2.1 Motor vehicle fluids shall be drained from salvage 
vehicles when such fluids are leaking. 

22.9.2.2 Storage and handling of motor vehicle fluids shall 
be done in an approved manner. 

22.9.2.3 Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored 
and handled in accordance with Chapter 66. 

22.9.3 Mitigation for Vehicle Fluid Leaks. 

22.9.3.1 Supplies or equipment capable of mitigating leaks 
from fuel tanks, crankcases, brake systems, and transmissions 
shall be kept available on site. 

22.9.3.2 Single-use plugging, diking, and absorbent mate- 
rials shall be disposed of as hazardous waste and removed 
from the site in a manner approved by federal, state, and 
local requirements. 

22.9.4 Air Bag Systems. Removed air bag systems shall be 
handled and stored in accordance with Chapter 60. 

22.9.5 Lead-Acid Batteries. 

22.9.5.1 Lead-acid batteries shall be removed from salvage 
vehicles when such batteries are leaking. 

22.9.5.2 Lead-acid batteries that have been removed from 
vehicles shall be stored in an approved manner. 



:er 23 Cleamrooins 



Chapiter 24 Drycleaimiinig 



24.1 General. 



23.1 General. All semiconductor facilities containing a clean- 
room or a clean zone, or both, shall comply with NFPA 318, 
Standard for the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities, 
and Chapter 23. 

23.2 Applicability. Unless otherwise noted in NFPA 318, Stan- 
dard for the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities, the 
provisions of NFPA 31 8 shall not be applied to facilities, equip- 
ment, structures, or installations that were existing or ap- 
proved for construction or installation prior to the effective 
date of this Code, except in those cases where it is determined 
by the AHJ that the existing situation involves a distinct hazard 
to life or adjacent property. 

23.3 Penults. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



24.1.1 Drycleaning plants shall comply with NFPA 32, Stan- 
dard for Drycleaning Plants, and this chapter. 

24.1.2 Drycleaning plants or systems using solvents that have 
a flash point below 100°F (37.8°C) shall be prohibited. 

24.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



ter 25 Grandstands aumdl Bleachers, Folding and 
Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Sfcructaines 

25.1 General. 

25.1.1 The construction, location, protection, and mainte- 
nance of grandstands and bleachers, folding and telescopic 
seating, tents, and membrane structures shall meet the re- 
quirements of this chapter. Seating facilities located in the 
open air or within enclosed or semi-enclosed structures, such 
as tents, membrane structures, and stadium complexes, shall 
comply with NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®; NFPA 102, Standard 
for Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Mem- 
brane Structures, and Chapter 25. 

25.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

25.1.3 Means of Egress. 

25.1.3.1 Means of egress shall comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 14. 

25.1.3.2 No guy wire or guy rope shall cross any means of 
egress at a height of less than 7 ft (2.1 m). Tent stakes adjacent 
to any means of egress from any tent open to the public shall 
be railed off, capped, or covered so as not to present a hazard 
to the public. [102:3.1.2] 

25.1.4 Flammable liquids and Gases. 

25.1.4.1 Storage and handling of flammable liquids or gases 
shall be in accordance with the applicable standards below: 

( 1 ) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(2) NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code 

(3) NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code [ 102:9. 1 . 1 ] 

25.1.4.2 No storage or handling of flammable liquids or gases 
shall be permitted at any location where it would jeopardize 
egress from the structure. [102:9.1.2] 

25.1.4.3 Refueling of equipment with liquids having flash 
points below 100°F (38°C) shall not be permitted within the 
structure. [102:9.1.3] 

25. 1 .5 Fire Hazards. 

25.1.5.1 The applicable provisions of NFPA 10 f, Life Safety 
Code®, that pertain to fire hazards shall govern in tents and 
membrane structures. [102:9.2.1] 

25.1.5.2 The ground enclosed by any tent or temporary 
membrane structure and for a reasonable distance, but not 
less than 10 ft (3 m) outside of such structure (s), shall be 
cleared of all flammable or combustible material or vegeta- 
tion. This work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of the 
AHJ prior to the erection of such structure(s). The premises 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 7 



shall be kept free from such flammable or combustible mate- 
rials during the period for which the premises are used by the 
public. 

Exception: Necessary support equipment. [102:9.2.2] 

25.1.5.3 No hay, straw, shavings, or similar combustible mate- 
rials that have not been treated to make them flame retardant 
to a degree acceptable to the AHJ shall be permitted within 
any structure used as an assembly occupancy. 

Exception: Animal bedding and fodders in quantities approved by 
the AHJ. [102:9.2.3] 

25.1.5.4 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not 
be allowed in any tent or temporary membrane structure. 

[102:9.2.4] 

25. 1 .5.5 Fireworks or unauthorized open flames shall be pro- 
hibited in any tent or temporary membrane structure. 

Exception: Where permitted by Section 65.11. [102:9.2.5] 

25.1.6* Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. 

25.1.6.1 Enclosed stadia, arenas, and similar structures shall 
be protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

Exception No. 1: Where the ceiling or roof, whichever is lower, of the 
playing (activity) area is more than 55 ft (17 m) above the floor, the 
AHJ shall be permitted to allow the omission of sprinklers above the 
playing (activity) area. 

Exception No. 2: Sprinklers shall not be required above seating areas 
that view the playing (activity) area. [102:9.3. 1] 

25.1.6.2 In other than enclosed stadia, arenas, and similar 
structures, enclosed areas shall be protected by an approved 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

Exception No. 1: Press boxes less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in area. 

Exception No. 2: Storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in area 
if enclosed with minimum 1 -hour fire resistance-rated construction. 

Exception No. 3: Enclosed areas underneath grandstands or bleach- 
ers that comply with the exceptions to Section 4.8 of NFPA 102. 
[102:9.3.2] 

25.1.6.3 Portable fire-extinguishing equipment of approved 
types shall be furnished and maintained in tents and tempo- 
rary membrane structures by the person operating any assem- 
bly occupancy in such amount and in such locations as di- 
rected by the AHJ. 

Exception: Where a functioning garden hose that can reach all por- 
tions of the private party tent is provided. [102:9.3.3] 

25.1.6.4 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be maintained 
in accordance with Section 13.6. [102:9.3.4] 

25.1.6.5 Employees shall be trained to operate fire- 
extinguishing equipment and shall be required to exhibit 
their skill when requested by the AHJ. [102:9.3.5] 

25.1.7 Emergency Communications. One or more methods of 
fire alarm and emergency communications shall be provided 
to the satisfaction of the AHJ. [102:9.4] 

25.1.8* Fire Detail. See 1.7.13 for fire detail requirements. 

25.1.9 Electrical Installations. 

25.1.9.1 Electrical installations shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 11.1. 



Exception: As otherwise provided by law, ordinance, or regulation. 
[102:10.1.1] 

25.1.9.2 The electrical system shall be installed, maintained, 
and operated in a safe and professional manner. If portable, it 
shall be inspected daily when in use by a qualified person rep- 
resenting the owner, and any defects found shall be corrected 
before the public is admitted. [102:10.1.2] 

25.1.9.3 The electrical system and equipment shall be iso- 
lated from the public by proper elevation or guarding, and all 
electrical fuses and switches shall be enclosed in approved en- 
closures. Cables on the ground in areas traversed by the public 
shall be placed in trenches or protected by approved covers. 
[102:10.1.3] 

25.1.10 Heating Devices. 

25.1.10.1 Fired Heaters. 

25.1.10.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 
[102:10.2.1.1] 

25.1.10.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the AHJ. [102:10.2.1.2] 

25. 1. 10.1.3 Ducts used to convey heated air shall comply with 
NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems. [102:10.2.1.3] 

25.1.10.1.4 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any tent or temporary 
membrane structure and shall be in accordance with the pro- 
visions of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [102:10.2.1.4] 

25.1.10.1.5 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position 
and protected from vehicular traffic. [102:10.2.1.5] 

25.1.10.1.6 Heating devices shall comply with Section 11.2 
and Section 11.5. 

25.1.10.2 Electric Heaters. 

25.1.10.2.1 Electric heaters shall comply with 25.1.10.2 and 
Section 11.5. 

25.1.10.2.2 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 
[102:10.2.2.1] 

25.1.10.2.3 Heaters used inside a tent or temporary mem- 
brane structure shall be approved. [102:10.2.2.2] 

25.1.10.2.4 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by elec- 
tric cable suitable for outside use and of sufficient size to 
handle electrical load. [102:10.2.2.3] 

25.1.11 Cooking. Cooking operations shall comply with Chap- 
ter 50. 

25.1.12 Generators. 

25.1.12.1 Generators and other internal combustion power 
sources shall be separated from temporary membrane struc- 
tures and tents by a minimum of 5 ft (1.5 m) and shall be 
protected from contact by fencing, enclosure, or other ap- 
proved means. 

25.1.12.2 Fuelling. Fuel tanks shall be of adequate capacity to 
permit uninterrupted operation during normal operating 
hours. Refueling shall be conducted only when not in use. 

25.1.12.3 Fire Extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire 
extinguisher with a rating of not less than 2-A:10-B:C shall be 
provided. 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-1 35 



25.2 Tents. 

25.2.1 General. 

25.2.1.1 Tents shall be permitted only on a temporary basis. 
[101:11.11.1.2] 

25.2.1.2 Tents shall be erected to cover not more than 75 per- 
cent of the premises, unless otherwise approved by the AHJ. 
[101:11.11.1.3] 

25.2.2 Flanie Resistance. 

25.2.2.1 All tent fabric shall be flame resistant in accordance 
with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. [101:11.11.2.1] 

25.2.2.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that the 
tent fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [101:11.11.2.2] 

25.2.2.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field tests 
shall be conducted using test specimens from the original ma- 
terial, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the tent. [101:11.11.2.3] 

25.2.3 Location and Spacing. 

25.2.3.1 There shall be a minimum of 120 in. (3050 mm) 
between stake lines. [101:11.11.3.1] 

25.2.3.2 Adjacent tents shall be spaced to provide an area to 
be used as a means of emergency egress. Where 120 in. 
(3050 mm) between stake lines does not meet the require- 
ments for means of egress, the distance necessary for means of 
egress shall govern. [101:11.11.3.2] 

25.2.3.2.1 Tents not occupied by the public and not used for 
the storage of combustible material shall be permitted to be 
erected less than 120 in. (3050 mm) from other structures 
where the AHJ deems such close spacing to be safe from haz- 
ard to the public. [101:11.11.3.3] 

25.2.3.2.2 Tents, each not exceeding 1200 ft 2 (112 m 2 ) in 
ground area and located in fairgrounds or similar open 
spaces, shall not be required to be separated from each other, 
provided that safety precautions meet the approval of the AHJ. 
[101:11.11.3.4] 

25.2.3.3 The placement of tents relative to other structures 
shall be at the discretion of the AHJ, with consideration given 
to occupancy, use, opening, exposure, and other similar fac- 
tors. [101:11.11.3.5] 

25.2.4 Fire Hazamrils. 

25.2.4.1 The ground enclosed by any tent, and the ground 
for a reasonable distance but for not less than 120 in. 
(3050 mm) outside of such a tent, shall be cleared of all flam- 
mable or combustible material or vegetation that is not used 
for necessary support equipment. The clearing shall be ac- 
complished to the satisfaction of the AHJ prior to the erection 
of such a tent. The premises shall be kept free from such flam- 
mable or combustible materials during the period for which 
the premises are used by the public. [101:11.11.4.1] 

25.2.4.2 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not be 
permitted in any tent. [101:11.11.4.2] 



25.2.5 Eie-Extimguishiiig Equipment Portable fire-extinguishing 
equipment of approved types shall be furnished and maintained 
in tents in such quantity and in such locations as directed by the 
AHJ. [101:11.11.5] 

25.3 Grandstands. 

25.3.1 General. 

25.3.1.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used in- 
doors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 22 in. 
(560 mm) back-to-back. [101:12.4.8.2.1] 

25.3.1.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 9 in. (230 mm) ; where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. [101:12.4.8.2.2] 

25.3.1.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be sup- 
ported securely and fastened in such a manner that they can- 
not be displaced inadvertently. [101:12.4.8.2.3] 

25.3.1.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do not 
exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. [101:12.4.8.2.4] 

25.3.1.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in grandstands and bleachers shall 
not exceed that shown in Table 25.3.1.5. 



Table 25.3.1.5 Maximum Number of Seats Between Farthest 
Seat and an Aisle 



Outdoors 



Indoors 



Grandstands 1 1 

Bleachers [see 12.2.5.6.1(1)] 20 



Source: Table 12.4.8.2.5 of NFPA 101. 



25.3.2 Special Requirements — Wood Grandstands. 

25.3.2.1 The distance between an outdoor wood grandstand 
and a building shall be not less than two-thirds of the grand- 
stand height and in no case less than 120 in. (3050 mm) of a 
building, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The distance requirement shall not apply to buildings of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
with openings protected against the fire exposure hazard 
created by the grandstand. 

(2) The distance requirement shall not apply where a wall of not 
less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction separates 
the grandstand from the building. [101:12.4.8.3.1] 

25.3.2.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not exceed 
10,000 ft 2 (929 m 2 ) in ground area or 200 ft (61 m) in length 
and the following requirements also shall apply: 

(1) Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not 
less than 240 in. (6100 mm) apart or shall be separated by 
walls of 1-hour fire resistance rating. 

(2) The number of grandstand units erected in any one 
group shall not exceed three. 



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(3) Each group of grandstand units shall be separated from any 
other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction extending 24 in. (610 mm) above the seat plat- 
forms or by an open space of not less than 50 ft (15 m). 
[202:12.4.8.3.2] 

25.3.2.3 The ground area or length required by 25.3.2.2 shall 
be permitted to be doubled where one of the following crite- 
ria is met: 

(1) Where the grandstand is constructed entirely of labeled 
fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed the standard 
rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weather- 
ing of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing 

(2) Where the grandstand is constructed of members con- 
forming to dimensions for heavy timber construction 
[TypeIV(2HH)] [702:12.4.8.3.3] 

25.3.2.4 The highest level of seat platforms above the ground 
or the surface at the front of any wood grandstand shall not 
exceed 240 in. (6100 mm) [202:12.4.8.3.4]. 

25.3.2.5 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground, or the surface at the front of a portable grandstand 
within a tent or membrane structure, shall not exceed 144 in. 
(3660 mm). [202:12.4.8.3.5]. 

25.3.2.6 The height requirements specified in 25.3.2.4 and 
25.3.2.5 shall be permitted to be doubled where constructed 
entirely of labeled fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed 
the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated 
Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing, or where 
constructed of members conforming to dimensions for heavy 
timber construction [Type IV (2HH)] [202:12.4.8.3.6]. 

25.3.3 Special Requirements — Portable Grandstands. 

25.3.3.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 25.3 for grandstands and the requirements 
of 25.3.3.2 through 25.3.3.7. [202:12.4.8.4.1] 

25.3.3.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and 
shall have within them all necessary parts to withstand and 
restrain all forces that might be developed during human oc- 
cupancy. [702:12.4.8.4.2] 

25.3.3.3 Portable grandstands shall be designed and manu- 
factured so that, if any structural members essential to the 
strength and stability of the structure have been omitted dur- 
ing erection, the presence of unused connection fittings shall 
make the omissions self-evident. [202:12.4.8.4.3] 

25.3.3.4 Portable grandstand construction shall be skillfully 
accomplished to produce the strength required by the design. 
[207:12.4.8.4.4] 

25.3.3.5 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the 
permitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. [702:12.4.8.4.5] 

25.3.3.6 Where portable grandstands rest directly on a base 
of such character that it is incapable of supporting the load 
without appreciable settlement, mud sills of suitable material, 
having sufficient area to prevent undue or dangerous settle- 
ment, shall be installed under base plates, runners, or sleep- 
ers. [202:12.4.8.4.6] 

25.3.3.7 All bearing surfaces of portable grandstands shall be 
in contact with each other. [202:12.4.8.4.7] 



25.3.4 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces underneath 
a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combustible 
materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 
300 ft 2 (28 m 2 ) or less, such as ticket booths, toilet facili- 
ties, or concession booths where constructed of noncom- 
bustible or fire-resistive construction in otherwise non- 
sprinklered facilities. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to rooms that are en- 
closed in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction and are less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in otherwise 
nonsprinklered facilities. [202:12.4.8.5] 

25.3.5 Guards and Railings. 

25.3.5.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (1065 mm) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. 
(915 mm) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the 
seats are more than 48 in. (1220 mm) above the floor or 
ground. [202:12.4.8.6.1] 

25.3.5.1.1 The requirement of 25.3.5.1 shall not apply where 
an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 
[207:12.4.8.6.2] 

25.3.5.2 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 24 in. (610 mm) above the floor, railings or guards not 
less than 33 in. (825 mm) above such footrests shall be pro- 
vided. [707:12.4.8.6.3] 

25.3.5.2.1 The railings required by 25.3.5.2 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high in grandstands 
or where the front row of seats includes backrests. 
[707:12.4.8.6.4] 

25.3.5.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. [707:12.4.8.6.5] 

25.3.5.3.1 The railings specified by 25.3.5.3 shall not be re- 
quired where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle 
project 24 in. (610 mm) or more above the surface of the cross 
aisle. [707:12.4.8.6.6] 

25.3.5.4 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 4 in. ( 1 00 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. [707:12.4.8.6.7] 

25.3.5.5 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (760 mm) above grade shall be 
provided with intermediate construction so that a 4 in. 
(100 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass through the open- 
ing. [202:12.4.8.6.8] 

25.3.6 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands. 

25.3.6.1 The owner shall provide for not less than annual 
inspection and required maintenance of each outdoor grand- 
stand to ensure safe conditions. [207:12.7.9.1] 

25.3.6.2 At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed 
by a professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. [202:12.7.9.2] 



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25.3.6.3 Where required by the AHJ, the owner shall provide 
certification that such inspection has been performed. 
[101:12.7.9.3] 

25.4 Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

25.4.1 Seating. 

25.4.1.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back-to- 
back, shall be not less than 22 in. (560 mm) for seats without 
backs, and the following requirements shall also apply: 

(1) There shall be a space of not less than 12 in. (305 mm) 
between the back of each seat and the front of each seat 
immediately behind it. 

(2) If seats are of the chair type, the 12 in. (305 mm) dimen- 
sion shall be measured to the front edge of the rear seat in 
its normal unoccupied position. 

(3) All measurements shall be taken between plumb lines. 
[101:12.4.9.2.1] 

25.4.1.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat boards 
in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 9 in. 
(230 mm). [101:12.4.9.2.2] 

25.4.1.2.1 Where the same level is not used for both seat 
foundations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall 
be provided. [101:12.4.9.2.3] 

25.4. 1.3 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in fold- 
ing and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups of 
not less than three. [101:12.4.9.2.4] 

25.4.1.4 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in folding and telescopic seating 
shall not exceed that shown in 25.3.1.5. [101:12.4.9.2.5] 

25.4.2 Guairails and Railings. 

25.4.2.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (1065 mm) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. 
(915 mm) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic 
seating where the seats are more than 48 in. (1200 mm) above 
the floor or ground. [101:12.4.9.3.1] 

25.4.2.1.1 The requirement of 25.4.2.1 shall not apply 
where an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safe- 
guard. [101:12.4.9.3.2] 

25.4.2.2 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic 
seating is more than 24 in. (610 mm) above the floor, railings 
or guards not less than 33 in. (825 mm) above such footrests 
shall be provided. [101:12.4.9.3.3] 

25.4.2.2.1 The railings required by 25.4.2.2 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high where the front 
row of seats includes backrests. [101:12.4.9.3.4] 

25.4.2.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. [101:12.4.9.3.5] 

25.4.2.4 The railings specified by 25.4.2.3 shall not be re- 
quired where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle 
project 24 in. (610 mm) or more above the surface of the cross 
aisle. [101:12.4.9.3.6] 

25.4.2.5 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 4 in. (100 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. [101:12.4.9.3.7] 



25.4.2.6 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (760 mm) above grade shall be 
provided with intermediate construction so that a 4 in. 
(100 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass through the open- 
ing. [101:12.4.9.3.8] 

25.4.3 Maintenance and Operation of Folding and Telescopic 
Seating. 

25.4.3.1 Instructions in both maintenance and operation 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
seating or his or her representative. [101:12.7.10.1] 

25.4.3.2 Maintenance and operation of folding and tele- 
scopic seating shall be the responsibility of the owner or his 
or her duly authorized representative and shall include the 
following: 

(1) During operation of the folding and telescopic seats, the 
opening and closing shall be supervised by responsible 
personnel who shall ensure that the operation is in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

(2) Only attachments specifically approved by the manufac- 
turer for the specific installation shall be attached to the 
seating. 

(3) An annual inspection and required maintenance of each 
grandstand shall be performed to ensure safe conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a 
professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. [101:12.7.10.2] 

25.5 Permanent Memabrame Stnuctiires. 

25.5.1 Application. 

25.5.1.1 Use of Membrane Roofs. Membrane roofs shall be 
used in accordance with the following: 

(1) Membrane materials shall not be used where fire resis- 
tance ratings are required for walls or roofs. 

(2) Where every part of the roof, including the roof mem- 
brane, is not less than 240 in. (6100 mm) above any floor, 
balcony, or gallery, a noncombustible or limited- 
combustible membrane shall be permitted to be used as 
the roof in any type of construction. 

(3) With approval of the AHJ, membrane materials shall be 
permitted to be used where every part of the roof mem- 
brane is sufficiently above every significant fire potential 
such that the imposed temperature cannot exceed the 
capability of the membrane, including seams, to maintain 
its structural integrity. [101:11.9.1.2] 

25.5.1.2 Testing. Testing of membrane materials for compli- 
ance with the requirements of Section 25.5 for use of the cat- 
egories of noncombustible and limited-combustible materials 
shall be performed on weathered-membrane material as de- 
fined in Section 3.3 of NFPA 101. [101:11.9.1.3] 

25.5.1.3 Flame Spread Classification. Flame spread of all 
membrane materials exposed within the structure shall be 
Class A in accordance with Section 10.2 of NFPA 101. 
[101:11.9.1.4] 

25.5.1.4 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes 
shall have a roof covering classification, as required by the 
applicable building codes, when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. 
[101:11.9.1.5] 

25.5.1.5 Flame Resistance. 

25.5.1.5.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. [101:11.9.1.6.1] 



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25.5.1.5.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [102:11.9.1.6.2] 

25.5.1.5.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field 
tests shall be conducted using test specimens from the original 
material, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the structure. [201:11.9.1.6.3] 

25.5.2 Tensioned-Membrane Structures. 

25.5.2. 1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. [101:11.9.2.1] 

25.5.2.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. [101:11.9.2.2] 

25.5.2.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates sub- 
ject to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be com- 
posed of two layers separated by an air space through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. 
As an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods 
that protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 
[101:11.9.2.3] 

25.5.2.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. [101:11.9.2.4] 

25.5.3 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

25.5.3.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
25.5.1, the requirements of 25.5.3 shall apply to air-supported 
and air-inflated structures. [101:11.9.3.1] 

25.5.3.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressurization 
system shall consist of one or more operating blower units. 
The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary blower 
units to maintain the required operating pressure. Such 
equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. [101:11.3.2] 



25.5.3.3 Standby Power System. 

25.5.3.3.1* A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal oper- 
ating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. [101:11.9.3.3.1] 

25.5.3.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. [101:11.9.3.3.2] 

25.5.3.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power 
system shall be certified by a professional engineer. 
[101:11.9.3.3.3] 

25.5.4 Maintenance and Operation. 

25.5.4.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
[101:11.9.4.1] 

25.5.4.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. [102:11.9.4.2] 

25.6 Temporary Membrane Structures. 

25.6.1 Application. 

25.6.1.1 Required Approval. Membrane structures designed 
to meet all the requirements of Section 25.6 shall be permitted 
to be used as temporary buildings subject to the approval of 
the AHJ. [101:11.10.1.2] 

25.6.1.2 Alternative Requirements. Temporary tensioned- 
membrane structures shall be permitted to comply with Sec- 
tion 25.2 instead of Section 25.6. [101:11.10.1.3] 

25.6.1.3 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes 
shall have a roof covering classification, as required by the 
applicable building codes, when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. 
[101:11.10.1.4] 

25.6.1.4 Flame Resistance. 

25.6.1.4.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. [101:11.10.1.5.1] 

25.6.1.4.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [101:11.10.1.5.2] 

25.6.1.4.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field 
tests shall be conducted using test specimens from the original 
material, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the structure. [101:11.10.1.5.3] 

25.6.2 Fire Hazards. 

25.6.2.1 The ground enclosed by any temporary membrane 
structure, and the ground for a reasonable distance but for 
not less than 120 in. (3050 mm) outside of such a structure, 



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shall be cleared of all flammable or combustible material or 
vegetation that is not used for necessary support equipment. 
The clearing work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of 
the AHJ prior to the erection of such a structure. The premises 
shall be kept free from such flammable or combustible mate- 
rials during the period for which the premises are used by the 
public. [101:11. 10.2.1] 

25.6.2.2 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not 
be permitted in any temporary membrane structure. 
[101:11.10.2.2] 

25.6.3 Mi^ExtinguisJiing Equipment Portable fire-extinguishing 
equipment of approved types shall be furnished and maintained 
in temporary membrane structures in such quantity and in such 
locations as directed by the AHJ. [101:11.10.3] 

25.6.4 Tensiomed-Menibraine Structures. 

25.6.4.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. [101:11.10.4.1] 

25.6.4.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. [101:11.10.4.2] 

25.6.4.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates sub- 
ject to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be com- 
posed of two layers separated by an air space through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. 
As an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods 
that protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 
[101:11.10.4.3] 

25.6.4.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. [101:11.10.4.4] 

25.6.5 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

25.6.5.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
25.6.1, the requirements of 25.6.5 shall apply to air-supported 
and air-inflated structures. [101:11.10.5.1] 

25.6.5.2 Pressuxization (Inflation) System. The pressurization 
system shall consist of one or more operating blower units. 
The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary blower 
units to maintain the required operating pressure. Such 
equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 



(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. [101:11.10.5.2] 

25.6.5.3 Standby Power System. 

25.6.5.3.1 A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal oper- 
ating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. [101:11.10.5.3.1] 

25.6.5.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. [101:11.10.5.3.2] 

25.6.5.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power 
system shall be certified by a professional engineer. 
[101:11.10.5.3.3] 

25.6.6 Maintenance and Operation. 

25.6.6.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
[101:11.10.6.1] 

25.6.6.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. [101:11.10.6.2] 



Chapter 26 Laboratories Using Quemicals 

26.1 General. 

26.1.1 The handling or storage of chemicals in laboratory 
buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas whether 
located above or below grade shall comply with Chapter 26 
and NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals. 

26.1.2 Chapter 26 shall apply to laboratory buildings, labora- 
tory units, and laboratory work areas whether located above or 
below grade in which chemicals, as defined, are handled or 
stored. 

Exception No. 1: This chapter shall not apply to laboratory units with 
less than or equal to 1.1 gal (4 L) of flammable or combustible liquid 
and less than 75 scf(2.2 standard m 3 ) of flammable gas. 

Exception No. 2: It does not apply to laboratories that are pilot plants. 

Exception No. 3: It does not apply to laboratories that handle only 
chemicals with a hazard rating of zero or one, as defined by NFPA 704, 
Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for 
Emergency Response, for all of the following: health, flammability, and 
instability. 

Exception No. 4: It does not apply to laboratories that are primarily 
manufacturing plants. 

Exception No. 5: It does not apply to incidental testing facilities. 



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Exception No. 6: It does not apply to physical, electronic, instrument, 
laser, or similar laboratories that use chemicals only for incidental 
purposes, such as cleaning. 

Exception No. 7: It does not apply to laboratories that work only with 
radioactive materials, as covered by NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Pro- 
tection for Facilities Handling Radioactive Materials. 

Exception No. 8: It does not apply to laboratories thai work only with 
explosive material, as covered by NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code. 
[45:1.1.1] 

26.1.2.1 Chapter 26 contains requirements, but not all- 
inclusive requirements, for handling and storage of chemicals 
where laboratory-scale operations are conducted. 

Exception No. 1: It does not cover the special fire protection required 
when handling explosive materials. (See NFPA 495, Explosive Mate- 
rials Code.) 

Exception No. 2: It does not cover the special fire protection required 
when handling radioactive materials. [45:1.1.2] 

26.2* Laboratories in Health Care Occupancies. Any building, 
space, room, or group of rooms in a health care facility intended 
to serve activities involving procedures for investigation, diagno- 
sis, or treatment in which flammable, combustible, or oxidizing 
materials are to be used shall comply with Section 26.1 of this 
Code and Chapter 11 of NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. 

26.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and Recreational 
Vehicle Sites 

27.1 Manufactured Home Sites. 

27.1.1 The fire safety requirements for the installation of 
manufactured homes and manufactured home sites, includ- 
ing accessory buildings, structures, and communities, shall 
comply with NFPA 501 A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for 
Manufactured Home Installations, Sites, and Communities, and 
Section 27.1. 

27.1.2 Section 27.1 shall not apply to recreational vehicles as 
defined in NFPA 1192, or to park trailers as defined in RVIA/ 
ANSI A. 119.5, Standard for Park Trailers. 

27.2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and Campgrounds. 

27.2.1 The construction of recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds that offer temporary living sites for use by recre- 
ational vehicles and camping units shall comply with Section 
27.2 and NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and 
Campgrounds. 

27.2.2 Section 27.2 shall not cover the design of recreational 
vehicles or other forms of camping units or the operational 
and maintenance practices of recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds. 



Chapter 28 Marinas and Boatyards 

28.1 Marinas, Boatyards, and Other Recreational Marine 
Facilities. 

28.1.1 The construction and operation of marinas, boat- 
yards, yacht clubs, boat condominiums, docking facilities asso- 



ciated with residential condominiums, multiple-docking facili- 
ties at multiple-family residences, and all associated piers, 
docks, and floats shall comply with NFPA 303, Fire Protection 
Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, and Section 28.1. 

28.1.2 Section 28.1 shall not apply to private, non-commercial 
docking facilities, constructed or occupied for the use of the own- 
ers or residents of the associated one- and two-family dwellings. 

28.1.3 Section 28.1 shall apply to support facilities and struc- 
tures used for construction, repair, storage, hauling and 
launching, or fueling of vessels if fire on a pier would pose an 
immediate threat to these facilities, or if a fire at a referenced 
facility would pose an immediate threat to a docking facility. 
[303:1.1.1] 

28.1.4 Section 28.1 applies to marinas and facilities: 

(1) Servicing small recreational and commercial craft, yachts, 
and other craft of not more than 300 gross tons 

(2) Not covered by NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and 
Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves; or 
NFPA 30 A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Re- 
pair Garages, (See Section 28.2.) [303:1.1.2] 

28.1.5 No requirement in this chapter shall be construed as 
reducing applicable building, fire, and electrical codes. 
[303:1.1.3] 

28.1.6 Fire Protection. 

28. 1 .6. 1 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

28.1.6.1.1 Placement of portable fire extinguishers shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 3 of NFPA 10, Standard for Portable 
Fire Extinguishers. [303:4.2.1] 

28.1.6.1.2 Placement of portable fire extinguishers on piers 
and along bulkheads where vessels are moored or are permit- 
ted to be moored shall be as follows. [303:4.2.2] 

28.1.6.1.2.1 Extinguishers listed for Class A, Class B, and 
Class C fires shall be installed at the pier/land intersection on 
a pier that exceeds 25 ft (7.6 m) in length. Additional fire 
extinguishers shall be placed such that the maximum travel 
distance to an extinguisher does not exceed 75 ft (22.9 m). 
[303:4.2.2.1] 

28.1.6.1.2.2 All extinguishers installed on piers shall meet 
the rating requirements set forth in Chapter 3 of NFPA 10, 
Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, for ordinary (moderate) 
hazard type. [303:4.2.2.2] 

28.1.6.1.2.3 Portable fire extinguishers that meet the mini- 
mum requirements of Chapter 3 of NFPA 10, Standard for Por- 
table Fire Extinguishers, for extra (high) hazard type shall be 
installed on two sides of a fuel-dispensing area. On piers or 
bulkheads where long fueling hoses are installed for fueling 
vessels, additional extinguishers installed on the pier shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 3 of NFPA 10, for extra 
(high) hazard type and 28.1.6.2.1. [303:4.2.3] 

28.1.6.1.2.4 All portable fire extinguishers shall be main- 
tained in accordance with Chapters 4 and 5 of NFPA 10, Stan- 
dard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, and shall be clearly visible 
and marked. [303:4.2.4] 

28.1.6.2 Fixed Fire Extinguishment Systems. 

28.1.6.2.1 Buildings in excess of 500 ft 2 (46.45 m 2 ) that are 
constructed on piers shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic extinguishing system. 



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Exception No. 1: Buildings of Type I or Type II construction, without 
combustible contents, in accordance with NFPA 220, Standard on 
Types of Building Construction. 

Exception No. 2: In existing facilities, considering water supply 
availability and adequacy, and size of facility, where clearly impracti- 
cal for economic or physical reasons. [303:4.3. 1] 

28.1.6.2.2* Marina and boatyard buildings in excess of 
5000 ft 2 (464.5 m 2 ) in total area shall be protected by an ap- 
proved automatic extinguishing system. 

Exception: In existing facilities, considering water supply availability 
and adequacy, and size of facility, where clearly impractical for eco- 
nomic or physical reasons. [303:4.3.2] 

28.1.6.2.3 Combustible piers and substructures in excess of 
25 ft (7.6 m) in width or in excess of 5000 ft 2 (464.5 m 2 ) in 
area, or within 30 ft (11.4 m) of other structures or superstruc- 
tures required to be so protected shall be protected, in accor- 
dance with Section 3.3 of NFPA 307, Standard for the Construc- 
tion and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. 

Exception No. 1: In the case of fixed piers, where the vertical distance 
does not exceed 36 in. (914 mm) from the surface of mean high-water 
level to the underside of the pier surface. In the case of floating piers, 
where the vertical distance does not exceed 36 in. (914 mm) from the 
surface of the water to the underside of the pier surface. 

Exception No. 2: In existing facilities, considering water supply 
availability and adequacy, and size of facility, where clearly impracti- 
cal for economic or physical reasons. [303:4.3.3] 

28.1.6.2.4* An approved water supply shall be provided within 
100 ft (30.5 m) of the pier/land intersection or fire depart- 
ment connection serving fire protection systems. Access be- 
tween water supplies and pier/land intersections or fire de- 
partment connections shall be by roadway acceptable to the 
AHJ. [303:4.3.4] 

28.1.6.3 Fire Standpipe Systems. 

28.1.6.3.1 Standpipe systems, where installed, shall be in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.2. Class I standpipe systems shall be 
provided for piers, bulkheads, and buildings where the hose 
lay distance from the fire apparatus exceeds 150 ft (45.8 m). 
Supply piping for standpipes on piers and bulkheads shall be 
sized for the minimum flow rate for Class II systems. 

Exception: Hose racks, hose, and standpipe cabinets shall not be 
required on piers and bulkheads. [303:4.4.1] 

28.1.6.3.2 Manual dry standpipes shall be permitted. 

[303:4.4.2] 

28.1.6.3.3 Flexible connections shall be permitted on float- 
ing piers, subject to approval by the AHJ. [303:4.4.3] 

28.1.6.3.4 Listed nonferrous piping shall be permitted to be 
used in accordance with its listing. [303:4.4.4] 

28.1.6.4 Hydrants and Water Supplies. Hydrants and water 
supplies for fire protection in marinas and boatyards shall be 
provided in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installa- 
tion of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of 
Standpipe and Hose Systems; and NFPA 24, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. 
[303:4.5] 

28.1.6.5 Fire Detectors. 

28.1.6.5.1 Fire detection devices and installation shall be in 
accordance with Section 13.7. [303:4.10.1] 



28.1.6.5.2 Fire detectors shall be installed in the following 
interior or covered locations unless protected by a fixed auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems: 

(1) Rooms containing combustible storage or goods 

(2) Rooms containing flammable liquid storage or use 

(3) Rooms containing battery storage or maintenance 

(4) Rooms containing paint and solvent storage or use 

(5) Enclosed or covered storage of vessels 

(6) Areas used for enclosed or covered maintenance of 
vessels 

(7) Areas used for public assembly, dining, or lodging 

(8) Kitchens and food preparation areas 

(9) Dust bins and collectors 

(10) Inside trash storage areas 

(11) Rooms used for janitor supplies or linen storage 

(12) Laundry rooms 

(13) Furnace rooms [303:4.10.2] 

28.1.7 Wet Storage and Berthing. 

28.1.7.1 Each berth shall be arranged such that a boat occu- 
pying the berth can be readily removed in an emergency with- 
out the necessity of moving other boats. [303:5.1.1] 

28.1.7.2 Ready access to all piers, floats, and wharves shall be 
provided for municipal fire-fighting equipment. [303:5.1.2] 

28.1.7.3* Electrical lighting shall be provided to assure ad- 
equate illumination of all exterior areas, piers, and floats, but 
positioned so as not to interfere with navigation or aids to 
navigation. [303:5.1.3] 

28.1.7.4 Only listed 120/240 volts ac electrical equipment 
shall be operated unattended. [303:5.1.4] 

28.1.8 Dry Storage. 

28.1.8.1 General. 

28.1.8.1.1 The use of portable heaters in a boat storage area 
shall be prohibited except where necessary to accomplish re- 
pairs, in which case they shall be used only when personnel are 
in attendance. No open flame heaters of any sort shall be used. 

[303:5.2.1.1] 

28.1.8.1.2 Ladders long enough to reach the deck of any 
stored boat shall be located so as to be readily available. 

J:5.2.1.2] 



28.1.8.1.3 The use of blow torches or flammable paint re- 
mover shall be prohibited. 

Exception: Flammable solvents shall be permitted to be used as pro- 
vided in 6.6.1 of NFPA 303. [303:5.2.1.3] 

28.1.8.1.4 The use of gasoline or other flammable solvents 
for cleaning purposes shall be prohibited. [303:5.2.1.4] 

28.1.8.1.5 Where a boat is to be dry-stored for the season or 
stored indoors for an extended period of time, such as while 
awaiting repairs, the following precautions shall be taken: 

(1) The vessel shall be inspected for any hazardous materials 
or conditions that might exist and corrective action shall 
be taken. 

(2) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural 
gas (CNG) cylinders, reserve supplies of stove alcohol or 
kerosene, and charcoal shall be removed from the pre- 
mises or stored in a separate, designated safe area. 



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(3) All portable fuel tanks shall be removed from the pre- 
mises or emptied. If portable fuel tanks are emptied, 
the cap shall be removed and the tank left open to the 
atmosphere. 

(4) Permanently installed fuel tanks shall be stored approxi- 
mately 95 percent full. [303:5.2.1.5] 

28.1.8.1.6 No unattended electrical equipment shall be in 
use aboard boats. [303:5.2.1.6] 

28. 1 .8. 1 .7 All storage areas shall be routinely raked, swept, or 
otherwise policed to prevent the accumulation of rubbish. 
[303:5.2.1.7] 

28.1.8.1.8 Access to boats stored outside shall be such that 
the hose-lay distance from the fire apparatus to any portion of 
the boat shall not exceed 150 ft (45.8 m). Pressurized stand- 
pipe systems shall be permitted to be used to meet this re- 
quirement. [303:5.2.1.8] 

28.1.8.1.9 Access to buildings in which boats are stored shall 
be such that the hose-lay distance from the fire apparatus to all 
exterior portions of the building shall not exceed 150 ft 
(45.8 m). Pressurized standpipe systems shall be permitted to 
be used to meet this requirement. [303:5.2.1.9] 

28.1.8.2 Indoors. 

28.1.8.2.1 When work is being carried out on board a vessel 
in an unsprinklered storage building, management shall re- 
quire an inspection of the vessel at the end of the day to en- 
sure that there are no hazards present resulting from the day's 
work. If a guard is employed, the vessel shall be included in 
the regular rounds. [303:5.2.2.1] 

28.1.8.2.2 No Class I flammable liquids shall be stored in an 
indoor boat storage area. [303:5.2.2.2] 

28.1.8.2.3 All work performed on boats stored indoors shall 
be performed by qualified personnel only. Facility manage- 
ment shall maintain control over all personnel access to stor- 
age facilities and boats stored indoors. [303:5.2.2.3] 

28.1.8.3 In-Out Dry Storage or Rack Storage. 

28. 1 .8.3.1 Water supply and hose, or portable fire extinguish- 
ers and wheeled cart assemblies equipped with discharge 
nozzles capable of reaching all boats on the highest racks shall 
be provided. [303:5.2.3.1] 

28.1.8.3.2 Boats stored either inside or outside in single- or 
multiple-level racks shall have unimpeded vehicular access at 
one end and shall have equipment available to remove any 
stored boat. [303:5.2.3.2] 

28.1.8.3.3* Where boats are stored on multilevel racks in 
buildings, an approved automatic extinguishing system shall 
be installed throughout the building. 

Exception No. 1: Buildings less than 5000 ft 2 (464.5 m 2 ) provided 
with an automatic fire detection and alarm system supervised by a 
central station complying with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm 
Code 9 . If such a system is not technically feasible, an automatic fire 
detection and alarm system supervised by a local protective signaling 
system complying with NFPA 72, or a full-time watch service shall be 
utilized. 

Exception No. 2: In existing facilities, considering water supply 
availability and adequacy and size of facility, where clearly impracti- 
cal for economic or physical reasons. [303:5.2.3.3] 



28.1.8.3.4 Where boats are stored in multilevel racks, either 
inside or outside, for seasonal storage or for in-out operation, 
the following precautions shall be taken: 

(1) Drain plugs shall be removed (in sprinklered buildings). 

(2) Batteries shall be disconnected or the master battery 
switch turned off. 

(3) Fuel tank valves shall be closed. 

(4) For seasonal storage, the requirements of 28.1.8.1 shall 
apply. [303:5.2.3.4] 

28.1.8.3.5 All repair operations while boats are on racks or 
inside an in-out dry storage building shall be prohibited. 
[303:5.2.3.5] 

28.1.8.3.6 All portable power lines, such as drop cords, shall 
be prohibited from any boat in an in-out dry storage building. 
The charging of batteries shall be prohibited in the in-out dry 
storage building. [303:5.2.3.6] 

28.1.8.4 Battery Storage. Lead-acid type batteries shall be re- 
moved for storage and recharging wherever practical. Where, 
due to size and weight, it is impractical to remove them for 
storage, batteries shall be permitted to remain on board pro- 
vided the following conditions are met: 

(1) The battery compartment is arranged to provide ad- 
equate ventilation. 

(2) A listed battery charger is used to provide a suitable 
charge. 

(3) The power connection to the charger consists of a three- 
wire cord of not less than No. 14 AWG conductors con- 
nected to a source of 110-volt to 125-volt single-phase cur- 
rent, with a control switch and approved circuit 
protection device designed to trip at not more than 
125 percent of the rated amperage of the charger. 

(4) There is no connection on the load side of this device 
from this circuit to any other device, and the boat battery 
switch is turned off. 

(5) The battery is properly connected to the charger, and 
the grounding conductor effectively grounds the 
charger enclosure. 

(6) Unattended battery chargers are checked at intervals not 
exceeding 8 hours while in operation. [303:5.2.4] 

28.1.9 Conditions on Individual Boats. 

28.1.9.1 The management shall have an inspection made of 
boats received for major repair or storage. This shall be ac- 
complished as soon as practicable after arrival of a boat and 
before commencement of any work aboard for the purpose of 
determining the following: 

(1) Presence of combustible vapors in any compartment 

(2) General maintenance and cleanliness, and location of 
any combustible materials that require removal or pro- 
tection for the safe accomplishment of the particular 
work involved 

(3) Quantity, type, and apparent condition of fire-extinguishing 
equipment on board 

(4) Presence of appropriate listed shore power inlet(s) and 
listed ship-to-shore cable(s) [303:6.1.1] 

28.1.9.2 The management shall, as a condition to accepting a 
boat received for major repair or storage, require the owner to 
correct any discrepancies found in 28.1.9.1 or to authorize 
management to do so. [303:6.1.2] 



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28.1.9.3 The following general precautions shall be ob- 
served. [303:6.1.3] 

28.1.9.3.1 Smoking in the working area shall be prohibited. 
[303:6.1.3.1] 

28.1.9.3.2 Loose combustibles in the way of any hazardous 
work shall be removed. [303:6.1.3.2] 

28.1.9.3.3 Unprotected battery terminals shall be suitably 
covered to prevent inadvertent shorting from dropped tools 
or otherwise. The ungrounded battery lead shall be discon- 
nected. [303:6.1.3.3] 

28.1.9.3.4 Only experienced personnel shall be employed in 
the removal or installation of storage batteries. [303:6.1.3.4] 

28.1.9.3.5 Precautions recommended herein for specific 
kinds of work shall be followed. [303:6.1.3.5] 

28.1.9.3.6 Where electric service is provided to boats in stor- 
age, the receptacle providing the power shall be protected 
with a ground-fault circuit-interrupter. [303:6.1.3.6] 

28.1.9.4 The marina or boatyard operator shall post in a 
prominent location or provide to boat operators using a ma- 
rina or boatyard for mooring, repair, servicing, or storage, a 
list of safe operating procedures containing such information 
as the following: 

(1) A prohibition against the use of any form of hibachis, 
charcoal, wood or gas-type portable cooking equipment, 
unless limited to specifically authorized areas where they 
can be used safely (not on the docks or on boats in the 
berthing area or near flammables) 

(2) Procedures for disposal of trash 

(3) Nonsmoking areas 

(4) Location of fire extinguishers and hose 

(5) Procedures for turning in a fire alarm 

(6) Fueling procedures [303:6.1.4] 

28.1.9.5 The information on fueling procedures referred to 
in 28.1.9.4(6) shall include as a minimum the following: 

(1) Before fueling: 

(a) Stop all engines and auxiliaries. 

(b) Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat sources. 

(c) Check bilges for fuel vapors. 

(d) Extinguish all smoking materials. 

(e) Close access fittings and openings that could allow 
fuel vapors to enter the boat's enclosed spaces. 

(f) Remove all personnel from the boat except the per- 
son handling the fueling hose. 

(2) During fueling: 

(a) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe. 

(b) Attend fuel filling nozzle at all times. 

(c) Wipe up spills immediately. 

(d) Avoid overfilling. 

(3) After fueling and before starting engine: 

(a) Inspect bilges for leakage or fuel odors. 

(b) Ventilate until odors are removed. [303:6.1.5] 

28.2 Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. 

28.2.1 Section 28.2 shall apply to marine terminals as defined 
herein. Special use piers and wharf structures that are not ma- 
rine terminals, such as public assembly, residential, business, 
or recreational occupancies that differ in design and construc- 
tion from cargo handling piers, require special consideration. 
The general principles of this standard for the construction 



and fire protection of piers and wharves shall be applicable to 
such structures and shall comply with NFPA307, Standard for 
the Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and 
Wharves, and Section 28.2. 

28.2.2* Section 28.2 shall not apply to marinas and boatyards. 
(See Section 28.1.) [307:1.1.2] 

28.2.3* Section 28.2 shall not apply to the handling of flam- 
mable or combustible liquids in bulk. (See Chapter 66.) [307:1.1.3] 

28.2.4* Section 28.2 shall not apply to the handling of lique- 
fied gases in bulk. (See Chapter 68.) [307:1.1.4] 

28.2.5 Nothing in Section 28.2 shall supersede any governmen- 
tal or other regulatory authority or regulations. [307: 1.1.5] 

28.3 Construction, Repair, and Lay-Up of Vessels. 

28.3.1* The construction, conversion, repair, or lay-up of ves- 
sels shall comply with NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of 
Vessels During Construction, Repair, andLay-Up, and Section 28.3. 

28.3.2 Emergency Exception. Nothing in Section 28.3 shall be 
construed as prohibiting the immediate drydocking of a vessel 
whose safety is imperiled, as by being in a sinking condition or 
by being seriously damaged. In such cases, all necessary pre- 
cautionary measures shall be taken as soon as practicable. 
[312:1.2] 

28.3.3 The requirements of Section 28.3 shall not apply to 
situations where they are in conflict with or are superseded by 
requirements of any government regulatory agency. [312:1.1] 



Chapter 29 Paurkiimg Garages 

29.1 General. 

29.1.1 The construction and protection of new and existing 
parking garages as well as the control of hazards in open park- 
ing structures, enclosed parking structures, and basement and 
underground parking structures shall comply with Section 
42.8 of NFPA 101 and NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 
and this chapter. 

29.1.2 Chapter 29 shall not apply to parking garages in one- 
and two-family dwellings. 



,er 3© Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and 
Repair Garages 



30.1 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 
30.1.1 Application. 

30.1.1.1 Motor fuel dispensing facilities, marine/motor fuel 
dispensing facilities, motor fuel dispensing facilities located 
inside buildings, and fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facili- 
ties shall comply with NFPA30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing 
Facilities and Repair Garages, Section 30.1, and Section 30.3. 

30.1.1.2 This chapter shall not apply to refueling operations. 
(For refueling operations, see Chapter 42.) 

30.1.1.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



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30.1.2 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy classifica- 
tion of a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside a 
building or structure shall be a low hazard industrial occu- 
pancy as defined in NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. [30A:7.3.1] 

30.1.3 Means of Egress. In a motor fuel dispensing facility 
that is located inside a building or structure, the required 
number, location, and construction of means of egress shall 
meet all applicable requirements for special purpose indus- 
trial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. 
[30A:7.3.3] 

30.1.4 Drainage. Where Class I or Class II liquids are dis- 
pensed, provisions shall be made to prevent spilled liquids 
from flowing into the interior of buildings. Such provisions 
shall be made by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other 
equally effective means. [3©A:7.3.4] 

30.1.5 Fixed Fire Protection. 

30.1.5.1* For an unattended, self-serve, motor fuel dispensing 
facility, additional fire protection shall be provided where re- 
quired by the AHJ. [30A::7.3.5.1] 

30.1.5.2 Where required, an automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate 
NFPA standard, manufacturers' instructions, and the listing 
requirements of the systems. [30A:7.3.5.2] 

30.1.6 Fuel Dispensing Areas Inside Buildings. 

30.1.6.1 The fuel dispensing area shall be separated from all 
other portions of the building by walls, partitions, floors, and 
floor-ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours. [30A:7.3.6.1] 

30.1.6.2 Interior finish shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als or of approved limited-combustible materials, as defined 
in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. 
[30A:7.3.6.2] 

30.1.6.3 Door and window openings in fire-rated interior 
walls shall be provided with listed fire doors having a fire pro- 
tection rating of not less than 1V6 hours. Doors shall be self- 
closing. They shall be permitted to remain open during nor- 
mal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a 
fire emergency by means of listed closure devices. Fire doors 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire 
Doors and Fire Windows. They shall be kept unobstructed at all 
times. [30A7.3.6.3] 

30.1.6.4 Openings for ducts in fire-rated interior partitions 
and walls shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Openings 
for ducts in fire-rated floor or floor-ceiling assemblies shall be 
protected with enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts shall be 
with wall or partition assemblies having a fire resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours. Openings for ducts into enclosed 
shafts shall be protected with listed fire dampers. [30A:7. 3.6.4] 

30.1.6.5 The fuel dispensing area shall be located at street 
level, with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) from 
the vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the build- 
ing. [30A:7.3.6.5] 

30.1.6.6 The fuel dispensing area shall be limited to that re- 
quired to serve not more than four vehicles at one time. 

Exception: At a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility inside a 
building, where only Class II and Class III liquids are dispensed, the 
number of vehicles serviced at any one time shall be permitted to be 
increased to 12. [30A:7.3.6.6] 



30.1.6.7* A mechanical exhaust system that serves only the 
fuel dispensing area shall be provided. This system shall meet 
all of the following requirements: 

(1) The system shall be interlocked with the dispensing sys- 
tem so that air flow is established before any dispensing 
device can operate. Failure of air flow shall automatically 
shut down the dispensing system. 

(2) The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air move- 
ment across all portions of the floor of the fuel dispensing 
area and to prevent the flow of ignitable vapors beyond 
the dispensing area. 

(3) Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm) or 
more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor. Exhaust ducts 
shall not be located in floors or penetrate the floor of the 
dispensing area. Exhaust ducts shall discharge to a safe 
location outside the building. 

(4) The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a rate of 
not less than 1 ft 3 /min/ft 2 (0.3 m 3 /min/m 2 ) of floor 
area, based on the fuel dispensing area. 

(5) The exhaust system shall meet all applicable require- 
ments of NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Con- 
veying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate 
Solids. 

Exception: The provisions of 30.1.6. 7 shall not apply to a fuel dis- 
pensing area located inside a building if two or more sides of the 
dispensing area are open to the building exterior. [30 A: 7.3. 6. 7] 

30. 1 .6.8 The floor of the dispensing area shall be liquidtight. 
Where Class I liquids are dispensed, provisions shall be made 
to prevent spilled liquids from flowing out of the fuel dispens- 
ing area and into other areas of the building by means of 
curbs, scuppers, special drainage systems, or other means ac- 
ceptable to the AHJ. [30A:7.3.6.8] 

30.1.6.9 Drainage systems shall be equipped with approved 
oil/ water traps or separators, if they connect to public sewers 
or they discharge into public waterways. [30A:7. 3.6.9] 

30.2 Repair Garages. 

30.2.1 Application. The construction and protection of, as 
well as the control of hazards in, garages used for major repair 
and maintenance of motorized vehicles and any sales and ser- 
vicing facilities associated therewith shall comply with 
NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair 
Garages, Section 30.2, and Section 30.3. 

30.2.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



30.2.2 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy classifica- 
tion of a repair garage shall be a special purpose industrial 
occupancy as defined in NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. 
[30A:7.4.1] 

30.2.3 General Construction Requirements. In major repair 
garages, where CNG-fueled vehicles, LNG-fueled vehicles, or 
LPG-fueled vehicles are repaired, all applicable requirements 
of NFPA 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, whichever is 
applicable, shall be met. [30A:7.4.2] 

30.2.4 Means of Egress. In a repair garage, the required 
number, location, and construction of means of egress shall 
meet all applicable requirements for special purpose indus- 
trial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101®, Life Safety 
Code®. [30A:7.4.3] 



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30.2.5 Drainage. In areas of repair garages used for repair or 
servicing of vehicles, floor assemblies shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials or, if combustible materials are 
used in the assembly, they shall be surfaced with approved, 
nonabsorbent, noncombustible material. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having 
a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm 2 , as determined by 
NFPA 253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor 
Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, shall be per- 
mitted. [BOA: 7.4.4] 

30.2.5.1 Floors shall be liquidtight to prevent the leakage 
or seepage of liquids and shall be sloped to facilitate the 
movement of water, fuel, or other liquids to floor drains. 

1:7.4.4.1] 



area shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) above floor level 
measured to the bottom of the openings. [30A:7.5.2] 

30.2.8.3 Combined ventilation and heating systems shall 
not recirculate air from areas that are below grade level. 
:7.5.3] 



30.2.5.2 In areas of repair garages where vehicles are ser- 
viced, any floor drains shall be properly trapped and shall dis- 
charge through an oil/water separator to the sewer or to an 
outside vented sump. [30A:7.4.4.2] 

30.2.6 Pits, Belowgrade Work Areas, and Subfloor Work 
Areas. 

30.2.6.1 Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas 
used for lubrication, inspection, and minor automotive main- 
tenance work shall comply with the provisions of 30.2.6, in 
addition to other applicable requirements of NFPA 30A. 

[30A7.4.5.1] 

30.2.6.2 Walls, floors, and structural supports shall be con- 
structed of masonry, concrete, steel, or other approved non- 
combustible materials. [30A:7.4.5.2] 

30.2.6.3 In pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work 
areas, the required number, location, and construction of 
means of egress shall meet the requirements for special pur- 
pose industrial occupancies in Chapter 40 of NFPA 202®, Life 
Safety Code®. [30A:7.4.5.3] 

30.2.6.4 Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas 
shall be provided with exhaust ventilation at a rate of not less 
than 1 ft /min /ft 2 (0.3 m s /min/m 2 ) of floor area at all times 
that the building is occupied or when vehicles are parked in or 
over these areas. Exhaust air shall be taken from a point within 
12 in. (0.3 m) of the floor. [30A:7.4.5.4] 

30.2.7 Fixed Fire Protection. Automatic sprinkler protection 
installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 13.3, 
shall be provided in major repair garages, as herein defined, 
when any of the following conditions exist: 

(1) The major repair garage is two or more stories in 
height, including basements, and any one floor ex- 
ceeds 10,000 ft 2 (930 m 2 ). 

(2) The major repair garage is one story and exceeds 
15,000 ft 2 (1400 m 2 ) in floor area. 

(3) The major repair garage is in the basement of a building. 
[30A7.4.6] 

30.2.8* Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

30.2.8.1* Forced air heating, air conditioning, and ventilating 
systems serving a fuel dispensing area inside a building or a 
repair garage shall not be interconnected with any such sys- 
tems serving other occupancies in the building. Such systems 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 11.2. [30A:7.5.1] 

30.2.8.2 Return air openings in areas of repair garages used 
for the repair or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing 



30.2.8.4 Exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they 
effectively remove vapor accumulations at floor level from all 
parts of the floor area. [30A:7.5.4] 

30.2.9 Heat-Prodmciiig Appliances. 

30.2.9.1 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of 30.2.9. They shall be per- 
mitted to be installed in the conventional manner except as 
provided in 30.2.9. [30A:7.6.1] 

30.2.9.2 Heat-producing appliances shall be of an approved 
type. Solid fuel stoves, improvised furnaces, salamanders, or 
space heaters shall not be permitted in areas of repair garages 
used for repairing or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispens- 
ing area. 

Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, when installed in accordance with 
30.2.9, need not meet this requirement. 

Exception No. 2: Heat-producing equipment for any lubrication room 
or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or 
Class II liquids or liquefied petroleum gas, when installed in accor- 
dance with 30. 2. 9, need not meet this requirement. [30A: 7. 6. 2] 

30.2.9.3 Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to be 
installed in a special room that is separated from areas that are 
classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance with Chap- 
ter 8 of NFPA 30A, by walls that are constructed to prevent the 
transmission of vapors, that have a fire resistance rating of at 
least 1 hour, and that have no openings in the walls that lead 
to a classified area within 8 ft (2.4 m) of the floor. Specific 
small openings through the wall, such as for piping and elec- 
trical conduit, shall be permitted, provided the gaps and voids 
are filled with a fire-resistant material to resist transmission of 
vapors. All air for combustion purposes shall be taken from 
outside the building. This room shall not be used for storage 
of combustible materials, except for fuel storage as permitted 
by the standards referenced in 30.2.9.9. [30A:7.6.3] 

30.2.9.4 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel shall 
be permitted to be installed in a lubrication or service room 
where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I liquids, 
including the open draining of automotive gasoline tanks, 
provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 
18 in. (455 mm) above the floor and the appliances are pro- 
tected from physical damage. [30A:7.6.4] 

30.2.9.5 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel 
listed for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in 
lubrication rooms, service rooms, or fuel dispensing areas 
where Class I liquids are dispensed or transferred, provided 
the equipment is installed at least 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor. 

^7.6.5] 



30.2.9.6* Where major repairs are conducted on CNG-fueled 
vehicles or LNG-fueled vehicles, open flame heaters or heat- 
ing equipment with exposed surfaces having a temperature in 
excess of 750°F (399°C) shall not be permitted. [30A:7.6.6] 

30.2.9.7 Electrical heat-producing appliances shall meet the 
requirements of Chapter 8 of NFPA 30A. [30A:7.6.7] 



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30.2.9.8 Fuels used shall be of the type and quality specified 
by the manufacturer of the heating appliance. Crankcase 
drainings shall not be used in oil-fired appliances, unless the 
appliances are specifically approved for such use. [30A:7.6.8] 

30.2.9.9 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed to meet 
the requirements of NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of 
Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems; NFPA 31, Standard for the 
Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, NFPA54, NationalFuel Gas 
Code, NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
Fuel-Burning Appliances; and NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators 
and Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, as appli- 
cable, except as hereinafter specifically provided. [30A:7.6.9] 

30.3 Operational Requirements. 

30.3.1 Dispensing from a Tank that Does Not Exceed 120 Gal 
(454 L) and from Containers Inside Buildings. Dispensing of 
flammable and combustible liquids from a tank not exceeding 
120 gal (454 L) capacity and from containers in a motor fuel 
dispensing facility or in a repair garage building shall meet the 
requirements of 30.3.1.1 and 30.3.1.2. (See 4. 3. 9 of NFPA 30A for 
storage quantity limitations.) [30A:9.2.4] 

30.3.1.1 Not more than one container of Class I liquid shall 
be permitted to be provided with a dispensing pump inside a 
building at any one time. The number of tanks or containers 
of Class II or Class IIIA liquids fitted for dispensing at any one 
time shall not be limited, except as provided for in 4.3.9.2 of 
NFPA 30A. The number of tanks or containers of Class MB 
liquids fitted for dispensing at any one time shall not be lim- 
ited. [30A:9.2.4.1] 

30.3.1.2 Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not be 
dispensed by applying pressure to tanks or containers. Listed 
pumps that take suction through the top of the tank or con- 
tainer or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [30A:9. 2.4.2] 

30.3.2 Basic Fire Control. 

30.3.2.1 Sources of Ignition. Smoking materials, including 
matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of 
areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems of internal com- 
bustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. 
The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off 
during the fueling operation except for emergency genera- 
tors, pumps, and so forth, where continuing operation is es- 
sential. [30A:9.2.5.1] 

30.3.2.2 Fire Extinguishers. Each motor fuel dispensing facil- 
ity shall be provided with one or more listed fire extinguishers 
that have a minimum capability of 40-B:C. They shall be lo- 
cated so that an extinguisher will be within 100 ft (30 m) of 
each pump, storage tank fill pipe opening, and lubrication or 
service room. [30A:9.2.5.2] 

30.3.2.3 Fire Suppression Systems. Where required, auto- 
matic fire suppression systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the appropriate NFPA standard, manufacturers' 
instructions, and the listing requirements of the systems. 
[30A.-9.2.5.3] 

30.3.2.4 Waste Handling. 

30.3.2.4.1 Crankcase drainings and waste liquids shall not be 
dumped into sewers, into streams, or on the ground. They 
shall be stored in approved tanks or containers outside any 
building, or in tanks installed in accordance with Chapter 4 
and Chapter 5 of NFPA 30A, until removed from the premises. 

Exception: As provided for in 4.3.9.3 of NFPA 30A. [30A:9.2.6.1] 



30.3.2.4.2 The contents of oil separators and traps of floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent 
intervals to prevent oil from being carried into sewers. 
[30A:9.2.6.2] 

30.3.2.5 Housekeeping. The dispensing area and the area 
within any dike shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and 
any other material that is not necessary to the proper opera- 
tion of the motor fuel dispensing facility. [30A:9.2.7] 

30.3.2.6 Fire Doors. Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed at 
all times. Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. 

[30A:9.2.8] 



Chapter 31 Forest Products 

31.1 General. The storage, manufacturing, and processing of 
timber, lumber, plywood, veneers, and byproducts shall be in 
accordance with this chapter; NFPA 664, Standard for the Preven- 
tion of Fires and Explosions in Wood Processing and Woodworking 
Facilities; and NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. 

31.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

31.3 Forest Products. 

31.3.1 The storage of forest products shall comply with 
NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage, and Sec- 
tion 31.3. 

31.3.1.1 Section 31.3 shall apply to the following: 

( 1 ) Outside storage of lumber and wood panel products at 
retail and wholesale lumber storage yards 

(2) Outside storage of lumber and wood panel products at 
other than retail or wholesale storage yards 

(3) Outside storage of ties, poles, piles, posts, and other simi- 
lar forest products at pressure-treating plant yards 

(4) Outside storage of wood chips and hogged material 

(5) Outside storage of logs [230:11.1.2] 

31.3.2 General Fire Protection. 

31.3.2.1 Application. The provisions contained in 31.3.2 shall 
apply to all facilities in 31.3.3 through 31.3.7. [230:11.2.1] 

31.3.2.2* Operational Fire Prevention. 

31.3.2.2.1* Combustible waste materials such as bark, sawdust, 
chips, and other debris shall not be permitted to accumulate 
in a quantity or location that constitutes an undue fire hazard. 
[230:11.2.2.1] 

31.3.2.2.2 Smoking shall be prohibited except in specified 
safe locations approved by the AHJ. Signs that read NO 
SMOKING shall be posted in those areas where smoking is 
prohibited, and signs indicating areas designated as safe for 
smoking shall be posted in those locations. [230:11.2.2.2] 

(A) Smoking areas shall be provided with approved, noncom- 
bustible ash receptacles. [230:11.2.2.2(A)] 

(B) Smoking shall be specifically prohibited in and around 
railroad cars. [230:11.2.2.2(B)] 

31.3.2.2.3 Access into yard areas by unauthorized persons 
shall be prohibited. [230:11.2.2.3] 



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1-147 



31.3.2.2.4 Storage areas shall be enclosed with a suitable 
fence equipped with proper gates located as necessary to allow 
the entry of fire department apparatus. [230:11.2.2.4] 

31.3.2.2.5 Miscellaneous occupancy hazards such as vehicle 
storage and repair shops, cutting and welding operations, 
flammable liquid storage, LP-Gas storage, and similar opera- 
tions shall be safeguarded in accordance with recognized 
good practice. [230:11.2.2.5] 

31.3.2.2.6 Reference shall be made to NFPA standards that 
apply to specific occupancy hazards. [230:11.2.2.6] 

31.3.2.2.7 Vehicles and other power devices shall be of an 
approved type and shall be safely maintained and operated. 
[230:11.2.2.7] 

(A)* Vehicle fueling operations shall be conducted in speci- 
fied safe locations, isolated from storage areas and principal 
operating buildings. [230:11.2.2.7(A)] 

(B) Diesel- or gasoline-fueled vehicles that operate on 
hogged material or chip piles, in log storage areas, or in lum- 
ber storage areas shall be equipped with fixed fire- 
extinguishing systems of a type approved for off-road vehicles. 
[230:11.2.2.7(6)] 

31.3.2.2.8 All electrical equipment and installations shall 
conform to the provisions of Section 11.1. [230:11.2.2.8] 

31.3.2.2.9 Salamanders, braziers, open fires, and similar 
dangerous heating arrangements shall be prohibited. 
[230:11.2.2.9] 

31.3.2.2.10 Heating devices shall be limited to approved-type 
equipment installed in an approved manner. [230:11.2.2.10] 

31.3.2.2.11 Suitable safeguards shall be provided to mini- 
mize the hazard of sparks caused by equipment such as 
refuse burners, boiler stacks, vehicle exhausts, and locomo- 
tives. [230:11.2.2.11] 

(A)* Burning of shavings, sawdust, and refuse materials 
shall be conducted only in an approved, enclosed refuse 
burner equipped with an approved spark arrester and lo- 
cated at a safe distance from the nearest point of any yard. 
[230:11.2.2.11(A)] 

(B) The design and location of large burners presents special 
problems, and the AHJ shall be consulted. [230:11.2.2.11 (B)] 

31.3.2.2.12 Stacks from solid fuel-burning furnaces and boil- 
ers shall be equipped with spark-arresting equipment to pre- 
vent hot sparks from reaching the ground, and consideration 
shall be given to spark hazard in determining the height of 
such stacks. [230:11.2.2.12] 

31.3.2.2.13 Cutting, welding, or other use of open flames or 
spark-producing equipment shall not be permitted in the stor- 
age area unless by an approved permit system. [230:11.2.2.13] 

31.3.2.3 Exposure Protection. Exposure to the yard shall be 
protected in accordance with the requirements of 31.3.2.3.1 
through 31.3.2.3.2. [230:11.2.3] 

31.3.2.3.1* Yard areas shall be separated from plant opera- 
tions and other structures so that fire exposure into the yard is 
minimized. [230:11.2.3.1] 

(A) Minimum separation shall be by means of a clear space 
permanently available for fire-fighting operations. 
[230:11.2.3.1 (A)] 



(B) The width of the clear space shall be based on the 
severity of exposure, which varies with the area, height, oc- 
cupancy, construction, and protection of the exposing 
structure and the type of stacking and height of adjacent 
stacks. [230:11.2.3.1(B)] 

31.3.2.3.2 Forest, brush, and grass fire exposure shall be 
minimized by providing adequate clear space that is carefully 
kept free of combustible vegetation. [230:11.2.3.2] 

(A) Clear space of a width at least equivalent to the driveway 
shall be provided for grass exposures, and clear space of a 
width not less than 100 ft (30 m) shall be provided for light 
brush exposures. [230:11.2.3.2(A)] 

(B) In forested areas, a wider clear space shall be provided. 
[230:11.2.3.2(B)] 

31.3.2.4* Fire Detection and Extinguishment. A reliable 
means for prompt transmission of fire alarms to public fire 
departments and plant emergency organizations shall be pro- 
vided. [230:11.2.4] 

31 .3.3 Outside Storage of Lumber and Wood Panels — Retail 
and Wholesale Storage Yards. 

31.3.3.1 Application. 

31.3.3.1.1 The intent of the provisions of 31.3.3 shall be to 
provide minimum fire protection requirements to minimize 
the fire hazard in the following areas: 

(1) Retail lumberyards handling forest products and other 
building materials 

(2) Wholesale lumber storage yards, including distribution, 
holding, and transshipment areas [230:11.3.1.1] 

31.3.3.1.2 In addition to the provisions contained in 31.3.3, 
the provisions oudined in 31.3.2 shall apply to all retail and 
wholesale lumber storage yards. [230:11.3.1.2] 

31.3.3.1.3* The provisions oudined in 31.3.4 shall be used for 
large outside wholesale and distribution yards. [230:11.3.1.3] 

31.3.3.2 General. 

31.3.3.2.1* The fire hazard potential inherent in lumber stor- 
age operations with large quantities of combustible material 
shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program un- 
der the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based upon proven 
fire prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Driveways to separate large stacks and provide access for 
effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from yard buildings and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 
[230:11.3.2.1] 

31.3.3.2.2* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 18.3. [230:11.3.2.2] 

31.3.3.3 Open Yard Storage. 

31.3.3.3.1* Lumber stacks shall be on stable ground, and 
paved or surfaced with materials such as cinders, fine gravel, 
or stone. [230:11.3.3.1] 



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31.3.3.3.2 The method of stacking shall be stable and in an 
orderly and regular manner. [230:11.3.3.2] 

31.3.3.3.3* The height of stacks shall not exceed 20 ft (6.1 m) 
with due regard for stability. [230:11.3.3.3] 

31.3.3.3.4 Where stacks are supported clear of the ground, 
6 in. (15.24 cm) of clearance shall be provided for cleaning 
operations under the stacks. [230:11.3.3.4] 

31.3.3.3.5 Driveways shall be spaced so that a grid system of 
not more than 50 ft x 150 ft (15.2 m x 45.7 m) is produced. 
[230:11.3.3.5] 

31.3.3.3.6 Driveways shall comply with the following: 

(1) They shall have a width of not less than 15 ft (4.6 m) and 
an all-weather surface capable of supporting fire depart- 
ment apparatus. 

(2) The radius of turns shall be designed to accommodate 
fire department apparatus. [230:11.3.3.6] 

31.3.3.3.7 Stacking limits shall be designated to indicate yard 
area and alleyway limits in accordance with 31.3.3.3.7.1 or 
31.3.3.3.7.2. [230:11.3.3.7] 

31.3.3.3.7.1 The stacking limits shall be designated with 
boundary posts having signs that indicate stacking limits un- 
less otherwise permitted by 31.3.3.3.7.2. [230:11.3.3.7.1] 

31.3.3.3.7.2 Where yards have paved areas, painted boundary 
limits shall be permitted to be used to designate stacking lim- 
its. [230:11.3.3.7.2] 

31.3.3.4 Exposure Protection. 

31.3.3.4.1 Exposure to the Yard. 

31.3.3.4.1.1 Open yard stacking shall be located with not less 
than 15 ft (4.6 m) clear space to buildings. [230:11.3.4.1.1] 

31.3.3.4.1.2 Boundary posts with signs designating stacking 
limits shall be provided to designate the clear space to un- 
sprinklered buildings in which hazardous manufacturing or 
other operations take place. [230:11.3.4.1.2] 

31.3.3.4.2* Exposure from the Yard. 

31.3.3.4.2.1 Open yard stacking shall be located with not less 
than 15 ft (4.6 m) clear space to adjacent property lines. 
[230:11.3.4.2.1] 

31.3.3.4.2.2 Alternative forms of exposure protection shall 
be permitted where approved by the AHJ. [230:11.3.4.2.2] 

31.3.4 Outside Storage of Lumber and Wood Panels — Wood 
Processing Facilities. 

31.3.4.1 Application. 

31.3.4.1.1* The intent of the provisions of 31.3.4 shall be to 
provide minimum fire protection requirements to minimize 
the fire hazard in large yard storage areas containing lumber, 
wood panels, and other similar wood products not intended 
for retail or wholesale distribution at the site. [230:11.4.1.1] 

31.3.4.1.2 In addition to the provisions contained in 31.3.4, 
the provisions outlined in 31.3.2 shall apply to all large yard 
storage areas for lumber and wood panel products at other 
than retail or wholesale yards. [230:11.4.1.2] 

31.3.4.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in forest 
product storage operations with large quantities of combus- 
tible material shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention 



program under the direct supervision of upper level manage- 
ment that shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based on sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Driveways to separate large stacks and provide access for 
effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill or other plant opera- 
tions and other exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 
[230:11.4.2] 

31.3.4.3* Open Yard Storage. 

31.3.4.3.1* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 18.3. [230:11.4.3.1] 

31.3.4.3.2 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. [230:11.4.3.2] 

31.3.4.3.3 The storage site shall be reasonably level, solid 
ground, paved or surfaced with material such as cinders, fine 
gravel, or stone. [230:11.4.3.3] 

31.3.4.3.4 Stack height shall not be more than 20 ft (6.1 m). 
[230:11.4.3.4] 

31.3.5 Outside Storage of Ties, Poles, and Posts — Pressure- 
Treating Plants. 

31.3.5.1 Application. 

31.3.5.1.1* The intent of the provisions of 31.3.5 shall be to 
provide minimum fire protection requirements to minimize 
the fire hazard in yard storage areas containing treated and 
untreated ties, poles, piles, posts, and other similar forest 
products in yards connected with pressure-treating plants, but 
shall not include the treating buildings, processes, or storage 
of treating materials. [230:11.5.1.1] 

31.3.5.1.2 In addition to the provisions contained in 31.3.5, 
the provisions outlined in 31.3.2 shall apply to all outside stor- 
age of ties, poles, piles, posts, and other similar forest products 
at pressure-treating plant yards. [230:11.5.1.2] 

31.3.5.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in tie 
storage operations with large quantities of combustible mate- 
rial shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program 
under the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based on sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Driveways to separate large stacks and provide access for 
effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill buildings and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 
[230:11.5.2] 

31.3.5.3* Tie Yard Protection. 

31.3.5.3.1* Unobstructed alleyways of sufficient width for 
hand or cart fire hose laying operations shall be provided be- 
tween piles. [230:11.5.3.1] 



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31.3.5.3.1.1 Alleyways shall not be less than 2 ft (0.6 m) in 
width. [230:11.5.3.1.1] 

31.3.5.3.1.2 Where a minimum alleyway width not less than 
4 ft (1.2 m) is provided, the length of the rows shall not be 
more than 100 ft (30 m). [230:11.5.3.1.2] 

31.3.5.3.1.3 Where an alleyway width less than 4 ft (1.2 m) is 
provided, the length of the rows shall not be more than 75 ft 
(22.5 m). [230:11.5.3.1.3] 

31.3.5.3.2* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 18.3. [230:11.5.3.2] 

31.3.5.3.3 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. [230:11.5.3.3] 

31.3.5.3.4 The storage site shall be reasonably level, solid 
ground, paved or surfaced with material such as cinders, fine 
gravel, or stone. [230:11.5.3.4] 

31.3.5.3.5* Stack heights shall be limited to 20 ft (6.1 m). 
[230:11.5.3.5] 

3L3.fi Outside Storage of Wood Chips aiad Hogged Material. 

31.3.6.1 Application. 

31.3.6.1.1* The intent of the provisions of 31.3.6 shall be to 
provide minimum fire protection requirements to minimize 
the fire hazard in yard storage areas containing wood chips 
and hogged material. [230:11.6.1.1] 

31.3.6.1.2 In addition to the provisions contained in 31.3.6, 
the provisions oudined in 31.3.2 shall apply to all outside stor- 
age of wood chips and hogged material, except as modified 
herein. [230:11.6.1.2] 

31.3.6.2 General. 

31.3.6.2.1* The fire hazard potential inherent in storage piles 
shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program un- 
der the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based upon sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Establishment of control over the various factors that lead 
to spontaneous heating, including provisions for monitor- 
ing the internal condition of the pile 

(3) Means for early fire detection and extinguishments 

(4) Driveways around the piles and access roads to the top of 
the piles for effective fire-fighting operations 

(5) Facilities for calling the public fire department and facili- 
ties needed by the fire department for fire extinguish- 
ment 

(6) An effective fire prevention maintenance program, in- 
cluding regular yard inspections by trained personnel 
[230:11.6.2.1] 

31.3.6.2.2* The following items shall be considered when es- 
tablishing operating procedures: 

(1) The storage site shall be reasonably level, solid ground, or 
shall be paved with blacktop, concrete, or other hard- 
surface material. 

(2) Operating plans for the buildup and reclaiming of the 
pile shall be based on a turnover time of not more than 1 
year under ideal conditions. 



(3)*Piles containing other than screened chips made from 

cleaned and barked logs. 
(4)*The pile size shall be limited. 

(5) Pile heights shall be kept low, particularly piles that inher- 
ently carry a larger percentage of fines and are subject to 
greater compaction. 

(6) Thermocouples shall be installed during pile buildup, or 
other means for measuring temperatures within the pile 
shall be provided with regular (normally weekly) reports 
to management. 

(7)*The pile shall be wetted regularly to help keep fines from 
drying out and help maintain the moisture content of the 
surface layer of the pile. [230:11.6.2.2] 

31.3.6.3* Pile Protection. 

31.3.6.3.1* Piles shall be constructed with an access roadway 
to the top of the pile in order to reach any part of the pile. 
[230:11.6.3.1] 

31.3.6.3.2* Piles shall not exceed 60 ft (18 m) in height, 300 ft 
(90 m) in width, and 500 ft (150 m) in length. [230:11.6.3.2] 

(A) Where pile height and width are such that all portions of 
the pile cannot be reached by direct hose streams from the 
ground, arrangements shall be made to provide fire-fighting 
service in these areas, and small fire stream supplies shall be 
available on the top of the pile for handling small surface fires 
and for wetting the pile in dry weather. [230:11. 6.3. 2(A) ] 

(B) When piles exceed 500 ft (150 m) in length, they shall be 
subdivided by driveways having not less than 30 ft (9 m) of 
clear space at the base of the piles. [230:11.6.3.2(8)] 

(C) Low barrier walls around piles shall be provided to clearly 
define pile perimeters, prevent creeping, and facilitate 
cleanup of driveways. [230:11.6.3.2(C)] 

31.3.6.3.3 Where suitable, a small, motorized vehicle amply 
equipped with portable extinguishing equipment or a water 
tank and pump shall be provided. [230:11.6.3.3] 

(A) Lightweight ladders that can be placed against the side 
of the pile shall be placed at convenient locations through- 
out the yard for use by the plant emergency organization. 
[230:11.6.3.3(A)] 

(B) Training of the plant emergency organization also shall 
include procedures and precautions to be observed by yard 
crews employing power equipment in fighting internal fires. 
[230:11.6.3.3(8)] 

31.3.6.3.4* Portable fire extinguishers suitable for Class A fires 
shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for 
Portable Fire Extinguishers, on all vehicles operating on the pile 
in addition to the normal Class 8 units for the vehicle. 
[230:11.6.3.4] 

31.3.6.3.5* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 18.3. [230:11.6.3.5] 

31.3.6.3.6 All motor and switch gear enclosures shall be pro- 
vided with approved, portable fire extinguishers suitable for 
the hazard involved in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for 
Portable Fire Extinguishers. [230:11.6.3.6] 

31.3.6.3.7* Power-operated, shovel-type or scoop-type ve- 
hicles, dozers, or similar equipment shall be available for use 
in moving stored material for fire fighting. [230:11.6.3.7] 

31.3.6.3.8 Temporary conveyors and motors on the surface 
or adjacent to the piles shall not be permitted. [230:11.6.3.8] 



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31.3.6.3.9 Physical protection shall be provided to prevent 
heat sources such as steam lines, air lines, electrical motors, 
and mechanical drive equipment from becoming buried or 
heavily coated with combustible material. [230:11.6.3.9] 

31.3.6.3.10 Tramp metal collectors or detectors shall be re- 
quired on all conveyor and blower systems. [230:11.6.3.10] 

31.3.6.4 Exposure Protection. 

31.3.6.4.1* Incinerators or open refuse burning shall not be 
permitted in any area where sparks could reach the storage 
piles. [230:11.6.4.1] 

31.3.6.4.2* A clear space of not less than 15 ft (4.6 m) shall be 
maintained between piles and exposing structures, yard 
equipment, or stock, depending on the degree of exposure 
hazard. [230:11.6.4.2] 

31.3.6.4.3* Pile-to-pile clearance of not less than 30 ft (9 m) at 
the base of the pile shall be provided. [230:11.6.4.3] 

31.3.7 Outside Storage of Logs. 

31.3.7.1 Application. 

31.3.7.1.1* The provisions of 31.3.7 shall be to provide mini- 
mum fire protection requirements to minimize the fire hazard 
in log yard storage areas containing saw, plywood, veneer, or 
pulpwood logs stored in ranked piles commonly referred to as 
cold decks. [230:11.7.1.1] 

31.3.7.1.2 Subsection 31.3.7 shall not apply to cordwood. 

[230:11.7.1.2] 

31.3.7.1.3 In addition to the provisions contained in 31.3.7, 
the provisions oudined in 31.3.2 shall apply to all outside stor- 
age of logs, except as modified herein. [230:11.7.1.3] 

31.3.7.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in log 
storage operations with large quantities of combustible mate- 
rials shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program 
under the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based on sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Driveways to separate large piles and provide access for 
effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill operations and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, including 
regular yard inspections by trained personnel [230:11.7.2] 

31.3.7.3* Log Yard Protection. 

31.3.7.3.1 The storage site shall be reasonably level, solid 
ground, paved or surfaced with material such as cinders, fine 
gravel, or stone. [230:11.7.3.1] 

31.3.7.3.2 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. [230:11.7.3.2] 

31.3.7.3.3* All sides of each cold deck shall be accessible by 
means of driveways. [230:11.7.3.3] 

(A) A driveway width of 1 Vfc times the pile height but not less 
than 20 ft (6.1 m) shall be provided, with driveways between 



alternate rows of two pile groups providing a clear space of at 
least 100 ft (30 m). [230:11.7.3.3(A)] 

(B)* Each cold deck shall not be more than 500 ft (150 m) in 
length, 300 ft (90 m) in width, and 20 ft (6.1 m) in height. 
[230:11.7.3.3(B)] 

(C) Driveways for access across each end, with a clear space of 
not less than 100 ft (30 m) to adjacent pile rows or other ex- 
posed property, shall be provided./3ee Figure 31.3.7.3.3(C).] 
[230:11.7.3.3(C)] 



Exposed property 



J L 



■o- 100ft (30.5 m) clear space and driveway -o 



Log pile (Htt high) 



100 ft 

(30.5 m) 

dear Driveway (1 % times H) — not less than 20 ft (6.1 m) 

space and 



driveway 



Log pile 



250 ft (76.2 m) 
hydrant spacing 



Log pile 



FIGURE 31 .3.7.3.3(C) Layout of Log Storage Yard. [230:Fig- 

ure 11.7.3.3] 



(D) The size of cold decks shall be permitted to be increased 
where additional fire flow and fixed fire protection equipment 
is provided and the approval of the AHJ is obtained. 
[230:11.7.3.3(D)] 

31.3.7.3.4* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 18.3. [230:11.7.3.4] 

31.3.7.3.5 Dynamite shall never be used as a means to reclaim 
frozen log piles. [230:11.7.3.5] 

31.3.7.3.6* During dry weather, piles shall be wet down. 
[230:11.7.3.6] 



Chapter 32 Reserved 

Chapter 33 Reserved 

Chapter 34 Reserved 

Chapter 35 Reserved 

Chapter 36 Reserved 



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HOT WORK OPERATIONS 



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:er 37 Reserved 



Chapter 38 Reserved 



er 39 Reserved 



Chapter 4© Bust Explosion Prevention 

40.1 General. Equipment, processes, and operations that in- 
volve the manufacture, processing, blending, repackaging, or 
handling of combustible particulate solids or combustible 
dusts regardless of concentration or particle size shall be in- 
stalled and maintained in accordance with the following stan- 
dards as applicable: 

( 1 ) NFPA 61 , Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities 

(2) NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems 

(3) NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code 

(4) NFPA 1 20, Standard for Coal Preparation Plants 

(5) NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metab, Metal Powders, 
and Metal Dusts 

(6) NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing Processing, and Handling of 
Combustible Particulate Solids 

(7) NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explo- 
sions 

(8) NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions 
in Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities 

40.2 Penmits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



Chapter 41 Hot Work Operations 

41.1 General. 

41.1.1 Hot work shall comply with NFPA51B, Standard for Fire 
Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work, and this 
chapter. 

41.1.2 Chapter 41 shall cover the following hot work processes: 



(1) Welding and allied processes 

(2) Heat treating 

(3) Grinding 

(4) Thawing pipe 

(5) Powder-driven fasteners 

(6) Hot riveting 

(7) Similar applications producing a spark, flame, or heat 
[51B:1.2.2] 

41.1.3 Chapter 41 shall not cover the following: 

(1) Candles 

(2) Pyrotechnics or special effects 

(3) Cooking operations 

(4) Electric soldering irons 

(5) Design and installation of gas cutting and welding equip- 
ment covered in NFPA51, Standard for the Design andlnstal- 



lation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding Cutting and 
Allied Processes 

(6) Additional requirements for hot work operations in con- 
fined spaces 

(7) Lockout/ tagout procedures during hot work 

(8) Torch-applied roofing covered in NFPA 241, Standard for 
Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Opera- 
tions [51B:1.2.3] 

41.1.4 Acetylene cylinder charging plants shall comply with 
NFPA51A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants. 

41.1.5 Pen-units. 

41.1.5.1 Permits, where required, shall comply with 1.12.19. 

41.1.5.2 Where an approved facility hot work permit pro- 
gram exists that meets the requirements of Chapter 41, the 
permit shall be permitted to be issued for an entire facility. 

41.2 Responsibility for Hot Work. 

41.2.1* Management. Management shall be responsible for 
the safe operations of hot work activity. [51B:2.1] 

41.2.1.1 Management shall establish permissible areas for 
hot work. [51B:2.1.1] 

4L2.1.2 Management shall designate a permit authorizing 
individual (PAI). [51B:2.1.2] 

41.2.1.3 Management shall ensure that only approved appa- 
ratus, such as torches, manifolds, regulators or pressure reduc- 
ing valves, and acetylene generators, be used. [51B:2.1.3] 

41.2.1.4 Management shall ensure that all individuals in- 
volved in the hot work operations, including contractors, are 
familiar with the provisions of this standard. These individuals 
shall be trained in the safe operation of their equipment and 
the safe use of the process. These individuals shall have an 
awareness of the inherent risks involved and understand the 
emergency procedures in the event of a fire. [51B:2.1.4] 

41.2.1.5 Management shall advise all contractors about site- 
specific flammable materials, hazardous processes, or other 
potential fire hazards. [51B:2.1.5] 

41.2.1.6 Management shall advise all contractors with regard 
to flammable materials or hazardous conditions. [51B:2.1.6] 

41.2.2 Permit Authorizing Individual (PAI). In conjunction 
with the management, the PAI shall be responsible for the safe 
operation of hot work activities. [51B:2.2] 

41.2.2.1 The PAI shall determine site-specific flammable 
materials, hazardous processes, or other potential fire haz- 
ards present or likely to be present in the work location. 
[51B:2.2.1] 

41.2.2.2 The PAI shall ensure the protection of combustibles 
from ignition by the following means: 

(1) Ensure the work is moved to a location free from com- 
bustibles. 

(2) If the work cannot be moved, ensure the combustibles are 
moved to a safe distance or have the combustibles prop- 
erly shielded against ignition. 

(3) Ensure hot work is scheduled such that operations that 
could expose combustibles to ignition are not started dur- 
ing hot work operations. [51B:2.2.2] 

41.2.2.3* If 41.2.2.2(1), (2), or (3) cannot be met, then hot 
work shall not be performed. [51B:2.2.3] 



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41.2.2.4 The PAI shall determine that fire protection and 
extinguishing equipment are properly located at the site. 

[518:2.2.4] 

41.2.2.5 Where a fire watch is required (see 41.3.3.4), the PAI 
shall see that the fire watch is available at the site. [518:2.2.5] 

41.2.2.6* Where a fire watch is not required, the PAI shall 
make a final checkup Vi hour after the completion of hot work 
operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires. 

[518:2.2.6] 

41.2.3 Hot Work Operator. The hot work operator shall 
handle the equipment safely and use it as follows so as not to 
endanger lives and property: 

(1) The operator shall have the PAI's approval before starting 
hot work operations. 

(2) The operator shall cease hot work operations if unsafe 
conditions develop and shall notify management, the 
area supervisor, or the PAI for reassessment of the situa- 
tion. [511:2.3] 

41.2.4 Fire Watch. 

41.2.4.1 The fire watch shall be aware of the inherent hazards 
of the work site and of the hot work. [518:2.4.1] 

41.2.4.2 The fire watch shall ensure that safe conditions are 
maintained during hot work operations. [518:2.4.2] 

41.2.4.3 The fire watch shall have the authority to stop the 
hot work operations if unsafe conditions develop. [518:2.4.3] 

41.2.4.4* The fire watch shall have fire-extinguishing equip- 
ment readily available and shall be trained in its use. 

[518:2.4.4] 

41.2.4.5 The fire watch shall be familiar with the facilities and 
procedures for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. 
[518:2.4.5] 

41.2.4.6 The fire watch shall watch for fires in all exposed 
areas and try to extinguish them only when the fires are obvi- 
ously within the capacity of the equipment available. If the fire 
watch determines that the fire is not within the capacity of the 
equipment, he or she shall sound the alarm immediately. 
[518:2.4.6] 

41.2.5 Mutual Responsibility. Management, contractors, 
the PAI, the fire watch, and the operators shall recognize 
their mutual responsibility for safety in hot work opera- 
tions. [518:2.5] 

41.3 Fire Prevention Precautions. 

41.3.1 Permissible Areas. Hot work shall be allowed only in 
areas that are or have been made fire safe. Hot work shall be 
performed in either designated areas or permit-required ar- 
eas. [518:3.1] 

41.3.1.1 Designated Area. A designated area shall be a specific 
area designed or approved for such work, such as a mainte- 
nance shop or a detached outside location that is of noncom- 
bustible or fire-resistive construction, essentially free of com- 
bustible and flammable contents, and suitably segregated 
from adjacent areas. [518:3.1.1] 

41.3.1.2 Permit-Required Area. A permit-required area shall 
be an area that is made fire safe by removing or protecting 
combustibles from ignition sources. [51B:3.1.2] 



41.3.2* Nonpermissible Areas. Hot work shall not be allowed 
in the following areas: 

(1) In areas not authorized by management 

(2) In sprinklered buildings while such protection is impaired 

(3) In the presence of explosive atmospheres (that is, where 
mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts with 
air exist) 

(4) In explosive atmospheres that can develop inside un- 
cleaned or improperly prepared drums, tanks, or other 
containers and equipment that have previously contained 
such materials 

(5) In explosive atmospheres that can develop in areas with 
an accumulation of combustible dusts [518:3.2] 

41.3.3 Hot Work Permit. 

41.3.3.1* Before hot work operations begin in a nondesig- 
nated location, a written hot work permit by the permit autho- 
rizing individual (PAI) shall be required. [518:3.3.1] 

41.3.3.2 Before a hot work permit is issued, the following 
conditions shall be verified by the PAI. [518:3.3.2] 

41.3.3.2.1 Hot work equipment to be used shall be in satisfac- 
tory operating condition and in good repair. [518:3. 3.2(a)] 

41.3.3.2.2 Where combustible materials, such as paper clip- 
pings, wood shavings, or textile fibers, are on the floor, the 
floor shall be swept clean for a radius of 35 ft (11 m). Combus- 
tible floors (except wood on concrete) shall be kept wet, be 
covered with damp sand, or be protected by noncombustible 
or fire-retardant shields. Where floors have been wet down, 
personnel operating arc welding or cutting equipment shall 
be protected from possible shock. [51B:3.3.2(b)] 

41.3.3.2.3* All combustibles shall be relocated at least 35 ft 
(11 m) horizontally from the work site. If relocation is imprac- 
tical, combustibles shall be protected with fire-retardant cov- 
ers or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-retardant guards 
or curtains. Edges of covers at the floor shall be tight to pre- 
vent sparks from going under them, including where several 
covers overlap when protecting a large pile. [518:3. 3. 2(c)] 

41.3.3.2.4 Openings or cracks in walls, floors, or ducts within 
35 ft (11 m) of the site shall be tightly covered with fire- 
retardant or noncombustible material to prevent the passage 
of sparks to adjacent areas. [518:3. 3. 2(d)] 

41.3.3.2.5 Conveyor systems that might carry sparks to distant 
combustibles shall be shielded. [51B:3.3.2(e)] 

41.3.3.2.6 If hot work is done near walls, partitions, ceilings, 
or roofs of combustible construction, fire-retardant shields or 
guards shall be provided to prevent ignition. [51B:3.3.2(f)] 

41.3.3.2.7 If hot work is to be done on a wall, partition, ceil- 
ing, or roof, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of 
combustibles on the other side by relocating combustibles. If 
it is impractical to relocate combustibles, a fire watch on the 
opposite side from the work shall be provided. [51B:3.3.2(g)] 

41.3.3.2.8 Hot work shall not be attempted on a partition, 
wall, ceiling, or roof that has a combustible covering or insula- 
tion, or on walls or partitions of combustible sandwich-type 
panel construction. [51B:3.3.2(h)] 

41.3.3.2.9 Hot work that is performed on pipes or other 
metal that is in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceil- 
ings, roofs, or other combustibles shall not be undertaken if 



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the work is close enough to cause ignition by conduction. 
[51B:3.3.2(i)] 

41.3.3.2.10 Fully charged and operable fire extinguishers 
that are appropriate for the type of possible fire shall be avail- 
able immediately at the work area. If existing hose lines are 
located within the hot work area defined by the permit, they 
shall be connected and ready for service, but shall not be re- 
quired to be unrolled or charged. [51B:3.3.2(j)] 

41.3.3.2.11 If hot work is done in close proximity to a sprin- 
kler head, a wet rag shall be laid over the head and then re- 
moved at the conclusion of the welding or cutting operation. 
During hot work, special precautions shall be taken to avoid 
accidental operation of automatic fire detection or suppres- 
sion systems (for example, special extinguishing systems or 
sprinklers). [51B:3.3.2(k)] 

41.3.3.2.12 Nearby personnel shall be suitably protected 
against heat, sparks, slag, and so on. [51B:3.3.2(1)] 

41.3.3.3* Based on local conditions, the PAI shall determine 
the length of the period for which the hot work permit is valid. 
[511:3.3.3] 

41.3.3.4* The area shall be inspected by the PAI at least once 
per day while the hot work permit is in effect to ensure that it is 
a fire-safe area. [51B:3.3.4] 

41.3.4 Fire Watch. 

41.3.4.1 Afire watch shall be required by the PAI when hot 
work is performed in a location where other than a minor 
fire might develop, or where the following conditions exist. 
[518:3.4.1] 

41.3.4.1.1* Combustible materials in building construction or 
contents are closer than 35 ft (11 m) to the point of operation. 

[511:3.4.1] 

41.3.4.1.2 Combustible materials are more than 35 ft (11 m) 
away but are easily ignited by sparks. [51B:3.4.1] 

41.3.4.1.3 Wall or floor openings within a 35 ft (11 m) radius 
expose combustible materials in adjacent areas, including 
concealed spaces in walls or floors. [51B:3.4.1] 

41.3.4.1.4 Combustible materials are adjacent to the oppo- 
site side of partitions, walls, ceilings, or roofs and are likely to 

be ignited. [518:3.4.1] 

41.3.4.2 Afire watch shall be maintained for at least Vfc hour 
after completion of hot work operations in order to detect and 
extinguish smoldering fires. [518:3.4.2] 

41.3.4.3* More than one fire watch shall be required if com- 
bustible materials that could be ignited by the hot work opera- 
tion cannot be directly observed by the initial fire watch. 
[518:3.4.3] 

41.3.5* Hot Tapping. Hot tapping or other cutting and weld- 
ing on a flammable gas or liquid transmission or distribution 
utility pipeline shall be performed by a crew that is qualified to 
make hot taps. [518:3.5] 

41.4 Public ExMfoitions and Demonstrations. 

41.4.1 Scope. The following provisions shall apply to oxy-fuel 
gas welding and cutting operations at public exhibitions, dem- 
onstrations, displays, and trade shows (referred to hereinafter 
as the site) in order to promote the safe usage of compressed 
gases in public gatherings. [51B:4.1] 



41.4.2 Supervision. Installation and operation of welding, 
cutting, and related equipment shall be done by, or under the 
supervision of, a competent operator to ensure the personal 
protection of viewers and demonstrators as well as the protec- 
tion from fire of materials in and around the site and the 
building itself. [518:4.2] 

41.4.3 Site. 

41.4.3.1 Location. Sites involving the use and storage of com- 
pressed gases shall be located so as not to interfere with the 
egress of people during an emergency. [51B:4.3.1] 

41.4.3.2 Design. The site shall be constructed, equipped, and 
operated in such a manner that the demonstration will be 
carried out so as to minimize the possibility of injury to view- 
ers. [518:4.3.2] 

41.4.4 Mine Protection. 

41.4.4.1 Fire Extinguishers. Each site shall be provided with a 
portable fire extinguisher of appropriate size and type and 
with a pail of water. [518:4.4.1] 

41.4.4.2 Shielding. The public, combustible materials, and 
compressed gas cylinders at the site shall be protected from 
flames, sparks, and molten metal. [518:4.4.2] 

41.4.4.3 Fire Department Notification. The fire department 
shall be notified in advance of such use of the site. [518:4.4.3] 

41.4.5 Cylinders. 

41.4.5.1 Gas Capacity Limitation. Cylinders containing com- 
pressed gases for use at the site shall not be charged in excess 
of one-half their maximum permissible content. Cylinders of 
nonliquefied gases and acetylene shall be charged to not more 
than one-half their maximum permissible charged gauge pres- 
sure (psi or kPa). Cylinders of liquefied gases shall be charged 
to not more than one-half the maximum permissible capacity 
in pounds (kilograms). [51B:4.5.1] 

41.4.5.2 Storage. Cylinders located at the site shall be con- 
nected for use. Enough additional cylinders shall be permit- 
ted to be stored at the site to furnish approximately one day's 
consumption of each gas used. Other cylinders shall be stored 
in an approved storage area, preferably outdoors, but not near 
a building exit. [518:4.5.2] 

41.4.5.3 Transporting Cylinders. Cylinders in excess of 40 lb 
(18 kg) total weight being transported to or from the site shall 
be carried on a hand or motorized truck. [518:4.5.3] 

41.4.5.4 Process Hose. Process hose shall be located and pro- 
tected so that they will not be physically damaged. [518:4.5.4] 

41.4.5.5 Cylinder Valves. Cylinder valves shall be closed when 
equipment is unattended. [518:4.5.5] 

41.4.5.6 Valve Caps. If cylinders are designed to be equipped 
with valve protection caps, such caps shall be in place except 
when the cylinders are in service or are connected and ready 
for service. [518:4.5.6] 

41.4.5.7 Cylinder Protection. Cylinders shall be secured so 
that they cannot be knocked over. [518:4.5.7] 

41.5 Arc Welding Equipment. 

41.5.1 Installation. Electrical equipment shall be of an approved 
type and shall be installed and used in accordance with NFPA70, 
National Electrical Code 9 , and manufacturers' requirements. 

41.5.2 Damaged cables shall be removed from service until 
repaired or replaced. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



Chapter 42 Refueling 

42.1 General. Chapter 42 shall apply to refueling of automo- 
tive vehicles, aircraft, and marine vessels. 

42.2 Automotive Fuel Servicing. 

42.2.1 Applicability. 

42.2.1.1 New and existing automotive service stations, ser- 
vice stations located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle ser- 
vice stations as well as the refueling processes at these facili- 
ties shall comply with NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel 
Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages, and Section 42.2. {For 
repair garages, see Chapter 30. ) 

42.2.1.2 If approved by the AHJ, mobile fleet fueling at com- 
mercial, industrial, and governmental sites shall be conducted 
in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel 
Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. 

42.2.1.3* Section 42.2 shall not apply to those motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities where only liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), 
liquefied natural gas (LNG), or compressed natural gas 
(CNG) is dispensed as motor fuel. [30A:1.1.2] 

42.2.1.4 Section 42.2 shall not apply to fueling facilities at 
remote locations for large, off-the-road earthmoving and con- 
struction vehicles. [30A:1.1.3] 

42.2.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.2.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

42.2.2.2 Plans and Specifications. Plans and specifications 
shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the in- 
stallation or construction of a motor vehicle fuel dispensing 
station. 

42.2.2.2.1 A site plan shall be submitted that illustrates the 
location of flammable and combustible liquid, LPG or CNG 
storage vessels, and their spatial relation to each other, prop- 
erty lines, and building openings. 

42.2.2.2.2 Aboveground and underground storage vessels 
shall be shown on plans. 

42.2.2.2.3 For each type of fuel dispensing facility, plans and 
specifications shall also include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Type and design of underground and aboveground liq- 
uid storage tanks 

(2) Quantity and types of liquids to be stored 

(3) Location and design of the fuel dispensers and dis- 
penser nozzles 

(4) Distances from dispensers to tanks, property lines, and 
buildings 

(5) Vehicle access 

(6) Fire appliances 

(7) Vehicle impact protection 

(8) Method of storage and dispensing 

(9) Overfill prevention 

(10) Spill containment 

(11) Vents 

(12) Vapor recovery 

(13) Other equipment and accessories 

(14) Seismic design in accordance with the building code 

(15) Secondary containment 



(16) Design and specifications for related piping, valves, and 
fittings 

(17) Location and classification of electrical equipment, in- 
cluding emergency fuel shutdown devices 

(18) Specifications for fuel storage and venting components 

(19) Other information as required by the AHJ 

42.2.3 Storage of Liquids. 

42.2.3.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.3 shall apply to the storage of 
liquid fuels and to the storage of related materials, such as 
lubricating oils and greases, cleaning solvents, and windshield 
washer solvents. [30A:4.1] 

42.2.3.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.3.2.1 Liquids shall be stored in the following: 

(1) Approved closed containers that do not exceed 60 gal 
(227 L) capacity and are located outside buildings 

(2) Tanks or approved closed containers located inside motor 
fuel dispensing facilities or repair garages 

(3) Aboveground tanks, underground tanks, and containers 
in accordance with the requirements of 42.2.3.3 

(4) Tanks supplying marine service stations in accordance 
with Section 42.3 [30A:4.2.1] 

42.2.3.2.2 A motor fuel dispensing facility located at a bulk 
plant shall be separated from areas in which bulk plant opera- 
tions are conducted by a fence or other approved barrier. Dis- 
pensing devices at the motor fuel dispensing facility shall not 
be supplied by aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. 
Storage tanks at motor fuel dispensing facilities shall not be 
connected by piping to aboveground tanks located in the bulk 
plant. [30A:4.2.2] 

42.2.3.2.3 Class I liquids shall not be stored or handled in a 
building that has a basement or pit into which ignitable vapors 
can travel, unless the basement or pit is provided with ventila- 
tion that will prevent the accumulation of vapors. The ventila- 
tion system shall be capable of providing at least 1 cfm of ex- 
haust per ft 2 of floor area (0.3 m 3 /min/m 2 ), but not less than 
150ft 3 /min(4m 3 /min). [30A:4.2.3] 

42.2.3.2.4 Where tanks are at an elevation that produces a 
gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be 
equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve, positioned adjacent to and downstream from the valve 
specified in 2.3.2.5.1 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids Code, that is installed and adjusted so that liquid cannot 
flow by gravity from the tank if the piping or hose fails when 
the dispenser is not in use. [30A:4.2.4] 

42.2.3.3 Storage of Liquids. 

42.2.3.3.1 Underground Tanks. Underground storage tanks 
shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 2 and 
Chapter 3 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. [30A:4.3.1] 

42.2.3.3.2* Aboveground Storage Tanks. Except as modified 
by the provisions of this paragraph, aboveground storage 
tanks shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 2 and 
Chapter 3 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 
[30A:4.3.2] 

42.2.3.3.2.1 The use of aboveground storage tanks at motor 
fuel dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing 



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facilities, and marine motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be 
permitted when installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of this paragraph and with all applicable requirements 
of Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combus- 
tible Liquids Code, and when the specific installation has been 
approved by the AHJ. [3©A:4.3.2.1] 

42.2.3.3.2.2 Tanks designed and built for underground use 
shall not be installed for aboveground use. [3©A:4.3.2.2] 



42.2.3.3.2.3 Tanks storing Class I and Class II liquids at an 
individual site shall be limited to a maximum individual capac- 
ity of 12,000 gal (45,400 L) and aggregate capacity of 48,000 
gal (181,700 L) unless such tanks are installed in vaults com- 
plying with 42.2.3.4, in which case the maximum individual 
capacity shall be permitted to be 15,000 gal (57,000 L). 
[30A.-4.3.2.3] 

42.2.3.3.2.4 Tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 
42.2.3.3.2.4. [3©A:4.3.2.4] 

42.2.3.3.2.5 The maximum individual tank capacity of 
12,000 gal (45,400 L), where indicated in Table 
42.2.3.3.2.4, shall be permitted to be increased to 20,000 gal 
(75,700 L) for Class II and Class III liquids at a fleet vehicle 
motor fuel dispensing facility. [3©A:4.3.2.5] 

42.2.3.3.2.6 At fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facilities, 
no minimum separation shall be required between the dis- 
pensing device and a tank in a vault, a protected tank, or a 
fire-resistant tank. [30A:4.3.2.6] 

42.2.3.3.2.7 The provisions of this paragraph shall not pro- 
hibit the dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids in the open 
from a fuel dispensing system supplied by an existing above- 
ground tank, not to exceed 6,000 gal (22,710 L), located at 
commercial, industrial, governmental, or manufacturing es- 



tablishments, and intended for fueling vehicles used in con- 
nection with their business. Such dispensing shall be permit- 
ted provided the following: 

(1) An inspection of the premises and operations has been 
made and approval granted by the AHJ. 

(2) The tank is safeguarded against collision, spillage, and 
overfill to the satisfaction of the AHJ. 

(3) The tank system is listed or approved for such above- 
ground use. 

(4) The tank complies with requirements for emergency re- 
lief venting, the tank and dispensing system meet the elec- 
trical classification requirements of NFPA 30A, and the 
tank complies with the provisions of 42.2.3.2.4. 

(5) The tank storage complies with NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code, Chapter 2. [30A:4.3.2.7] 

42.2.3.3.2.8 Aboveground tanks shall be provided with spill 
control that meets the requirements of 2.3.2.3 of NFPA 30, Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids Code. Tank fill connections shall be 
provided with a noncombustible spill containment device. 

Exception: Tanks installed in vaults that meet the requirements of 
42.2.3.4 need not meet this requirement. [30A:4.3.2.8] 

42.2.3.4 Vaults. 

42.2.3.4.1 General. Aboveground tanks shall be permitted to 
be installed in vaults that meet the requirements of this sub- 
section. Except as modified by the provisions of 42.2.3.4, 
aboveground storage tanks in vaults shall meet all applicable 
requirements of Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 30, Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids Code. Vaults shall be constructed 
and listed in accordance with UL 2245, Standard for Beloto- 
Grade Vaults for Flammable Liquid Storage Tanks. Vaults shall be 
permitted to be either above or below grade. [30A:4.3.3.1] 



Table 42.2.3.3.2.4 Mlmiimuiie Separation Requirements for Aboveground Tanks 



Mininniunii 
Distance from 







Minimumi 




Lot lime That Is 










Distance from 


Miniinuni 


or Can Be Built 










the Nearest 


Distance from 


Upon, Including 


Distance from 






Individual Tank 


Important 


Nearest Fuel 


the Opposite 


the Nearest Side 


Minimuin 




Capacity (gal) 


Building on the 


Dispensing 


Side of a Public 


of Any Public 


Distance 




(see 42.2.3.3.2.2 


Same Property 


Device (ft) (see 


Way 


Way 


Between Tanks 


Tank Type 


and 42.2.3.3.2.5) 


(ft) 


42.2.3.3.2.6) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


Tanks in vaults* 


0-15,000 














Separate 

compartments 

required for 

each tank 


Protected 


Less than or 


5 


25 


15 


5 


3 


aboveground 


equal to 6,000 












tanks 
















6,001-12,000 


15 


25 


25 


15 


3 


Fire-resistant tanks 


0-12,000 


25 


25 


50 


25 


3 


Other tanks 


0-12,000 


50 


50 


100 


50 


3 


meeting the 














requirements of 














NFPA 30 















* The separation distances given for vaults are measured from the outer perimeter of the vault. 
Source: Table 4.3.2.4 of NFPA 30A. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



42.2.3.4.2 Fire-Resistant Tanks. Fire-resistant tanks shall be 
listed for the use intended, shall comply with NFPA 30A, Code 
for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages, and shall 
meet all of the following requirements. [30A:4.3.4] 

42.2.3.4.2.1 The construction that provides the required fire- 
resistive protection shall prevent release of liquid, failure of 
the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and im- 
pairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours when 
tested using a fire exposure that simulates a high-intensity 
pool fire, such as that described in UL 2080, Standard for Fire 
Resistant Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, or equiva- 
lent test procedure. [30A:4.3.4.1] 

42.2.3.4.2.2 Subparagraph 2.2.5.2.5 of NFPA 30, Flammable 
and Combustible Liquids Code, shall not be used to reduce the 
size of the emergency vent. [30A:4.3.4.2] 

42.2.3.4.3 Protected Tanks. Protected tanks shall be listed 
and shall be tested in accordance with UL 2085, Standard for 
Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liq- 
uids. Protected tanks shall also meet the requirements of 
42.2.3.4.3.1 and 42.2.3.4.3.2. [30A:4.3.5] 

42.2.3.4.3.1 The construction that provides the required fire- 
resistive protection shall prevent release of liquid, failure of 
the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and im- 
pairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours and 
shall limit the increase in temperature of the liquid inside the 
tank when tested using the fire exposure specified in UL 2085, 
Standard for Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids. [30A:4.3.5.1] 

42.2.3.4.3.2 Subparagraph 2.2.5.2.5 of NFPA 30, Flammable 
and Combustible Liquids Code, shall not be used to reduce the 
size of the emergency vent. [30A:4.3.5.2] 

42.2.3.4.4 Additional Requirements for All Aboveground 
Tanks. 

42.2.3.4.4.1 All openings shall be located above the maxi- 
mum liquid level. [30A:4.3.6.1] 

42.2.3.4.4.2 Means shall be provided for determining the liq- 
uid level in each tank and this means shall be accessible to the 
delivery operator. [30A:4.3.6.2] 

42.2.3.4.4.3 Means shall be provided to sound an audible 
alarm when the liquid level in the tank reaches 90 percent of 
capacity. Means shall also be provided either to automatically 
stop the flow of liquid into the tank when the liquid level in 
the tank reaches 98 percent capacity or to restrict the flow of 
liquid into the tank to a maximum flow rate of 2.5 gpm 
(9.5 L/min) when the liquid in the tank reaches 95 percent 
capacity. These provisions shall not restrict or interfere with 
the operation of either the normal vent or the emergency 
vent. [30A:4.3.6.3] 

42.2.3.4.4.4 Means shall be provided to prevent the release of 
liquid by siphon flow. [30A:4.3.6.4] 

42.2.3.4.4.5 Where a tank is at an elevation that produces a 
gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be 
equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve, that will prevent gravity flow from the tank to the dis- 
penser. This device shall be located adjacent to and down- 
stream of the oudet valve specified by 2.3.2.5.1 of NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The device shall be in- 
stalled and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from 



the tank to the dispenser in the event of failure of the piping 
or hose when the dispenser is not in use. [30A:4. 3.6.5] 

42.2.3.4.4.6 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with 
a pressure-relieving device that will relieve the pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion back to the tank. [30A:4.3.6.6] 

42.2.3.4.4.7 Fuel shall not be dispensed from the tank by 
either gravity flow or pressurization of the tank. [30A:4.3.6.7] 

42.2.3.4.5 Physical Protection for All Outside Aboveground 
Tanks. 

42.2.3.4.5.1 Tanks that are not enclosed in vaults shall be 
enclosed with a chain link fence at least 6 ft (1.8 m) high. 
The fence shall be separated from the tanks by at least 10 ft 
(3 m) and shall have a gate that is secured against unautho- 
rized entry. 

Exception: Tanks are not required to be enclosed with a fence if the 
property on which the tanks are located has a perimeter security fence. 
[30A-.4.3.7.1] 

42.2.3.4.5.2* Guard posts or other approved means shall be 
provided to protect tanks that are subject to vehicular damage. 
When guard posts are installed, the following design shall be 
acceptable: 

(1) They shall be constructed of steel not less than 4 in. 
(100 mm) in diameter and shall be filled with concrete. 

(2) They shall be spaced not more than 4 ft (1.2 m) on center. 

(3) They shall be set not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) deep in a con- 
crete footing of not less than 15 in. (380 mm) diameter. 
[30A:4.3.7.2] 

42.2.3.4.6* Corrosion Control. Any portion of a tank or its 
piping that is in contact with the soil shall have properly engi- 
neered, installed, and maintained corrosion protection that 
meets the requirements of 2.2.6.1 of NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code. [30A:4.3.8] 

42.2.3.4.7 Storage of Liquids Inside Buildings. Storage of 
flammable and combustible liquids in motor fuel dispensing 
facility buildings and in repair garage buildings shall meet the 
requirements of 42.2.3.4.7. [30A:4.3.9] 

42.2.3.4.7.1 Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA Liquids in Tanks 
Not Exceeding 120 Gal (454 L) Capacity and in Containers. 

(A) The aggregate quantity of Class I liquids stored in a tank 
that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) capacity and in contain- 
ers shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L) . Liquids in storage shall be 
maintained in tanks or in approved containers that are closed 
or are Fitted with an approved dispensing device that meets 
the requirements of 42.2.7.4.1. [30A:4.3.9.1.1] 

(B) The aggregate quantity of Class II and Class IIIA liquids 
stored in a tank that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) capacity 
and in containers shall not exceed 240 gal (908 L) . The quan- 
tity for each class shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L). Liquids in 
storage shall be maintained in tanks or in approved containers 
that are closed or are fitted with an approved dispensing de- 
vice that meets the requirements of 42.2.7.4.1. [30A:4.3.9.1.2] 

42.2.3.4.7.2 Class I, Class H, and Class IIIA Liquids in Tanks 
Exceeding 120 Gal (454 L) Capacity. Where installation of a 
tank that exceeds 1 20 gal (454 L) capacity in accordance with 
42.2.3.3.2 is not practical because of building or property limi- 
tations, the tank shall be permitted to be installed in a build- 



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ing if it is enclosed as described in 42.2.3.4 and if the installa- 
tion is specifically approved by the AHJ. [30A:4.3.9.2] 



42.2.3.4.7.3 Class IIIB liquids. The quantity of Class IIIB liq- 
uids in storage shall not be limited. Class IIIB liquids shall be 
permitted to be stored in and dispensed from tanks and con- 
tainers that meet the requirements of Sections 2.2 and 4.2 of 
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, as applicable. 
Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids inside buildings shall be per- 
mitted to be located at, below, or above grade. Adequate drain- 
age shall be provided. Tanks and containers that contain only 
crankcase drainings shall be considered as containing Class 
IIIB liquids. [30A:4.3.9.3] 

42.2.3.4.8 Temporary Storage of Liquid Fuels. Aboveground 
tanks used for dispensing of motor fuels shall not be required 
to be permanently installed when located on premises not 
normally accessible to the public provided that all of the fol- 
lowing requirements are met: 

( 1 ) Approval of the AHJ shall be required prior to bringing 
the tank to a site in the jurisdiction. In reviewing a pro- 
posed installation, the condition of the tank, the site 
where the tank will be located, installation and testing 
procedures, and operational procedures shall be evalu- 
ated prior to approval. 

(2) The approval shall include a definite time limit after 
which the tank shall be removed from the site and relo- 
cated to an approved location. 

(3) The tank shall comply with 42.2.3.3 and all other appli- 
cable provisions of this code and NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code. 

(4) A tank containing liquid shall not be moved unless it has 
been specifically investigated and approved for move- 
ment while full or partially full. [30A:4.3.10] 

42.2.4 Piping for Liquids. 

42.2.4.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.4 shall apply to piping sys- 
tems consisting of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, 
valves, fittings, flexible connectors, the pressure-containing 
parts of other components such as expansion joints and 
strainers, and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, 
separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, controlling 
flow, or secondary containment of liquids and associated 
vapors. [30A:5.1] 



42.2.4.2 General Requirements for All Piping Systems. 

42.2.4.2.1 The design, fabrication, assembly, test, and inspec- 
tion of the piping system shall meet the requirements of Chap- 
ter 5 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 

Exception No. 1: Where dispensing is from, a floating structure or 
pier, oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used between 
shore piping and the piping on the floating structure or pier and be- 
tween separate sections of the floating structure to accommodate 
changes in water level or shoreline, provided that the hose is either 
resistant to or shielded from damage by fire. 

Exception No. 2: Low melting point rigid piping shall be permitted to 
be used between underground shore piping and a floating structure or 
pier and on the floating structure or pier itself, provided that the piping 
is protected from physical damage and stresses arising from impact, 
settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, or tidal action and pro- 
vided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire 
exposure. [30A-.5.2.1] 

42.2.4.2.2 Piping shall be located so that it is protected from 
physical damage. Piping that passes through a dike wall shall 



be designed to prevent excessive stresses that could result 
from settlement or fire exposure. [30A:5.2.2] 

42.2.4.2.3 Any portion of a piping system that is in contact 
with the soil shall be protected from corrosion in accordance 
with good engineering practice. [30A:5.2.3] 

42.2.4.2.4 All piping inside buildings but outside the mo- 
tor fuel dispensing area shall be enclosed within a horizon- 
tal chase or a vertical shaft used only for this piping. Vertical 
shafts and horizontal chases shall be constructed of materi- 
als having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

:5.2.4] 



42.2.4.2.5 Each fill pipe shall be identified by color code or 
other marking to identify the product for which it is used. The 
color code or marking shall be maintained in legible condi- 
tion throughout the life of the installation. [3©A:5.2.5] 

42.2.4.2.6 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve any pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion of the contained liquid back to the 
storage tank. [30A:5.2.6] 

42.2.4.2.7 Piping components made of low melting point ma- 
terials shall be permitted to be used without backfill in the 
following areas: 

(1) Belowgrade underground tank sumps that are fitted with 
a cover 

(2) Belowgrade piping connection sumps that are fitted with 
a cover 

(3) Containment sumps, provided that (a) the sump is moni- 
tored to detect any leaks, (b) any leaks can be controlled, 
and (c) the components are either resistant to or shielded 
from damage by fire exposure 

(4) Containment sumps, provided the piping components 
can successfully pass the test procedures described in API 
607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves [30A:5.2.7] 

42.2.5 Fuel Dispensing Systems. 

42.2.5.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.5 shall apply to the system 
and components that dispense fuel into the tanks of motor 
vehicles and marine craft. [30A:6.1] 

42.2.5.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.5.2. 1 Dispensing devices shall be located so that all parts 
of the vehicle being served are on the premises of the motor 
fuel dispensing facility. [30A:6.2.i] 

42.2.5.2.2 Liquids shall not be dispensed by applying pres- 
sure to drums, barrels, and similar containers. Listed pumps 
taking suction through the top of the container or listed self- 
closing faucets shall be used. [30A:6.2.2] 

42.2.5.3 Requuurenients for Dispensing Devices. 

42.2.5.3.1 Class I and Class II liquids shall be transferred 
from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped 
to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or accidental 
discharge. [30A:6.3.1] 

42.2.5.3.2 Dispensing devices for Class I liquids shall be 
listed. [30A:6.3.2] 

42.2.5.3.2. 1 Existing listed or labeled dispensing devices shall 
be permitted to be modified provided that the modifications 
made are "Listed by Report" by an approved testing laboratory 
or as otherwise approved by the AHJ. Modification proposals 
shall contain a description of the component parts used in the 



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modification and the recommended methods of installation 
on specific dispensing devices. Modification proposals shall be 
made available to the AHJ upon request. [30A:6.3.2.1] 

42.2.5.3.3 A control shall be provided that will permit the 
pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed 
from its bracket or normal position with respect to the dis- 
pensing device and the switch on this dispensing device is 
manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when 
all nozzles have been returned to their brackets or to their 
normal nondispensing position. [30A:6.3.3] 

42.2.5.3.4 Dispensing devices shall be mounted on a con- 
crete island or shall otherwise be protected against collision 
damage by means acceptable to the AHJ. Dispensing devices 
shall be securely bolted in place. If located indoors, dispens- 
ing devices shall also be located in a position where they can- 
not be struck by a vehicle that is out of control descending a 
ramp or other slope. Dispensing devices shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. [30A:6.3.4] 

42.2.5.3.5 Dispensing devices used to fill portable containers 
with home heating fuels shall be located at least 20 ft (6 m) 
from any dispensing devices for Class I liquids. [30A:6.3.5] 

42.2.5.3.6 When maintenance to Class I dispensing devices is 
necessary and such maintenance is capable of causing acci- 
dental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions 
shall be taken before such maintenance is begun: 

(1) Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required 
maintenance shall perform the work. 

(2) All electrical power to the dispensing devices, to the 
pump serving the dispensing devices, and to all associated 
control circuits shall be shut off at the main electrical dis- 
connect panel. 

(3) The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, if installed, 
shall be closed. 

(4) All vehicular traffic and unauthorized persons shall be 
prevented from coming within 20 ft (6 m) of the dispens- 
ing device. [30A:6.3.6] 

42.2.5.3.7 Motor vehicle traffic patterns at motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities shall be designed to inhibit movement of 
vehicles that are not being fueled from passing through the 

dispensing area. [30A:6.3.7] 

42.2.5.3.8 At unattended self-serve motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities, coin- and currency-type devices shall only be permitted 
with the approval of the AHJ. [30A:6.3.8] 

42.2.5.3.9 Where liquid is supplied to the dispensing device 
under pressure, a listed, rigidly anchored emergency shutoff 
valve, incorporating a fusible link or other thermally actuated 
device, designed to close automatically in event of severe im- 
pact or fire exposure shall be installed in the supply line at the 
base of each individual island-type dispenser or at the inlet of 
each overhead dispensing device. The emergency shutoff 
valve shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. The emergency shutoff valve shall not incorpo- 
rate a slip-joint feature. 

Exception: As provided for in 42.2.5.3.10. [30A:6.3. 9] 

42.2.5.3.9.1 The automatic-closing feature of this valve shall 
be tested at the time of installation and at least once a year 
thereafter by manually tripping the hold-open linkage. 
Records of such tests shall be kept at the premises or shall be 
made available for inspection by the AHJ within 24 hours of a 
verbal or written request. [30A:6.3.9.1] 



42.2.5.3.10 Where a suction-type dispensing system includes 
a booster pump or where a suction-type dispensing system is 
supplied by a tank in a manner that produces a gravity head on 
the dispensing device, a listed, vacuum-actuated shutoff valve 
with a shear section or equivalent-type valve shall be installed 
direcdy under the dispensing device. [30A:6.3.10] 

42.2.5.4 Requirements for Remote/Submersible Pumps. 
Paragraph 42.2.5.4 shall apply to systems for dispensing Class I 
and Class II liquids where the liquids are transferred from 
storage to individual or multiple dispensing devices by pumps 
located other than at the dispensing devices. [30A:6.4] 

42.2.5.4.1 Pumps shall be listed and shall be designed or 
equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to 
pressures above its allowable working pressure. [30A:6.4.1] 

42.2.5.4.2 Each pump shall have installed on the discharge 
side a listed leak detection device that will provide an indica- 
tion if the piping or a dispenser is leaking. Each leak-detecting 
device shall be checked and tested at least annually according 
to the manufacturer's specifications to ensure proper installa- 
tion and operation. 

Exception: A leak detection device shall not be required if all piping is 
visible. [30A:6.4.2] 

42.2.5.4.3 Pumps installed above grade outside of buildings 
shall be located not less than 10 ft (3 m) from lines of adjoin- 
ing property that can be built upon and not less than 5 ft 
(1.5 m) from any building opening. Where an outside pump 
location is impractical, pumps shall be permitted to be in- 
stalled inside buildings as provided for dispensers in 42.2.5.3.4 
or in sumps as provided in 42.2.5.4.4. Pumps shall be an- 
chored and protected against physical damage. [30A:6.4.3] 

42.2.5.4.4 Sumps for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds 
of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to 
which they can be subjected without damage to the pump, 
tank, or piping. The sump shall be no larger than necessary for 
inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fit- 
ted cover. [30A:6.4.4] 

42.2.5.5 Requirements for Dispensing Hose. 

42.2.5.5.1 Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense 
fuel. Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). Where hose length at 
marine motor fuel dispensing facilities exceeds 18 ft 
(5.5 m), the hose shall be secured so as to protect it from 
damage. [30A:6.5.1] 

42.2.5.5.2 A listed emergency breakaway device designed to 
retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point shall be 
installed on each hose dispensing Class I liquids. Such devices 
shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturers' instructions. [30A:6.5.2] 

42.2.5.5.3 Where hose are attached to a hose-retrieving 
mechanism, the listed emergency breakaway device shall be 
installed between the point of attachment of the hose- 
retrieving mechanism to the hose and the hose nozzle valve. 

Exception: Such devices shall not be required at marine motor fuel 
dispensing facilities. [30A:6. 5. 3] 

42.2.5.6 Requirements for Fuel Delivery Nozzles. 

42.2.5.6.1 A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve, 
with or without latch-open device, shall be provided on island- 



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type dispensing devices used to dispense Class I liquids. 

[30A:6.6.1] 

42.2.5.6.2 If a hose nozzle valve is provided with a latch-open 
device other than the one recommended by the valve manu- 
facturer, the latch-open device shall be an integral part of the 
valve assembly and such valve/latch-open device combination 
shall meet all applicable requirements of Section 19A of UL 
842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids. [3©A:6.6.2] 

42.2.5.6.3 At any installation where the normal flow of prod- 
uct can be stopped other than by the hose nozzle valve, such as 
at pre-pay facilities, either the system shall include listed 
equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of 
the hose nozzle valve before product flow can be resumed or 
before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal 
position in the dispenser, or the hose nozzle valve shall not be 
equipped with a latch-open device. [30A:6.6.3] 

42.2.5.6.4 Overhead-type dispensing devices shall be pro- 
vided with a listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve 
without a latch-open device. 

Exception: A listed, automatic-cbsing-type hose nozzle valve with 
latch-open device shall be permitted to be used if the hose nozzle valve 
will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill 

opening or upon impact. [30A:6.6.4] 

42.2.5.6.5 Dispensing nozzles used at marine motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities shall be of the automatic-closing type with- 
out a latch-open device. [3fflA:6.6.5] 

42.2.5.? Emergency Electrical Disconnects. Fuel dispensing 
systems shall be provided with one or more clearly identified 
emergency shutoff devices or electrical disconnects. Such de- 
vices or disconnects shall be installed in approved locations 
but not less than 20 ft (7 m) or more than 100 ft (30 m) from 
the fuel dispensing devices that they serve. Emergency shutoff 
devices or electrical disconnects shall disconnect power to all 
dispensing devices, to all remote pumps serving the dispens- 
ing devices, to all associated power, control, and signal cir- 
cuits, and to all other electrical equipment in the hazardous 
(classified) locations surrounding the fuel dispensing devices. 
When more than one emergency shutoff device or electrical 
disconnect is provided, all devices shall be interconnected. 
Resetting from an emergency shutoff condition shall require 
manual intervention and the manner of resetting shall be ap- 
proved by the AHJ. 

Exception: Intrinsically safe electrical equipment need not meet this 
requirement. [30A:6. 7] 

42.2.5.7.1 At attended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the 
devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to the atten- 
dant. [30Aj6.7.1] 

42.2.5.7.2 At unattended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the 
devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to patrons 
and at least one device or disconnect shall be readily accessible 
to each group of dispensing devices on an individual island. 
[30A:6.7.2] 

42.2.5.8 Vapor Recovesy Systems. 

42.2.5.8.1 Dispensing devices that incorporate vapor recov- 
ery shall be listed. [30A:6.8.1] 

42.2.5.8.2 Hose nozzle valves used on vapor recovery systems 
shall be listed for the purpose. [3®A:6.8.2] 



42.2.5.8.3 Means shall be provided in the vapor return path 
from each dispensing outlet to prevent the discharge of vapors 
when the hose nozzle valve is in its normal nondispensing po- 
sition. [30A:6.8.3] 

42.2.6 Building Construction Requirenients. 

42.2.6.1 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy classifica- 
tion of a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside a 
building or structure shall be a low hazard industrial occu- 
pancy as defined in NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. [30A:7.3.1] 

42.2.6.2 Means of Egress. In a motor fuel dispensing facility 
that is located inside a building or structure, the required 
number, location, and construction of means of egress shall 
meet all applicable requirements for special purpose indus- 
trial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. 
[3QA:7.3.3] 

42.2.6.3 Drainage. Where Class I or Class II liquids are dis- 
pensed, provisions shall be made to prevent spilled liquids 
from flowing into the interior of buildings. Such provisions 
shall be made by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other 
equally effective means. [30A:7.3.4] 



42.2.6.4 Fixed Fire Protection. 

42.2.6.4.1* For an unattended, self-serve, motor fuel dispens- 
ing facility, additional fire protection shall be provided where 
required by the AHJ. [30A:7.3.5.1] 

42.2.6.4.2 Where required, an automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate 
NFPA standard, manufacturers' instructions, and the listing 
requirements of the systems. [30A:7.3.5.2] 

42.2.6.5 Fuel Dispensing Ameas Inside Buildings. 

42.2.6.5.1 The fuel dispensing area shall be separated from 
all other portions of the building by walls, partitions, floors, 
and floor-ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of 
not less than 2 hours. [30A:7.3.6.1] 

42.2.6.5.2 Interior finish shall be of noncombustible mate- 
rials or of approved limited-combustible materials, as de- 
fined in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. 

^7.3.6.2] 



42.2.6.5.3 Door and window openings in fire-rated interior 
walls shall be provided with listed fire doors having a fire pro- 
tection rating of not less than 1V& hours. Doors shall be self- 
closing. They shall be permitted to remain open during nor- 
mal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a 
fire emergency by means of listed closure devices. Fire doors 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire 
Doors and Fire Windows. They shall be kept unobstructed at all 
times. [30A:7.3.6.3] 

42.2.6.5.4 Openings for ducts in fire-rated interior partitions 
and walls shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Openings 
for ducts in fire-rated floor or floor-ceiling assemblies shall be 
protected with enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts shall be 
with wall or partition assemblies having a fire resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours. Openings for ducts into enclosed 
shafts shall be protected with listed fire dampers. [30A:7. 3.6.4] 

42.2.6.5.5 The fuel dispensing area shall be located at street 
level, with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) from 
the vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the build- 
ing. [30A:7.3.6.5] 



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42.2.6.5.6 The fuel dispensing area shall be limited to that 
required to serve not more than four vehicles at one time. 

Exception: At a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility inside a 
building, where only Class II and Class III liquids are dispensed, the 
number of vehicles serviced at any one time shall be permitted to be 
increased to 12. [30A:7. 3.6.6] 

42.2.6.5.7* A mechanical exhaust system that serves only the 
fuel dispensing area shall be provided. This system shall meet 
all of the following requirements: 

(1) The system shall be interlocked with the dispensing sys- 
tem so that air flow is established before any dispensing 
device can operate. Failure of air flow shall automatically 
shut down the dispensing system. 

(2) The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air move- 
ment across all portions of the floor of the fuel dispensing 
area and to prevent the flow of ignitable vapors beyond 
the dispensing area. 

(3) Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm) or 
more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor. Exhaust ducts 
shall not be located in floors or penetrate the floor of the 
dispensing area. Exhaust ducts shall discharge to a safe 
location outside the building. 

(4) The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a rate of 
not less than 1 ft 3 /min/ft 2 (0.3 m 3 /min/m 2 ) of floor 
area, based on the fuel dispensing area. 

(5) The exhaust system shall meet all applicable require- 
ments of NFPA91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Con- 
veying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate 
Solids. 

Exception: The provisions of 42.2.6.5.7 shall not apply to a fuel 
dispensing area located inside a building if two or more sides of the 
dispensing area are open to the building exterior. [30A:7.3. 6. 7] 

42.2.6.5.8 The floor of the dispensing area shall be liq- 
uidtight. Where Class I liquids are dispensed, provisions shall 
be made to prevent spilled liquids from flowing out of the fuel 
dispensing area and into other areas of the building by means 
of curbs, scuppers, special drainage systems, or other means 
acceptable to the AHJ. [30A:7.3.6.8] 

42.2.6.5.9 Drainage systems shall be equipped with approved 
oil/ water traps or separators, if they connect to public sewers 
or they discharge into public waterways. [30A:7. 3.6.9] 

42. 2.6.6* Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning. 

42.2.6.6.1* Forced air heating, air-conditioning, and venti- 
lating systems serving a fuel dispensing area inside a build- 
ing or a repair garage shall not be interconnected with any 
such systems serving other occupancies in the building. 
Such systems shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems. [30A:7.5.1] 

42.2.6.6.2 Return air openings in areas of repair garages used 
for the repair or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing 
area shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) above floor level 
measured to the bottom of the openings. [30A:7.5.2] 

42.2.6.6.3 Combined ventilation and heating systems shall 
not recirculate air from areas that are below grade level. 
[30A.-7.5.3] 

42.2.6.6.4 Exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they 
effectively remove vapor accumulations at floor level from all 
parts of the floor area. [30A:7.5.4] 



42.2.6.7 Heat-Producing Appliances. 

42.2.6.7.1 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of 42.2.6.7. They shall be per- 
mitted to be installed in the conventional manner except as 
provided in 42.2.6.7. [30A:7.6.1] 

42.2.6.7.2 Heat-producing appliances shall be of an ap- 
proved type. Solid fuel stoves, improvised furnaces, sala- 
manders, or space heaters shall not be permitted in areas of 
repair garages used for repairing or servicing of vehicles or in 
a fuel dispensing area. 

Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, when installed in accordance with 
Chapter 7 ofNFPA 30A, need not meet this requirement. 

Exception No. 2: Heat-producing equipment for any lubrication room 
or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or 
Class II liquids or liquefied petroleum gas, when installed in accor- 
dance with this chapter, need not meet this requirement. [30A:7.6.2] 

42.2.6.7.3 Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to 
be installed in a special room that is separated from areas 
that are classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance 
with Chapter 8 ofNFPA 30A, by walls that are constructed to 
prevent the transmission of vapors, that have a fire resis- 
tance rating of at least 1 hour, and that have no openings in 
the walls that lead to a classified area within 8 ft (2.4 m) of 
the floor. Specific small openings through the wall, such as 
for piping and electrical conduit, shall be permitted, pro- 
vided the gaps and voids are filled with a fire-resistant ma- 
terial to resist transmission of vapors. All air for combustion 
purposes shall be taken from outside the building. This 
room shall not be used for storage of combustible materials, 
except for fuel storage as permitted by the standards refer- 
enced in 42.2.6.7.9. [30A:7.6.3] 

42.2.6.7.4 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel 
shall be permitted to be installed in a lubrication or service 
room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I 
liquids, including the open draining of automotive gasoline 
tanks, provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at 
least 18 in. (455 mm) above the floor and the appliances are 
protected from physical damage. [30A:7.6.4] 

42.2.6.7.5 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel 
listed for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in 
lubrication rooms, service rooms, or fuel dispensing areas 
where Class I liquids are dispensed or transferred, provided 
the equipment is installed at least 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor. 
[30A.-7.6.5] 

42.2.6.7.6* Where major repairs are conducted on CNG- 
fueled vehicles or LNG-fueled vehicles, open flame heaters 
or heating equipment with exposed surfaces having a tem- 
perature in excess of 750°F (399°C) shall not be permitted. 
[30A:7.6.6] 

42.2.6.7.7 Electrical heat-producing appliances shall meet 
the requirements of Chapter 8 of NFPA30A. [30A:7.6.7] 

42.2.6.7.8 Fuels used shall be of the type and quality specified 
by the manufacturer of the heating appliance. Crankcase 
drainings shall not be used in oil-fired appliances, unless the 
appliances are specifically approved for such use. [30A:7.6.8] 

42.2.6.7.9 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed to meet 
the requirements of NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation ofAir- 
Conditioningand Ventilating Systems; NFPA31, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Oil-Burning Equipment, NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code; 



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NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel- 
Burning Appliances; and NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and 
Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, as applicable, 
except as hereinafter specifically provided. [30A: 7.6.9] 

42.2.7 Operational Requirements. 

42.2.7.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.7 shall apply to those require- 
ments that relate to the operation of motor fuel dispensing 
facilities and fuel dispensing systems. [3©A:9.1] 

42.2.7.2 Basic Requirements. 

42.2.7.2.1* Inventory Control. Accurate daily inventory records 
shall be maintained and reconciled for all liquid fuel storage 
tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks or piping. The 
records shall be kept on the premises or shall be made available 
to the AHJ for inspection within 24 hours of a written or verbal 
request. The records shall include, as a minimum and by prod- 
uct, daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts, and inven- 
tory on hand. If there is more than one storage system serving an 
individual pump or dispensing device for any product, the recon- 
ciliation shall be maintained separately for each system. 
[30A9.2.1] 

42.2.7.2.2 Tank Filling and Bulk Delivery. 

42.2.7.2.2.1 Delivery operations shall meet all applicable re- 
quirements of NFPA385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable 
and Combustible Liquids, and the requirements of 42.2.7.2.2.2 
through 42.2.7.2.2.4. [30A.-9.2.2.1] 

42.2.7.2.2.2 The delivery vehicle shall be separated from any 
aboveground tank by at least 25 ft (7.6 m). 

Exception No. 1: No minimum separation distance shall be required 
for tanks that are filled by gravity. 

Exception No. 2: The required minimum separation distance shall be 
permitted to be reduced to 15 ft (4. 6 m) where the fuel being delivered is 
not a Class I liquid. [30A:9. 2. 2. 2] 

42.2.7.2.2.3 The delivery vehicle shall be located so that all 
parts of the vehicle are on the premises when delivery is made. 

Exception: Existing fuel dispensing facilities and fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities inside buildings shall not be required to meet this requirement. 
[30A:9. 2.2.3] 

42.2.7.2.2.4 Tank filling shall not begin until the delivery op- 
erator has determined that the tank has sufficient available 
capacity (ullage). [30A:9.2.2.4] 

42.2.7.2.2.5 Tanks shall be filled through a liquidtight con- 
nection. Where an aboveground tank is filled by means of 
fixed piping, either a check valve and shutoff valve with a 
quick-connect coupling or a check valve with a dry-break cou- 
pling shall be installed in the piping at a point where connec- 
tion and disconnection is made between the tank and the de- 
livery vehicle. This device shall be protected from tampering 
and physical damage. [30A:9.2.2.5] 

42.2.7.3 Dispensing into Containers. 

42.2.7.3.1* Class I or Class II liquids shall not be dispensed 
into portable containers unless the container is constructed of 
metal or is approved by the AHJ, has a tight closure, and is 
fitted with a spout or so designed that the contents can be 
poured without spilling. The hose nozzle valve shall be manu- 
ally held open during the dispensing operation. [30A:9.2.3.1] 

42.2.7.3.2 No sale or purchase of any Class I, Class II, or Class 
III liquids shall be made in containers unless such containers 



are clearly marked with the name of the product contained 
therein. [30>A:9.2.3.2] 

42.2.7.3.3 Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or less 
shall not be filled while they are in or on a motor vehicle or 
marine craft. [30A:9.2.3.3] 

42.2.7.4 Dispensing from a Tank That Does Not Exceed 
120 Gal (454 L) and from Containers Inside Buildings. Dis- 
pensing of flammable and combustible liquids from a tank not 
exceeding 120 gal (454 L) capacity and from containers in a 
motor fuel dispensing facility or in a repair garage building 
shall meet the requirements of 42.2.7.4.1 and 42.2.7.4.2. (See 
42.2.3.4.7 for storage quantity limitations.) [3QA:9.2.4] 

42.2.7.4. E Not more than one container of Class I liquid shall 
be permitted to be provided with a dispensing pump inside a 
building at any one time. The number of tanks or containers 
of Class II or Class IIIA liquids fitted for dispensing at any one 
time shall not be limited, except as provided for in 
42.2.3.4.7.2. The number of tanks or containers of Class IIIB 
liquids fitted for dispensing at any one time shall not be lim- 
ited. [30A:9.2.4.1] 

42.2.7.4.2 Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not be 
dispensed by applying pressure to tanks or containers. Listed 
pumps that take suction through the top of the tank or con- 
tainer or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [3©A:9. 2.4.2] 

42.2.7.5 Basic Fire Control. 

42.2.7.5.1 Sources of Ignition. Smoking materials, including 
matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of 
areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems of internal com- 
bustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. 
The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off 
during the fueling operation except for emergency genera- 
tors, pumps, and so forth, where continuing operation is es- 
sential. [30A:9.2.5.1] 

42.2.7.5.2 Fire Extinguishers. Each motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cility shall be provided with one or more listed fire extinguish- 
ers that have a minimum capability of 40-B:C. They shall be 
located so that an extinguisher will be within 100 ft (30 m) of 
each pump, storage tank fill pipe opening, and lubrication or 
service room. [3®A:9.2.5.2] 

42.2.7.5.3 Fire Suppression Systems. Where required, auto- 
matic fire suppression systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the appropriate NFPA standard, manufacturers' 
instructions, and the listing requirements of the systems. 

[30A:9.2.5.3] 

42.2.7.5.4 Signs. Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted 
in the dispensing area and shall incorporate the following or 
equivalent wording: 

It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into 
unapproved containers. 

No smoking. 

Stop motor. 

No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. 

Place container on ground before filling. 

[30A-.9.2.5.4] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



42.2.7.6 Waste Handling. 

42.2.7.6.1 Crankcase drainings and waste liquids shall not be 
dumped into sewers, into streams, or on the ground. They 
shall be stored in approved tanks or containers outside any 
building, or in tanks installed in accordance with Chapter 4 
and Chapter 5 of NFPA30A, until removed from the premises. 

Exception: As provided far in 42.2.3.4.7.3. [30A.-9.2.6.1] 

42.2.7.6.2 The contents of oil separators and traps of floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent in- 
tervals to prevent oil from being carried into sewers. 
[30A:9.2.6.2] 

42.2.7.7 Housekeeping. The dispensing area and the area 
within any dike shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and 
any other material that is not necessary to the proper opera- 
tion of the motor fuel dispensing facility. [3QA:9.2.7] 

42.2.7.8 Fire Doors. Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed at 
all times. Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. 

[30A:9.2.8] 

42.2.7.9 Operating Requirements for Full-Service Motor Fuel 
Dispensing Facilities. Each motor fuel dispensing facility shall 
have an attendant or supervisor on duty whenever the facility 
is open for business. The attendant or supervisor shall dis- 
pense liquids into fuel tanks or into containers, except as cov- 
ered in 42.2.7.10 and 42.2.7.11. [30A:9.3] 

42.2.7.10 Operating Requirements for Attended Self-Service 
Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

42.2.7.10.1 Self-service motor fuel dispensing facility shall 
mean that portion of a property where liquids used as mo- 
tor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed, approved 
dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles 
by persons other than the facility attendant and shall also 
include, where provided, facilities for the sale of other re- 
tail products. [30A:9.4.1] 

42.2.7.10.2 There shall be at least one attendant on duty 
while the self-service facility is open for business. The atten- 
dant's primary function shall be to supervise, observe, and 
control the dispensing of Class I liquids while said liquids are 
actually being dispensed. [30A:9.4.2] 

42.2.7.10.3 The responsibility of the attendant shall be as 
follows: 

(1) Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable 
containers not in compliance with 42.2.7.3.1 

(2) Prevent the use of hose nozzle valve latch-open devices 
that do not comply with 42.2.5.6.2 

(3) Control sources of ignition 

(4) Immediately activate emergency controls and notify the 
fire department of any fire 

(5) Handle accidental spills and fire extinguishers if needed 

42.2.7.10.3.1 The attendant or supervisor on duty shall be 
mentally and physically capable of performing the functions 
and assuming the responsibility prescribed in 42.2.7.10. 

[30A:9.4.3] 

42.2.7.10.4 Operating instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispensing area. [30A:9.4.4] 

42.2.7.11 Operating Requirements for Unattended Self- 
Service Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

42.2.7.11.1 Unattended self-service facilities shall be permit- 
ted, where approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.1] 



42.2.7.11.2 Operating instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispensing area. The instructions shall include 
location of emergency controls and a requirement that the 
user stay outside of his/her vehicle and in view of the fueling 
nozzle during dispensing. [30A:9.5.2] 

42.2.7.11.3 In addition to the warning signs specified in 
42.2.7.5.4, emergency instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispenser area. The instructions shall incorpo- 
rate the following or equivalent wording: 

Emergency Instructions 

In case of fire or spill: 

(1) Use emergency stop button. 

(2) Report accident by calling (specify local fire 

number) on the phone. Report location. 

[30A:9.5.3] 

42.2.7.11.4 A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve 
with latch-open device shall be provided. The hose nozzle 
valve shall meet the requirements of 42.2.5.6.3. [30A:9.5.4] 

42.2.7.11.5 Atelephone or other approved, clearly identified 
means to notify the fire department shall be provided on the 
site in a location approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.5] 

42.2.7.11.6* Additional fire protection shall be provided 
where required by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.6] 

42.2.7.12 Refueling from Tank Vehicles. The dispensing of 
Class I and Class II liquids in the open from a tank vehicle to a 
motor vehicle located at commercial, industrial, governmen- 
tal, or manufacturing establishments and intended for fueling 
vehicles used in connection with their businesses shall be per- 
mitted only if all of the requirements of 42.2.7.12.1 through 
42.2.7.12.7 have been met. [30A:9.6] 

42.2.7.12.1 An inspection of the premises and operations 
shall be made and approval shall be granted by the AHJ. 
[30A:9.6.1] 

42.2.7.12.2 The tank vehicle shall comply with the require- 
ments of NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids. [30A:9.6.2] 

42.2.7.12.3 The dispensing hose shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) 
in length. [30A:9.6.3] 

42.2.7.12.4 The dispensing nozzle shall be a listed, automatic- 
closing type without a latch-open device. [30A:9.6.4] 

42.2.7.12.5 Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in areas 
deemed adequately lighted by the AHJ. [30A:9.6.5] 

42.2.7.12.6 The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in opera- 
tion while dispensing operations are in progress. [30A:9.6.6] 

42.2.7.12.7 Expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank 
to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase. 
[30A.-9.6.7] 

42.3 Marine Fueling. 

42.3.1 Scope. 

42.3.1.1 Section 42.3 shall apply to that portion of a property 
where liquids used as fuels are stored, handled, and dispensed 
from equipment located on shore or from equipment located 
on piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of ma- 
rine craft, including incidental activity, except as covered else- 
where in NFPA 30A or in other NFPA standards. [30A:11.1.1] 



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42.3.1.2 Section 42.3 shall not apply to the following: 

( 1 ) Bulk plant or terminal loading and unloading facilities 

(2) Transfer of liquids utilizing a flange-to-flange closed 
transfer piping system 

(3) Marine motor fuel dispensing facilities where liquids used 
as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of 
marine craft of 300 gross tons (272 metric tons) or more 

kll.1.2] 



42.3.1.3 For the purpose of this chapter, the word pier shall 
also mean dock, floating dock, and wharf. [30A:11.1.3] 

42.3.1.4 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

42.3.2 Storage. 

42.3.2.1 Liquids shall be stored in tanks or containers com- 
plying with 42.2.3.3. [30A:11.2.1] 

42.3.2.2 Tanks that supply marine motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities shall be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill 
type. Pumps that are not integral with the dispensing device 
shall also be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill type. 

Exception: Where shore location would require excessively long supply 
lines to dispensing devices, tanks shall be permitted to be located on a 
pier, provided the installation meets all applicable requirements of 
Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 and 5.9.5 of NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code, and the quantity stored does not exceed 
1100 gal (4164 L) aggregate capacity. [30A:11.2.2] 

42.3.2.3 Where a tank is at an elevation that produces a grav- 
ity head on the dispensing device, the tank oudet shall be 
equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve, that will prevent gravity flow from the tank to the dis- 
penser. This device shall be located adjacent to and down- 
stream of the oudet valve specified by 2.3.2.5.1 of NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The device shall be in- 
stalled and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from 
the tank to the dispenser if the piping or hose fails when the 
dispenser is not in use. [3©A:11.2.3] 

42.3.3 Piping Systems. 

42.3.3. 1 Piping shall be installed in accordance with all appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA 30A. [30A:1 1.3.1] 

42.3.3.2 Piping systems shall be supported and protected 
against physical damage and stresses arising from impact, 
settiement, vibration, expansion, contraction, and tidal ac- 
tion. [30A1 1.3.2] 

42.3.3.3 Means shall be provided to ensure flexibility of the 
piping system in event of motion of the pier. Flexible piping 
shall be of a type designed to withstand the forces and pres- 
sures exerted upon the piping. [30A:11.3.3] 

42.3.3.4 Where dispensing is from a floating structure or 
pier, oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used 
between shore piping and the piping on a floating structure or 
pier and between separate sections of the floating structure to 
accommodate changes in water level or shoreline, provided 
that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by 
fire. [30A11.3.4] 

42.3.3.5 A valve to shut off the liquid supply from shore shall 
be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the 
pier and at the shore end of each marine pipeline adjacent to 
the point where each flexible hose is attached. [30Aill.3.5] 



42.3.4 Fuel Dispensing System. 

42.3.4.1 All hose shall be listed. Where hose length exceeds 
18 ft (5.5 m) , the hose shall be secured so as to protect it from 
damage. [30A:11.4.1] 

42.3.4.2 Dispensing nozzles shall be of the automatic-closing 
type without a latch-open device. [30A:1 1.4.2] 

42.3.4.3 Dispensing devices shall be permitted to be lo- 
cated on open piers, on shore, or on piers of the solid-fill 
type and shall be located apart from other structures so as 
to provide room for safe ingress to and egress from marine 
craft. [30A:11.4.3] 

42.3.4.4 Dispensing devices shall be located so that exposure 
to all other operational marina or pleasure boat berthing area 
facilities is minimized. Where tide and weather conditions per- 
mit, liquid fuel handling shall be outside the main berthing 
areas. Where located inside marina or pleasure craft berthing 
areas, fueling facilities shall be located so that, in case of fire 
aboard a marine craft alongside, the danger to other craft 
near the facility is minimized. No vessel or marine craft shall 
be made fast to or berthed at any fuel dispensing location 
except during fueling operations. [30A:11.4.4] 

42.3.4.5 No vessel or marine craft shall be made fast to any 
other vessel or marine craft occupying a berth at a fuel dis- 
pensing location during fueling operations. [30A11.4.5] 

42.3.4.6 A marine motor fuel dispensing facility located at 
a bulk plant shall be separated by a fence or other approved 
barrier from areas in which bulk plant operations are con- 
ducted. Dispensing devices shall not be supplied by above- 
ground tanks located in the bulk plant. Marine motor fuel 
dispensing facility storage tanks shall not be connected by 
piping to aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. 
[3©A:1 1.4.6] 

42.3.4.7 Each marine motor fuel dispensing facility shall have 
an attendant or supervisor on duty whenever the facility is 
open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be 
to supervise, observe, and control the dispensing of liquids. 

:11.4.7] 



42.3.5 Sources of Ignition. 

42.3.5.1 All electrical components for dispensing liquids 
shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 8 of NFPA 30A. 
1:11.5.1] 



42.3.5.2 All electrical equipment shall be installed and used 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 70, National Elec- 
trical Code®, as it applies to wet, damp, and hazardous loca- 
tions. [30A:11.5.2] 



42.3.5.3 Clearly identified emergency electrical discon- 
nects that are readily accessible in case of fire or physical 
damage at any dispensing unit shall be provided on each 
marine wharf. The disconnects shall be interlocked to shut 
off power to all pump motors from any individual location 
and shall be manually reset only from a master switch. Each 
such disconnect shall be identified by an approved sign stat- 
ing EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF in 2 in. (50 mm) red 
capital letters. [30A:11.5.3] 

42.3.5.4 All electrical wiring for power and lighting shall be 
installed on the side of the wharf opposite from the liquid 
piping system. [30A:11.5.4] 



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42.3.5.5 Smoking materials, including matches and lighters, 
shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of areas used for fueling, 
servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, or re- 
ceiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. Conspicuous "No 
Smoking" signs shall be posted within sight of the customer 
being served. [30A:11.5.5] 

42.3.5.6 The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be 
shut off during the fueling operation, except for emergency 
generators, pumps, and so forth, where continuing operation 
is essential. [30A:1 1.5.6] 

42.3.6 Electrical Installations. 

42.3.6.1 Where excessive stray currents are encountered, pip- 
ing handling Class I and Class II liquids shall be electrically 
isolated from the shore piping. [30A:8.5.1] 

42.3.6.2* Pipelines on piers shall be bonded and grounded. 
Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines shall be 
located on the pier side of hose riser insulating flanges, if 
used, and shall be accessible for inspection. [30A:8.5.2] 

42.3.6.3 The fuel delivery nozzle shall be put into contact 
with the vessel fill pipe before the flow of fuel commences and 
this bonding contact shall be continuously maintained until 
fuel flow has stopped to avoid possibility of electrostatic dis- 
charge. [30A:8.5.3] 

42.3.6.4 Bonding and Grounding. 

42.3.6.4.1 Where excessive stray currents are encountered, 
piping handling Class I and Class II liquids shall be electrically 
isolated from the shore piping. [30A:1 1.6.1] 

42.3.6.4.2* Pipelines on piers shall be bonded and grounded. 
Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines shall be 
located on the pier side of hose riser insulating flanges, if 
used, and shall be accessible for inspection. [30A:11.6.2] 

42.3.6.4.3 The fuel delivery nozzle shall be put into contact 
with the vessel fill pipe before the flow of fuel commences and 
this bonding contact shall be continuously maintained until 
fuel flow has stopped to avoid possibility of electrostatic dis- 
charge. [30A:11.6.3] 

42.3.7 Fire Control. 

42.3.7.1 Each marine motor fuel dispensing facility shall be 
provided with one or more listed fire extinguishers having a 
minimum classification of 40-B:C. They shall be located so that 
an extinguisher will be within 100 ft (30 m) of each pump, 
each dispensing device, and each pier-mounted liquid storage 
tank. [30A:11.7.1] 

42.3.7.2 Piers that extend more than 500 ft (152 m) in travel 
distance from shore shall be provided with a Class III stand- 
pipe that is installed in accordance with NFPA 14, Standard for 
the Installation o/Standpipe and Hose Systems. [30A:11.7.2] 

42.3.7.3 Materials shall not be placed on a pier in such a 
manner that they obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or 
important piping system control valves. Where the pier is ac- 
cessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the 
shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access by fire- 
fighting apparatus. [30A:1 1.7.3] 

42.3.8 Containers and Movable Tanks. 

42.3.8.1 The temporary use of movable tanks in conjunction 
with the dispensing of liquids into the fuel tanks of marine 
craft on premises not normally accessible to the public shall be 



permitted. Such installations shall only be made with the ap- 
proval of the AHJ. [30A:11.8.1] 

42.3.8.2* Class I or Class II liquids shall not be dispensed into 
a portable container unless the container is constructed of 
metal or is approved by the AHJ, has a tight closure, and is 
fitted with a spout or is so designed that the contents can be 
dispensed without spilling. [30A:11.8.2] 

42.3.8.3 Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or less 
shall not be filled while they are in or on a marine craft. 

[30A:11.8.3] 

42.3.9 Cargo Tank Fueling Facilities. The provisions of Sec- 
tion 11.2 of NFPA30A shall not prohibit the dispensing of 
Class II liquids in the open from a tank vehicle to a marine 
craft located at commercial, industrial, governmental, or 
manufacturing establishments when the liquid is intended 
for fueling marine craft used in connection with their busi- 
nesses if the requirements of 42.3.9.1 through 42.3.9.7 are 
met. [30A:11.9] 

42.3.9.1 An inspection of the premises and operations shall 
be made and approval granted by the AHJ. [30A:11.9.1] 

42.3.9.2 The tank vehicle shall comply with the requirements 
of NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids. [30A:11.9.2] 

42.3.9.3 The dispensing hose shall not exceed 50 ft ( 15 m) in 
length. [30A:11.9.3] 

42.3.9.4 The dispensing nozzle shall be a listed, automatic- 
closing type without a latch-open device. [30A:1 1.9.4] 

42.3.9.5 Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in areas 
deemed adequately lighted by the AHJ. [30A11.9.5] 

42.3.9.6 The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation 
while dispensing. [30A:11.9.6] 

42.3.9.7 Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank 
to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase. 
[30A:1 1.9.7] 

42.3.10 Operating Requirements. 

42.3.10.1 The following shall be the responsibilities of the 
attendant: 

(1) Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable 
containers that do not comply with 42.3.8.2 

(2) Be familiar with the dispensing system and emergency 
shutoff controls 

(3) Ensure that the vessel is properly moored and that all con- 
nections are made 

(4) Be within 15 ft (4.6 m) of the dispensing controls during 
the fueling operation and maintain a direct, clear, unob- 
structed view of both the vessel fuel filler neck and the 
emergency fuel shutoff control [30A:11.10.1] 

42.3.10.2 Fueling shall not be undertaken at night except 
under well-lighted conditions. [30A:11.10.2] 

42.3.10.3 During fueling operations, smoking shall be forbid- 
den on board the vessel or marine craft and in the dispensing 
area. [30A:11.10.3] 

42.3.10.4 Before opening the tanks of the vessel to be fueled, 
the following precautions shall be taken: 

(1) All engines, motors, fans, and bilge blowers shall be shut 
down. 



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(2) All open flames and smoking material shall be extin- 
guished and all exposed heating elements shall be turned 
off. 

(3) Galley stoves shall be extinguished. 

(4) All ports, windows, doors, and hatches shall be closed. 
:11.10.4] 



42.3.10.5 After the flow of fuel has stopped, the following 
shall occur: 

(1) The fill cap shall be tighdy secured. 

(2) Any spillage shall be wiped up immediately. 

(3) If Class I liquid has been delivered, the entire vessel or 
marine craft shall remain open. 

(4) Bilge blowers shall be turned on and allowed to run for at 
least 5 minutes before starting any engines or lighting gal- 
ley fires. If bilge blowers are not available, 10 minutes of 
ventilation shall be required. [30A:11.10.5] 

42.3.10.6 No Class I liquids shall be delivered to any vessel 
having its tanks located below deck unless each tank is 
equipped with a separate fill pipe, the receiving end of which 
shall be securely connected to a deck plate and fitted with a 
screw cap. Such pipe shall extend into the tank. Vessels receiv- 
ing Class II or Class IIIA liquids shall have the receiving end of 
the fill pipe securely connected to a deck plate and fitted with 
a screw cap. Such pipe shall be permitted to connect to a mani- 
fold system that extends into each separate tank. Each tank 
shall be provided with a suitable vent pipe that shall extend 
from the tank to the outside of the coaming or enclosed rails 
so that the vapors will dissipate out board. [3©A:11.10.6] 

42.3.10.7 Owners or operators shall not offer their vessel or 
marine craft for fueling unless the following occurs: 

(1) The tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate 
vapors to the outside atmosphere and the fuel systems are 
liquidtight and vaportight with respect to all interiors. 

(2) All fuel systems are designed, installed, and maintained in 
compliance with the specifications of the manufacturer of 
the vessel or marine craft. 

(3) Communication has been established between the fuel- 
ing attendant and the person in control of the vessel or 
craft receiving the fuel so as to determine the vessel's fuel 
capacity, the amount of fuel on board, and the amount of 
fuel to be taken on board. 

(4) The electrical bonding and grounding systems of the ves- 
sel or craft have been maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturers' specifications. [30A:11.10.7] 

42.3.10.8 A sign with the following legends printed in 2 in. 
(50 mm) red capital letters on a white background shall be 
conspicuously posted at the dispensing area: 

Before Fueling: 

(1) Stop all engines and auxiliaries. 

(2) Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat 

sources. 

(3) Check all bilges for fuel vapors. 

(4) Extinguish all smoking materials. 

(5) Close access fittings and openings that could allow 

fuel vapors to enter enclosed spaces of the vessel. 

During Fueling: 

(1) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe. 

(2) Wipe up spills immediately. 

(3) Avoid overfilling. 

(4) Fuel filling nozzle must be attended at all times. 



After Fueling: 

(1) Inspect bilges for leakage and fuel odors. 

(2) Ventilate until odors are removed. 

[30A:11.10.8] 

42.3.11 Additional Requirements for CNG, LNG, and LPG. 

42.3.11.1 Scope. Subsection 42.3.11 shall apply where CNG, 
LNG, or LPG, or combinations of these, are dispensed as mo- 
tor vehicle fuels along with Class I or Class II liquids that are 
also dispensed as motor vehicle fuels. [30A:12.1] 

42.3.11.2 General Requirements. 

42.3.11.2.1 The installation and use of CNG systems shall 
meet the requirements of NFPA 52, Compressed Natural Gas 
(CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code, except as modified by 
42.3.11. The installation and use of LNG systems shall meet 
the requirements of NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Ve- 
hicular Fuel Systems Code, except as modified by 42.3.11. The 
installation and use of LPG systems shall meet the require- 
ments of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, except as modi- 
fied by 42.3.11. [30A: 12.2.1] 

42.3.11.2.2 A means shall be provided that connects to the dis- 
penser supply piping and that prevents flow in the event that the 
dispenser is displaced from its mounting. [30A;12.2.2] 

42.3.11.2.3 Dispensing devices for CNG, LNG, and LPG shall 
be listed. [30A:12.2.3] 

42.3.11.2.4 Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense 
fuel. Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing facili- 
ties shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). [30A:12.2.4] 

42.3.11.3 Fuel Storage. 

42.3.11.3.1 Aboveground tanks storing CNG or LNG shall be 
separated from any adjacent property line that is or can be 
built upon, any public way, and the nearest important building 
on the same property by not less than the distances given in 
NFPA 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code. [30A:12.3.1] 

42.3.11.3.2 Aboveground tanks storing LPG shall be sepa- 
rated from any adjacent property line that is or can be built 
upon, any public way, and the nearest important building on 
the same property by not less than the distances given in 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [30A:12.3.2] 

42.3.11.3.3* Aboveground tanks storing CNG, LNG, or LPG 
shall be separated from each other by at least 20 ft (6 m) and 
from dispensing devices that dispense liquid or gaseous motor 
vehicle fuels by at least 50 ft (15 m). 

Exception No. 1: This required separation shall not apply to tanks 
storing fuels that have the same chemical composition. 

Exception No. 2: When both the gaseous fuel storage and dispensing 
equipment are at least 50 ft (15 m)from any other aboveground motor 
fuel storage or dispensing equipment, the requirements of NFPA 52, 
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code; 
NFPA 5 7, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code; 
or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, whichever is applicable, 
shall apply. [30A:12.3.3] 

42.3.11.3.4 Aboveground storage tanks for the storage of 
CNG, LNG, or LPG shall be provided with physical protection 
in accordance with 42.2.3.4.5. [30A:12.3.4] 



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42.3.11.3.5 Horizontal separation shall not be required be- 
tween aboveground tanks storing CNG, LNG, or LPG and un- 
derground tanks containing Class I or Class II liquids, pro- 
vided the structural limitations of the underground tanks are 
not exceeded. [30A:12.3.5] 

42.3.11.4 Dispenser Installations Beneath Canopies. Where 
CNG or LNG dispensers are installed beneath a canopy or 
enclosure, either the canopy or enclosure shall be designed to 
prevent accumulation or entrapment of ignitable vapors or all 
electrical equipment installed beneath the canopy or enclo- 
sure shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 hazardous (classi- 
fied) locations. [30A12.4] 

42.3.11.5 Specific Requirements for LPG Dispensing Devices. 

42.3.11.5.1 Dispensing devices for LPG shall meet all appli- 
cable requirements of NFPA58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 
and shall incorporate a dispensing nozzle that releases not 
more than 2 

[30A:12.5.1] 



Table 42.3.11.6.2 Electrical Equipment Classified Areas for 

Dispensing Devices 



cm of liquid LPG upon disconnection. 



42.3.11.5.2 Dispensing devices for LPG shall be located not 
less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any dispensing device for Class I 
liquids. [30A:12.5.2] 

42.3.11.6 Electrical Equipment. 

42.3.11.6.1 All electrical wiring and electrical utilization 
equipment shall be of a type specified by and shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA70, National Electrical Code®. 
[30A:12.6.1] 

42.3.11.6.2* Table 42.3.11.6.2 shall be used to delineate and 
classify areas for the purpose of installation of electrical wiring 
and electrical utilization equipment. [30A:12.6.2] 

42.4 Aircraft Fuel Servicing. 

42.4.1 Application. Fuel servicing of all types of aircraft using 
liquid petroleum fuel shall comply with NFPA407, Standard for 
Aircraft Fuel Servicing, and Section 42.4. 

42.4.1.1 Section 42.4 does not apply to any of the following: 

(1) In-flight fueling 

(2) Fuel servicing of flying boats or amphibious aircraft on 
water 

(3) Draining or filling of aircraft fuel tanks incidental to air- 
craft fuel system maintenance operations or manufactur- 
ing [407:1.1] 

42.4.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

42.4.2 Design. 
42.4.2.1 General. 

42.4.2.1.1 Fueling Hose Apparatus. Nozzle receptacles and 
hose storage apparatus shall be arranged to avoid kinks and 
short loops in hose. [407:4.1.1] 

42.4.2.1.2 Electrostatic Hazards and Bonding. 

42.4.2.1.2.1 A provision for bonding shall be incorporated in 
the design of fuel servicing vehicles or carts and systems to 
prevent differences in electrostatic potential in accordance 
with 42.4.5.4. [407:4.1.2.1] 

42.4.2.1.2.2 Bonding cables shall be constructed of conduc- 
tive, durable, and flexible material. [407:4.1.2.2] 





Extent of Classified Area 


Dispensing Device 


Class I, Class I, 
Division 1 Division 2 


Compressed 
natural gas 


Entire space within the 5 ft in all directions 
dispenser enclosure from dispenser 
enclosure 



Liquefied natural 
gas 



Entire space within the 
dispenser enclosure 
and 5 ft in all 
directions from the 
dispenser enclosure 



From 5 ft to 10 ft in 
all directions from 
the dispenser 
enclosure 



Liquefied 

petroleum gas 



Entire space within the 
dispenser enclosure; 
18 in. from the 
exterior surface of 
the dispenser 
enclosure to an 
elevation of 4 ft 
above the base of 
the dispenser; the 
entire pit or open 
space beneath the 
dispenser and within 
20 ft horizontally 
from any edge of the 
dispenser when the 
pit or trench is not 
mechanically 
ventilated 



Up to 18 in. above 
ground and within 
20 ft horizontally 
from any edge of 
the dispenser 
enclosure, 
including pits or 
trenches within this 
area when 
provided with 
adequate 
mechanical 
ventilation 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25 mm; 1 ft = 0.3 m. 
Source: Table 12.6.2 of NFPA30A. 



42.4.2.1.2.3 Bonding connections shall be electrically and 
mechanically firm. Jacks, plugs, clamps, and connecting 
points shall be clean, unpainted metal to provide a positive 
electrical connection. [407:4.1.2.3] 

42.4.2.1.2.4 API BULL 1529, Aviation Fueling Hose, Type C 
hose (semiconductive) shall be used to prevent electrostatic 
discharges but shall not be used to accomplish required bond- 
ing. API BULL 1529, Type A hose that does not have a semi- 
conductive cover shall not be used. Type F hose (hard wall) 
and Type CT hose (cold temperature) shall be permitted be- 
cause they have semiconductive covers. [407:4.1.2.4] 

42.4.2.1.2.5* The design shall incorporate the provision of a 
30-second relaxation period between the filter separator and 
the discharge outlet. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to systems designed for 
fuels with static dissipater additives. [407:4.1.2.5] 

42.4.2.1.3 No Smoking Signs. Entrances to fueling areas shall 
be posted with "no smoking" signs. [407:4.1.3] 

42.4.2.1.4 Radar Equipment — Aircraft. 

42.4.2.1.4.1 Surveillance radar equipment in aircraft shall 
not be operated within 300 ft (90 m) of any fueling, servicing, 
or other operation in which flammable liquids, vapors, or mist 
could be present. [407:4.1.4.1.1] 



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42.4.2.1.4.2 Weather-mapping radar equipment in aircraft 
shall not be operated while the aircraft in which it is mounted 
is undergoing fuel servicing. [407:4.1.4.1.2] 



2.4.2.1.5* 



Equipment — Ground. 



42.4.2.1.5.1 Antennas of airport flight traffic surveillance ra- 
dar equipment shall be located so that the beam will not be 
directed toward any fuel storage or loading racks within 300 ft 
(90 m). Aircraft fuel servicing shall not be conducted within 
this 300 ft (90 m) distance. [407:4.1.4.2.1] 

42.4.2.1.5.2 Antennas of airport ground traffic surveillance 
radar equipment shall be located so that the beam will not be 
directed toward any fuel storage or loading racks within 100 ft 
(30 m) . Aircraft fuel servicing or any other operations involv- 
ing flammable liquids or vapors shall not be conducted within 
100 ft (30 m) of such antennas. [407:4.1.4.2.2] 

42.4.2.1.6 Emergency Fibre Equipment Accessibility. Accessi- 
bility to aircraft by emergency fire equipment shall be con- 
sidered in establishing aircraft fuel servicing positions. 
[407:4.1.5] 

42.4.2.1.7 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

42.4.2.1.7.1* Portable extinguishers shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with 42.4.2.4 and 42.4.5.13. [407:4.1.6.1] 

42.4.2.1.7.2 Extinguishers shall conform to the requirements 
of NFPA10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. [407:4.1.6.2] 

42.4.2.2 Vehicle or Cart Lighting and Electrical Equipment. 

42.4.2.2.1 Battery Compartments. Batteries that are not in en- 
gine compartments shall be securely mounted in compart- 
ments to prevent accidental arcing. The compartment shall be 
separate from fueling equipment. Suitable shielding shall be 
provided to drain possible fuel spillage or leakage away from 
the compartment. The compartment shall be provided with a 
vent at the top of the compartment. [407:4.3.7.1] 

42.4.2.2.2 Wiring shall be of adequate size to provide the 
required current-carrying capacity and mechanical strength. 
It shall be installed to provide protection from physical dam- 
age and from contact with spilled fuel either by its location or 
by enclosing it in metal conduit or other oil-resistant protec- 
tive covering. All circuits shall have overcurrent protection. 
Junction boxes shall be weatherproofed. [407:4.3.7.2] 

42.4.2.2.3 Spark plugs and other exposed terminal connec- 
tions shall be insulated to prevent sparking in the event of 
contact with conductive materials. [407:4.3.7.3] 

42.4.2.2.4* Motors, alternators, generators, and associated 
control equipment located outside of the engine compart- 
ment or vehicle cab shall be of a type listed for use in accor- 
dance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, Class I, Division 
1, Group D locations. [407:4.3.7.4] 

42.4.2.2.5 Electrical equipment and wiring located within a 
closed compartment shall be of a type listed for use in accor- 
dance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code m , Class I, Division 
1, Group D locations. [407:4.3.7.5] 

42.4.2. 2.S Lamps and switching devices, other than those 
covered in 42.4.2.2.4 and 42.4.2.2.5, shall be of the enclosed, 
gasketed, weatherproof type. Other electrical components 
shall be of a type listed for use in accordance with NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code®, Class I, Division 2, Group D locations. 
[407:4.3.7.6] 



42.4.2.2.7 Electrical service wiring between a tractor and 
trailer shall be designed for heavy-duty service. The connector 
shall be of the positive-engaging type. The trailer receptacle 
shall be mounted securely. [407:4.3.7.7] 

42.4.2.3 Cabinets. All cabinets housing vehicle auxiliary 
equipment shall have expanded metal flooring, perforated 
metal grating-type flooring, or open floor to facilitate air cir- 
culation within the enclosed space and to prevent the accumu- 
lation of fuel. [407:4.3.8] 

42.4.2.4 Fire Extinguishers for Aircraft Fuel Servicing 
Vehicles or Carts. 

42.4.2.4.1 Each aircraft fuel servicing tank vehicle shall have 
two listed fire extinguishers, each having a rating of at least 
20-B:C with one extinguisher mounted on each side of the 
vehicle. [407:4.3.9.1] 

42.4.2.4.2 There shall be one listed extinguisher having a 
rating of at least 20-B:C installed on each hydrant fuel servic- 
ing vehicle or cart. [407:4.3.9.2] 

42.4.2.4.3 Extinguishers shall be readily accessible from the 
ground. The area of the paneling or tank adjacent to or imme- 
diately behind the extinguisher(s) on fueling vehicles or carts 
shall be painted with a contrasting color. [407:4.3.9.3] 

42.4.2.4.4 Extinguishers shall be kept clear of elements 
such as ice and snow. Extinguishers located in enclosed 
compartments shall be readily accessible, and their location 
shall be marked clearly in letters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. 

[407:4.3.9.4] 

42.4.2.5 Smoking Restrictions. 

42.4.2.5.1 A "no smoking" sign shall be posted prominently in 
the cab of every aircraft fuel servicing vehicle. [407:4.3.11.1] 

42.4.2.5.2 Smoking equipment such as cigarette lighters and 
ash trays shall not be provided. If a vehicle includes such 
equipment when initially procured, it shall be removed or ren- 
dered inoperable. [407:4.3.11.2] 

42.4.2.6 Fuel Dispensing System. 

42.4.2.6.1 The valve that controls the flow of fuel from an 
aircraft fuel servicing vehicle or cart to an aircraft shall have a 
deadman control (s) in accordance with the requirements of 
4.1.7 of NFPA 407. [407:4.3.16.1] 

42.4.2.6.2 The deadman flow control in the nozzle shall be 
permitted for overwing fueling. Notches or latches in the 
nozzle handle that could allow the valve to be locked open 
shall be prohibited. Each overwing servicing nozzle shall have 
a cable with a plug or clip for bonding to the aircraft. (See 
42.4.5.4.2.) [407:4.3.16.2] 

42.4.2.6.3 Nozzles for underwing fueling shall be designed to 
be attached securely to the aircraft adapter before the nozzle 
can be opened. It shall not be possible to disengage the nozzle 
from the aircraft adapter until the nozzle is fully closed. 
[407:4.3.16.3] 

42.4.2.6.4 Fuel servicing pump mechanisms shall be de- 
signed and arranged so that failure or seizure does not cause 
rupture of the pump housing, a tank, or of any component 
containing fuel. Fuel pressure shall be controlled within the 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



stress limits of the hose and plumbing by means of either an 
in-line pressure controller, a system pressure relief valve, or 
other suitable means. The working pressure of any system 
component shall equal or exceed any pressure to which it 
could be subjected. [407:4.3.16.4] 

42.4.2.6.5 On tank full trailer or tank semitrailer vehicles, the 
use of a pump in the tractor unit with flexible connections to 
the trailer shall be prohibited unless one of the following con- 
ditions exists: 

(1) Flexible connections are arranged above the liquid level 
of the tank in order to prevent gravity or siphon discharge 
in case of a break in the connection or piping 

(2) The cargo tank discharge valves required by 42.4.2.6.1 are 
arranged to be normally closed and to open only when 
the brakes are set and the pump is engaged [407:4.3.16.5] 

42.4.2.6.6 Hose shall be connected to rigid piping or coupled 
to the hose reel in a manner that prevents kinks or undue 
bending action or mechanical stress on the hose or hose cou- 
plings. [407:4.3.16.6] 

42.4.2.6.7 Aircraft fuel servicing vehicles and carts shall have 
an integral system or device that prevents the vehicle or cart 
from being moved unless all fueling nozzles and hydrant cou- 
plers are properly stowed and mechanical lifts are lowered to 
their stowed position. [407:4.3.16.7] 

42.4.3 Airport Fuel Systems. 

42.4.3.1 Design Approval. Work shall not be started on the 
construction or alteration of an airport fuel system until the 
design, plans, and specifications have been approved by the 
AHJ. [407:4.4.1] 

42.4.3.2 System Approval. The AHJ shall inspect and approve 
the completed system before it is put into service. [407:4.4.2] 

42.4.3.3 Fuel Storage Tanks. 

42.4.3.3.1* Fuel storage tanks shall conform to the applicable 
requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. [407:4.4.4.1] 

42.4.3.3.2 The AHJ shall determine the clearances required 
from runways, taxiways, and other aircraft movement and ser- 
vicing areas to any aboveground fuel storage structure or fuel 
transfer equipment with due recognition given to national 
and international standards establishing clearances from ob- 
structions. Tanks located in designated aircraft movement ar- 
eas or aircraft servicing areas shall be underground or 
mounded over with earth. Vents from such tanks shall be con- 
structed in a manner to preclude collision hazards with oper- 
ating aircraft. Aircraft operators shall be consulted regarding 
the height and location of such vents to avoid venting flam- 
mable vapors in the vicinity of ignition sources, including op- 
erating aircraft and automotive equipment permitted in the 
area. [407:4.4.4.2] 

42.4.4 Fueling at Rooftop Heliports. Fueling on rooftop heli- 
ports shall be permitted only where approved by the AHJ. 
[407:4.5] 

42.4.4.1 General Limitations. 

42.4.4.1.1 In addition to the special requirements in Section 
42.4, the heliport shall comply with the requirements of 
NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports. [407:4.5.1.1] 



42.4.4.1.2 Facilities for dispensing fuel with a flash point be- 
low 100°F (37.8°C) shall not be permitted at any rooftop heli- 
port. [407:4.5.1.2] 

42.4.4.2 Fueling Facilities. 

42.4.4.2.1 In addition to the special requirements of Section 
42.4, the fuel storage, piping, and dispensing system shall 
comply with the requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids Code, and with applicable portions of NFPA 407 
and NFPA 1. [407:4.5.2.1] 

42.4.4.2.2 The entire system shall be designed so that no part 
of the system is subjected to pressure above its working pres- 
sure. [407:4.5.2.2] 

42.4.4.2.3 The fuel storage system shall be located at or below 
ground level. [407:4.5.2.3] 

42.4.4.3 Pumps. 

42.4.4.3.1 Pumps shall be located at or below ground level. 
Relay pumping shall not be permitted. [407:4.5.3.1] 

42.4.4.3.2 Pumps installed outside of buildings shall be lo- 
cated not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any building opening. 
They shall be substantially anchored and protected against 
physical damage from collision. [407:4.5.3.2] 

42.4.4.3.3 Pumps installed within a building shall be in a 
separate room with no opening into other portions of the 
building. The pump room shall be adequately ventilated. 
Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to the re- 
quirements Article 515 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code 9 . 
[407:4.5.3.3] 

42.4.4.4 Emergency Fuel Shutoff Stations. 

42.4.4.4.1 A system shall be provided to completely shut off 
the flow of fuel in an emergency. The system shall shut off the 
fuel at the ground level. The emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be in addition to the normal operating controls for the 
pumps and deadman control. [407:4.5.9.1] 

42.4.4.4.2 At least two emergency fuel shutoff stations located 
on opposite sides of the heliport at exitways or at similar loca- 
tions shall be provided. An additional emergency fuel shutoff 
station shall be located at ground level and shall be near, but 
at least 10 ft (3 m) from, the pumps. [407:4.5.9.2] 

42.4.4.4.3 Each emergency fuel shutoff station location shall 
be placarded EMERGENCYFUEL SHUTOFF in letters at least 
2 in. (50 mm) high. The method of operation shall be indi- 
cated by an arrow or by the word PUSH or PULL, as appropri- 
ate. Any action necessary to gain access to the shutoff device 
(e.g., BREAK GLASS) shall be shown clearly. Lettering shall 
be of a color contrasting sharply with the placard back- 
ground for visibility. Placards shall be weather resistant, 
shall be conspicuously located, and shall be positioned so 
that they can be seen readily from a distance of at least 25 ft 
(7.6 m). [407:4.5.9.3] 

42.4.4.5 Fire Protection. Fire protection shall conform to the 
requirements of NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports. [407:4.5.10] 

42.4.4.6 Personnel Training. All heliport personnel shall be 
trained in the operation of emergency fuel shutoff controls 
and in the use of the available fire extinguishers. [407:4.5.11] 

42.4.5 Operations. 

42.4.5.1 General. 

42.4.5.1.1 Only authorized personnel trained in the safe op- 
eration of the equipment they use, in the operation of emer- 



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gency controls, and in the procedures to be followed in an 
emergency shall fuel or defuel aircraft. [407:5.1.1] 

42.4.5.1.2 Where a valve or electrical device is used for isola- 
tion during maintenance or modification of the fuel system, it 
shall be tagged/locked. The tag/lock shall not be removed 
until the operation is completed. [407:5.1.2] 

42.4.5.2* Prevention and Control of Spills. 

42.4.5.2.1 Fuel servicing equipment shall comply with the 
requirements of this standard and shall be maintained in safe 
operating condition. Leaking or malfunctioning equipment 
shall be removed from service. [407:5.2.1] 

42.4.5.2.2 Following fueling of an aircraft all hose shall be 
removed including those from hydrant systems. All hose shall 
also be properly stowed. [407:5.2.2] 

42.4.5.2.3 Fuel nozzles shall not be dragged along the ground. 
[407:5.2.3] 

42.4.5.2.4 Pumps, either hand operated or power operated, 
shall be used where aircraft are fueled from drums. Pouring or 
gravity flow shall not be permitted from a container with a 
capacity of more than 5 gal (18.9 L). [407:5.2.4] 

42.4.5.2.5 Where a spill is observed, the fuel servicing shall be 
stopped immediately by release of the deadman controls. In 
the event that a spill continues, the equipment emergency fuel 
shutoff shall be actuated. In the event that a spill continues 
from a hydrant system, the system emergency fuel shutoff shall 
be actuated. The supervisor shall be notified at once, and the 
operation shall not be resumed until the spill has been cleared 
and conditions are determined to be safe. [407:5.2.5] 



notified if a spill 
over 50 ft 2 (5 m 2 ) 
hazard to persons 
to determine the 
procedures were 
necessary correc- 



42.4.5.2.6 The airport fire crew shall be 
covers over 10 ft (3 m) in any direction or is 
in area, continues to flow, or is otherwise a 
or property. The spill shall be investigated 
cause, to determine whether emergency 
properly carried out, and to determine the 
tive measures. [407:5.2.6] 

42.4.5.2.7 Transferring fuel by pumping from one tank ve- 
hicle to another tank vehicle within 200 ft (61 m) of an aircraft 
shall not be permitted. [407:5.2.7] 

42.4.5.2.8 Not more than one tank vehicle shall be permitted 
to be connected to the same aircraft fueling manifold. 

Exception: Where means are provided to prevent fuel from flowing 
back into a tank vehicle because of a difference in pumping pressure. 
[407:5.2.8] 

42.4.5.3 Emergency Feel Shutoff. 

42.4.5.3.1 Access to emergency fuel shutoff control stations 
shall be kept clear at all times. [407:5.3.1] 

42.4.5.3.2 A procedure shall be established to notify the fire 
department serving the airport in the event of a control sta- 
tion activation. [407:5.3.2] 

42.4.5.3.3 If the fuel flow stops for any reason, it first shall be 
presumed that an emergency fuel shutoff system has been ac- 
tuated. The cause of the shutoff shall be corrected before fuel 
flow is resumed. [407:5.3.3] 

42.4.5.3.4 Emergency fuel shutoff systems shall be operation- 
ally checked at intervals not exceeding 6 months. Each indi- 
vidual device shall be checked at least once during every 
12 month period. [407:5.3.4] 



42.4.5.3.5 Suitable records shall be kept of tests required by 
42.4.5.3. [407:5.3.5] 

42.4.5.4* Bonding. 

42.4.5.4.1 Prior to making any fueling connection to the air- 
craft, the fueling equipment shall be bonded to the aircraft by 
use of a cable, thus providing a conductive path to equalize 
the potential between the fueling equipment and the aircraft. 
The bond shall be maintained until fueling connections have 
been removed, thus allowing separated charges that could be 
generated during the fueling operation to reunite. Ground- 
ing during aircraft fueling shall not be permitted. [407:5.4.1] 

42.4.5.4.2 In addition to the above, where fueling overwing, 
the nozzle shall be bonded with a nozzle bond cable having a 
clip or plug to a metallic component of the aircraft that is 
metallically connected to the tank filler port. The bond con- 
nection shall be made before the filler cap is removed. If there 
is no plug receptacle or means for attaching a clip, the opera- 
tor shall touch the filler cap with the nozzle spout before re- 
moving the cap in order to equalize the potential between the 
nozzle and the filler port. The spout shall be kept in contact 
with the filler neck until the fueling is completed. [407:5.4.2] 

42.4.5.4.3* Where a funnel is used in aircraft fueling, it shall 
be kept in contact with the filler neck as well as the fueling 
nozzle spout or the supply container to avoid the possibility of 
a spark at the fill opening. Only metal funnels shall be used. 

[407:5.4.3] 

42.4.5.4.4 Where a hydrant servicer or cart is used for fuel- 
ing, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant 
system prior to bonding the fuel equipment to the aircraft. 

[407:5.4.4] 

42.4.5.4.5 Bonding and fueling connections shall be discon- 
nected in the reverse order of connection. [407:5.4.5] 

42.4.5.4.6 Conductive hose shall be used to prevent electro- 
static discharge but shall not be used to accomplish required 
bonding. [407:5.4.6] 

42.4.5.5 Operation of Aircraft Engines and Heaters. 

42.4.5.5.1 Fuel servicing shall not be performed on a fixed 
wing aircraft while an onboard engine is operating. (See 
42.4.5.21.) 

Exception: In an emergency resulting from the failure of an onboard 
auxiliary power unit on a jet aircraft and in the absence of suitable 
ground support equipment, a jet engine mounted at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the wing on the side opposite the fueling point shall be 
permitted to be operated during fueling to provide power, provided that 
the operation follows written procedures approved by the AHf. 
[407:5.5.1] 

42.4.5.5.2 Combustion heaters on aircraft (e.g., wing and tail 
surface heaters, integral cabin heaters) shall not be operated 
during fueling operations. [407:5.5.2] 

42.4.5.6 Internal Combustioini Engine Equipment Around Air- 
craft (Other than Aircraft Fuel Servicing Vehicles). 

42.4.5.6.1 Equipment, other than that performing aircraft 
servicing functions, shall not be permitted within 50 ft (15 m) 
of aircraft during fuel servicing operations. [407:5.6.1] 

42.4.5.6.2 Equipment performing aircraft servicing func- 
tions shall not be positioned within a 10 ft (3 m) radius of 
aircraft fuel system vent openings. [407:5.6.2] 



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42.4.5.6.3 During overwing aircraft fuel servicing where air- 
craft fuel system vents are located on the upper wing surface, 
equipment shall not be positioned under the trailing edge of 
the wing. [407:5.6.3] 

42.4.5.7* Electrical Equipment Used on Aircraft Servicing 
Ramps. 

42.4.5.7.1 Battery chargers shall not be connected, operated, 
or disconnected while fuel servicing is performed on the air- 
craft. [407:5.7.1] 

42.4.5.7.2* Aircraft ground-power generators or other electri- 
cal ground-power supplies shall not be connected or discon- 
nected while fuel servicing is performed on the aircraft. 

[407:5.7.2] 

42.4.5.7.3 Electric tools or similar tools likely to produce 
sparks or arcs shall not be used while fuel servicing is per- 
formed on the aircraft. [407:5.7.3] 

42.4.5.7.4 Photographic equipment shall not be used within 
10 ft (3 m) of the fueling equipment or the fill or vent points 
of aircraft fuel systems. [407:5.7.4] 

42.4.5.7.5 Other than aircraft fuel servicing vehicles, battery- 
powered vehicles that do not comply with the provisions of 
this standard shall not be operated within 10 ft (3 m) of fuel- 
ing equipment or spills. (See 42.4.5.6.) [407:5.7.5] 

42.4.5.7.6 Communication equipment used during aircraft 
fuel servicing operations within 10 ft (3 m) of the fueling 
equipment or the fill or vent points of aircraft fuel systems 
shall be intrinsically safe in accordance with UL 913, Standard 
for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in 
Class I, II, and III Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations. 
[407:5.7.6] 

42.4.5.8 Open Flames on Aircraft Fuel Servicing Ramps. 

42.4.5.8.1 Entrances to fueling areas shall be posted with NO 
SMOKING signs. [407:5.8.1] 

42.4.5.8.2 Open flames on aircraft fuel servicing ramps or 
aprons within 50 ft (15 m) of any aircraft fuel servicing opera- 
tion or fueling equipment shall be prohibited. [407:5.8.2] 

42.4.5.8.3 The category of open flames and lighted open- 
flame devices shall include, but shall not be limited to, the 
following: 

(1) Lighted cigarettes, cigars, pipes 

(2) Exposed flame heaters, liquid, solid, or gaseous devices, 
including portable and wheeled gasoline or kerosene 
heaters 

(3) Heat-producing, welding, or cutting devices and blow- 
torches 

(4) Flare pots or other open-flame lights [407:5.8.3] 

42.4.5.8.4 The AHJ might establish other locations where 
open flames and open-flame devices shall not be permitted. 

[407:5.8.4] 

42.4.5.8.5 Personnel shall not carry lighters or matches on 
their person while engaged in fuel servicing operations. 

[407:5.8.5] 

42.4.5.8.6 Lighters or matches shall not be permitted on or 
in fueling equipment. [407:5.8.6] 

42.4.5.9* Lightning Precautions. 

42.4.5.9.1 Fuel servicing operations shall be suspended 
where there are lightning flashes in the immediate vicinity of 
the airport. [407:5.9.1] 



42.4.5.9.2 A written procedure shall be established to set the 
criteria for where fueling operations are to be suspended at 
each airport as approved by the fueling agent and the airport 
authority. [407:5.9.2] 

42.4.5.10 Aircraft Fuel Servicing Locations. 

42.4.5.10.1 Aircraft fuel servicing shall be performed out- 
doors. Aircraft fuel servicing incidental to aircraft fuel system 
maintenance operations shall comply with the requirements 
ofNFPA410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance. [407:5.10.1] 

42.4.5.10.2* Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned so that 
aircraft fuel system vents or fuel tank openings are not closer 
than 25 ft (8 m) to any terminal building, hangar, service 
building, or enclosed passenger concourse other than a load- 
ing walkway. Aircraft being fueled shall not be positioned so 
that the vent or tank openings are within 50 ft (15 m) of any 
combustion and ventilation air-intake to any boiler, heater, or 
incinerator room. [407:5.10.2] 

42.4.5.10.3 Accessibility to aircraft by emergency fire equip- 
ment shall be established for aircraft fuel servicing positions. 
[407:5.10.3] 

42.4.5.11 Aircraft Occupancy During Fuel Servicing Operations. 

42.4.5.11.1 If passengers remain onboard an aircraft during 
fuel servicing, at least one qualified person trained in emer- 
gency evacuation procedures shall be in the aircraft at or near 
a door at which there is a passenger loading walkway, integral 
stairs that lead downward, or a passenger loading stair or 
stand. A clear area for emergency evacuation of the aircraft 
shall be maintained at not less than one additional exit. Where 
fueling operations take place with passengers onboard away 
from the terminal building, and stairways are not provided, 
such as during inclement weather (diversions), all slides shall 
be armed and the ARFF services shall be notified to respond in 
stand-by position in the vicinity of the fueling activity with at 
least one vehicle. Aircraft operators shall establish specific pro- 
cedures covering emergency evacuation under such condi- 
tions for each type of aircraft they operate. All "no smoking" 
signs shall be displayed in the cabin (s), and the no smoking 
rule shall be enforced. [407:5.11.1] 

42.4.5.11.2 For each aircraft type, operators shall determine 
the areas through which it could be hazardous for boarding or 
deplaning passengers to pass while the aircraft is being fueled. 
Controls shall be established so that passengers avoid such 
areas. [407:5.11.2] 

42.4.5.12 Positioning of Aircraft Fuel Servicing Vehicles and 
Carts. 

42.4.5.12.1 Aircraft fuel servicing vehicles and carts shall be 
positioned so that a clear path of egress from the aircraft for 
fuel servicing vehicles shall be maintained. [407:5.12.1] 

42.4.5.12.2 The propulsion or pumping engine of aircraft 
fuel servicing vehicles or carts shall not be positioned under 
the wing of the aircraft during overwing fueling or where air- 
craft fuel system vents are located on the upper wing surface. 
Aircraft fuel servicing vehicles or carts shall not be positioned 
within a 10 ft (3 m) radius of aircraft fuel system vent open- 
ings. [407:5.12.2] 

42.4.5.12.3 Parking brakes shall be set on all fuel servicing 
vehicles or carts before operators begin the fueling operation. 
[407:5.12.3] 



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42.4.5.13* Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

42.4.5.13.1 During fueling operations, fire extinguishers 
shall be available on aircraft servicing ramps or aprons. 
[407:5.13.1] 

42.4.5.13.2 Each aircraft fuel servicing tank vehicle shall have 
two listed fire extinguishers, each having a rating of at least 
20-B:C, with one extinguisher mounted on each side of the 
vehicle. [407:5.13.2] 

42.4.5.13.3 There shall be one listed fire extinguisher having 
a rating of at least 20-B:C installed on each hydrant fuel servic- 
ing vehicle or cart. [407:5.13.3] 

42.4.5.13.4 Where the open hose discharge capacity of the 
aircraft fueling system or equipment is more than 200 gpm 
(750 L/min) , at least one listed wheeled extinguisher having a 
rating of not less than 80-B:C and a minimum capacity of 
125 lb (55 kg) of agent shall be provided. [407:5.13.4] 

42.4.5.13.5* Extinguishers shall be kept clear of elements 
such as ice and snow. Extinguishers located in enclosed com- 
partments shall be readily accessible, and their location shall 
be marked clearly in letters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. 

[407:5.13.5] 

42.4.5.13.6* Fuel servicing personnel shall be trained in the 
use of the available fire extinguishing equipment they could 
be expected to use. [407:5.13.6] 

42.4.5.14 Befueling. 

42.4.5.14.1 The transfer of fuel from an aircraft to a tank 
vehicle through a hose generally is similar to fueling, and the 
same requirements shall apply. In addition, each operator 
shall establish procedures to prevent the overfilling of the 
tank vehicle, which is a special hazard when defueling (see 
4.3.21.7 of NFPA 407). [407:5.14.1] 

42.4.5.14.2 Where draining residual fuel from aircraft tanks 
incidental to aircraft fuel system maintenance, testing, manu- 
facturing, salvage, or recovery operations, the procedures of 
NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance, shall apply. 

[407:5.14.2] 

42.4.5.15 Deacfaian Control Mooitorimg. 

42.4.5.15.1 The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of 
the fueling equipment and the aircraft control panel during 
pressure fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing 
fueling. [407:5.15.1] 

42.4.5.15.2 Fuel flow shall be controlled by use of adeadman 
control device. The use of any means that defeats the dead- 
man control shall be prohibited. [407:5.15.2] 

42.4.5.16* Aircraft Fueling Hose. 

42.4.5.16.1 Aircraft fueling hose shall be inspected before 
use each day. The hose shall be extended as it normally would 
be for fueling and checked for evidence of blistering, carcass 
saturation or separation, cuts, nicks, or abrasions that expose 
reinforcement material, and for slippage, misalignment, or 
leaks at couplings. If coupling slippage or leaks are found, the 
cause of the problem shall be determined. Defective hose 
shall be removed from service. [407:5.16.1] 

42.4.5.16.2 At least once each month the hose shall be com- 
pletely extended and inspected as required in 42.4.5.16.1. The 
hose couplings and the hose shall be examined for a length 
approximately 12 in. (305 mm) adjacent to the couplings. 



Structural weakness shall be checked by pressing the hose in 
this area around its entire circumference for soft spots. Hoses 
that show evidence of soft spots shall be removed from service. 
The nozzle screens shall be examined for rubber particles. 
The presence of such particles indicates possible deteriora- 
tion of the interior, and the hose shall be removed from ser- 
vice. With the hose still completely extended, it shall be 
checked at the working pressure of the fueling equipment to 
which it is attached. Any abnormal twisting or ballooning dur- 
ing this test indicates a weakening of the hose carcass, and the 
hose shall be removed from service. [407:5.16.2] 

42.4.5.16.3 A hose assembly that has been subjected to abuse, 
such as severe end-pull, flattening or crushing by a vehicle, or 
sharp bending or kinking, shall be removed from service. It 
shall be hydrostatically tested prior to use. (See 4.2.2.1 of 
NFPA407.) [407:5.16.3] 

42.4.5.16.4* If inspection shows that a portion of a hose has 
been damaged, the damaged portion shall be cut off and the 
undamaged portion recoupled. Two lengths of hose shall not 
be coupled together. Only couplings that are an exact match 
for the interior and exterior dimensions of the hose shall be 
used. Recoupled hose assemblies shall be hydrostatically 
tested. (See 4.2.2. 1 of NFPA 407.) [407:5.16.4] 

42.4.5.16.5 Before any hose assembly, new or recoupled, is 
placed in service, it shall be visually inspected for evidence of 
damage or deterioration. [407:5.16.5] 

42.4.5.16.6 Kinks or short loops in fueling hose shall be 
avoided. [407:5.16.6] 

42.4.5.16.7 Suitable records shall be kept of required inspec- 
tions and hydrostatic tests. [407:5.16.7] 

42.4.5. 17 Maintenance of Aircraft Fuel Servicing Vehicles and 
Carts. 

42.4.5.17.1 Aircraft fuel servicing vehicles or carts shall not 
be operated unless they are in proper repair and free of accu- 
mulations of grease, oil, or other combustibles. [407:5.17.1] 

42.4.5.17.2 Leaking vehicles or carts shall be removed from 
service, defueled, and parked in a safe area until repaired. 

[407:5.17.2] 

42.4.5.17.3 Maintenance and servicing of aircraft fuel servic- 
ing vehicles and carts shall be performed outdoors or in a 
building approved for the purpose. [407:5.17.3] 

42.4.5.18 Parking Aircraft Fuel Servicing Tank Vehicles. Park- 
ing areas for unattended aircraft fuel servicing tank vehicles 
shall be arranged to provide the following: 

( 1 ) Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency 

(2) A minimum of 10 ft (3 m) of clear space between parked 
vehicles for accessibility for fire control purposes 

(3) Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent 
building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to 
handle fuel 

(4) A minimum of 50 ft (15 m) from any parked aircraft and 
buildings other than maintenance facilities and garages 
for fuel servicing tank vehicles [407:5.18] 

42.4.5.19 Parking Aircraft Fuel Servicing Hydrant Vehicles and 
Carts. Parking areas for unattended aircraft fuel servicing hy- 
drant vehicles or carts shall be arranged to provide the following: 

(1) Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency 

(2) Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent 
building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to 
handle fuel [407:5.19] 



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42.4.5.20 Loading of Aircraft Fuel Servicing Tank Vehicles. 

42.4.5.20.1 General Requirements. 

42.4.5.20.1.1 Filling of the vehicle cargo tank shall be under 
the observation and control of a qualified and authorized op- 
erator at all times. [407:5.20.1.1] 

42.4.5.20.1.2 The required deadman and automatic overfill 
controls shall be in normal operating condition during the 
filling operation. They shall not be blocked open or otherwise 
bypassed. [407:5.20.1.2] 

42.4.5.20.1.3 The engine of the tank vehicle shall be shut off 
before starting to fill the tank. [407:5.20.1.3] 

42.4.5.20.1.4 To prevent leakage or overflow from expan- 
sion of the contents due to a rise in atmospheric tempera- 
ture or direct exposure to the sun, no cargo tank or com- 
partment shall be loaded to the point where it is liquid full. 
[407:5.20.1.4] 

42.4.5.20.2 Top Loading. 

42.4.5.20.2.1 Where loading tank trucks through open 
domes, a bond shall be established between the loading pip- 
ing and the cargo tank to equalize potentials. The bond con- 
nection shall be made before the dome is opened and shall be 
removed only after the dome is closed. [407:5.20.2.1] 

42.4.5.20.2.2 Drop tubes attached to loading assemblies ex- 
tending into the vehicle tank shall extend to the bottom of the 
tank and shall be maintained in that position until the tank is 
loaded to provide submerged loading and avoid splashing or 
free fall of fuel through the tank atmosphere. The flow rate 
into the tanks shall not exceed 25 percent of the maximum 
flow until the outlet is fully covered. [407:5.20.2.2] 

42.4.5.20.2.3 The level in the tank shall be visually monitored 
at all times during top loading. [407:5.20.2.3] 

42.4.5.20.3 Bottom Loading. 

42.4.5.20.3.1 A bonding connection shall be made between 
the cargo tank and the loading rack before any fuel connec- 
tions are made and shall remain in place throughout the load- 
ing operation. [407:5.20.3.1] 

42.4.5.20.3.2 The operator shall initiate fuel flow by means of 
a deadman control device. [407:5.20.3.2] 

42.4.5.20.3.3 The operator shall perform the precheck on 
each compartment shortly after flow has started to ensure that 
the automatic high-level shutoff system is functioning prop- 
erly. [407:5.20.3.3] 

42.4.5.20.3.4 At least monthly the operator shall perform a 
check to ensure complete closure of the bottom-loading valve 
on the tank vehicle. [407:5.20.3.4] 

42.4.5.21 Rapid Refuelling of Helicopters. 

42.4.5.21.1 Only turbine engine helicopters fueled with JET 
A or JET A-l fuels shall be permitted to be fueled while an 
onboard engine is operating. Helicopters permitted to be fu- 
eled while an onboard engine is operating shall have all 
sources o£ ignition of potential fuel spills located above the 
fuel inlet port(s) and above the vents or tank openings. Igni- 
tion sources shall include, but shall not be limited to, engines, 
exhausts, auxiliary power units (APUs), and combustion-type 
cabin heater exhausts. [407:5.21.1] 



42.4.5.21.2 Helicopter fueling while onboard engines are oper- 
ating shall be permitted only under the following conditions: 

(1) An FAA-licensed helicopter pilot shall be at the aircraft 
controls during the entire fuel servicing process. 

(2)*Passengers shall be deboarded to a safe location prior to 
rapid refueling operations. Where the pilot in command 
deems it necessary for passengers to remain onboard for 
safety reasons, the provisions of 42.4.5.11 shall apply. 

(3) Passengers shall not board or deboard during rapid refu- 
eling operations. 

(4) Only designated personnel, properly trained in rapid re- 
fueling operations, shall operate the equipment. Written 
procedures shall include the safe handling of the fuel and 
equipment. 

(5) All doors, windows, and access points allowing entry to the 
interior of the helicopter that are adjacent to, or in the im- 
mediate vicinity of, the fuel inlet ports shall be closed and 
shall remain closed during refueling operations. 

(6) Fuel shall be dispensed into an open port from approved 
deadman-type nozzles, with a flow rate not to exceed 
60 gpm (227 L/min), or it shall be dispensed through 
close-coupled pressure fueling ports. Where fuel is dis- 
pensed from fixed piping systems, the hose cabinet shall 
not extend into the rotor space. A curb or other approved 
barrier shall be provided to restrict the fuel servicing ve- 
hicle from coming closer than within 10 ft (3 m) of any 
helicopter rotating components. If a curb or approved 
barrier cannot be provided, fuel servicing vehicles shall 
be kept 20 ft (6 m) away from any helicopter rotating 
components, and a trained person shall direct fuel servic- 
ing vehicle approach and departure. [407:5.21.2] 

42.4.5.22 Self-Service Fuelling. Occupancy of the aircraft dur- 
ing self-service fueling shall be prohibited. [407:5.22] 

42.5 Alternate Fuels. 

42.5.1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Sys- 
tems. The design and installation of CNG engine fuel systems 
on vehicles of all types shall comply with NFPA 52, Compressed 
Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code, and Section 42.5. 

42.5.1.1* Scope. Section 42.5 shall apply to the design and 
installation of compressed natural gas (CNG) engine fuel sys- 
tems on vehicles of all types, including the following: 

(1) Original equipment manufacturers 

(2) Vehicle converters 

(3) Vehicle fueling (dispensing) systems [52:1.1] 

42.5.1.1.1 Vehicles and fuel supply containers complying 
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards covering the in- 
stallation of CNG fuel systems on vehicles and certified by the 
respective manufacturer as meeting these standards shall not 
be required to comply with Section 4.4, 4.8.4, and Chapter 5 of 
NFPA 52 (except Section 5.11, 5.12.4, Section 5.13, and Sec- 
tion 5.14 of NFPA52.). [52:1.1.1] 

42.5.1.1.2* Cylinders shall be manufactured, inspected, 
marked, tested, retested, equipped, and used in accordance 
with U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) or Canada 
Transport (TC) regulations, exemptions, or special permits or 
with ANSI/IAS NGV2, Basic Requirements for Compressed Natural 
Gas Vehicle (NGV) Fuel Containers, specifically for CNG service. 
[52:4.4.4] 



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42.5.1.2 CNG Compression, Storage, and Dispensing 42.5.1.4.2 Outdoors 

Systems. 



42.5.1.2.1* Application. Paragraph 42.5.1.2 applies to the de- 
sign, construction, installation, and operation of containers, 
pressure vessels, compression equipment, buildings and struc- 
tures, and associated equipment used for storage and dispens- 
ing of CNG as an engine fuel in fleet and public dispensing 
operations. [52:6.1] 

42.5.1.2.2 System Component Qualifications. System compo- 
nents shall comply with the appropriate provisions in Chapter 
4 and with Section 6.5 through Section 6.13 of NFPA 52. 
[52:6.2] 

42.5.1.3 General. 

42.5.1.3.1 Where systems are served by a gas utility, the utility 
shall be notified of all CNG installations. [52:6.3.1] 

42.5.1.3.2 Equipment related to a compression, storage, or 
dispensing installation shall be protected to minimize the pos- 
sibilities of physical damage and vandalism. [52:6.3.2] 

42.5.1.3.3* Control devices shall be installed so that internal 
or external icing or hydrate formation does not cause vehicle 
or fueling station malfunction. [52:6.3.3] 

42.5.1.3.4 Vehicles shall not be considered a source of igni- 
tion with respect to the provisions of 42.5.1.2 and 42.5.1.3. 

Exception: Vehicles containing fuel-fired equipment (e.g., recre- 
ational vehicles and catering trucks) shall be considered a source of 
ignition unless this equipment is shut off completely before entering an 
area in which ignition sources are not permitted. [52:6.3.4] 

42.5. 1 .3.5 The fueling connection shall prevent the escape of 
gas where the connector is not properly engaged or becomes 
separated. Fueling nozzles shall be listed in accordance with 
ANSI/IAS NGV1 , Standard for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle 
(NGV) Fueling Connection Devices. [52:6.3.5] 

42.5.1.3.6 Compression equipment shall be designed for use 
with CNG and for the pressures and temperatures to which it 
can be subjected under normal operating conditions. It shall 
have pressure relief devices that limit each stage pressure to 
the maximum allowable service pressure for the compression 
cylinder and piping associated with that stage of compression. 
[52:6.3.6] 

42.5.1.3.7 Where CNG compression equipment is operated 
unattended, it shall be equipped with a high discharge and a 
low suction pressure automatic shutdown control. Control cir- 
cuits that shut down shall remain down until manually acti- 
vated or reset after a safe shutdown is performed. [52:6.3.7] 

42.5.1.3.8 Engine-driven compressor installations shall 
conform, where applicable, to NFPA 37, Standard for the In- 
stallation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas 
Turbines. [52:6.3.8] 

42.5.1.3.9* Compression equipment shall incorporate a 
means to minimize liquid carryover to the storage system. 
[52:6.3.9] 

42.5.1.4 Siting. 

42.5.1.4.1 CNG compression, storage, and dispensing shall 
be located and conducted outdoors or indoors in compliance 
with 42.5.1.4. [52:6.4.1] 



42.5.1.4.2.1 CNG storage containers charged with CNG not 
connected for use shall be located outdoors. [52:6.4.2.1] 

42.5.1.4.2.2 A facility in which CNG compression, storage, 
and dispensing equipment are sheltered by an enclosure that 
is constructed of noncombustible or limited-combustible ma- 
terials and that has at least one side predominantly open and a 
roof designed for ventilation and dispersal of escaped gas shall 
be considered to be located outdoors. [52:6.4.2.2] 

42.5.1.4.2.3 Compression, storage, and dispensing equip- 
ment located outdoors shall be above ground, shall not be 
beneath electric power lines or where exposed by their failure, 
and shall be a minimum of 10 ft (3.0 m) from the nearest 
important building or line of adjoining property that can be 
built upon or from any source of ignition. [52:6.4.2.3] 

42.5.1.4.2.4 Compression, storage, and dispensing equip- 
ment located outdoors shall be not less than 10 ft (3.0 m) from 
the nearest public street or sidewalk line and at least 50 ft 
(15 m) from the nearest rail of any railroad main track. 
[52:6.4.2.4] 

42.5.1.4.2.5 A clear space of at least 3 ft (1 m) shall be pro- 
vided for access to all valves and fittings of multiple groups of 
containers. [52:6.4.2.5] 

42.5.1.4.2.6 Readily ignitable material shall not be permitted 
within 10 ft (3.0 m) of any stationary container. [52:6.4.2.6] 

42.5.1.4.2.7 The minimum separation between containers 
and aboveground tanks containing flammable or combustible 
liquids shall be 20 ft (6.1 m). [52:6.4.2.7] 

42.5.1.4.2.8 During outdoor fueling operations, the point of 
transfer (see 3.3.22 of NFPA 52) shall be located at least 10 ft 
(3.0 m) from any important building, mobile home, public 
sidewalk, highway, street, or road and at least 3 ft (1 m) from 
storage containers. 

Exception: The point of transfer shall be permitted to be located at a 
lesser distance from buildings or walls constructed of concrete or ma- 
sonry materials or of other material having afire resistance rating of at 
least 2 hours, but at least 10 ft (3.0 m) from any building openings. 
[52:6.4.2.8] 

42.5.1.4.3 Indoors. 

42.5.1.4.3.1 General. Compression, dispensing equipment, 
and storage containers connected for use shall be permitted 
to be located inside of buildings reserved exclusively for these 
purposes or in rooms within or attached to buildings used for 
other purposes in accordance with 42.5.1.4.3. [52:6.4.3.1] 

42.5.1.4.3.2 limits of Storage in Buildings. Storage shall be 
limited to not more than 10,000 SCF (283 m 3 ) of natural gas 
in each building or room. 

Exception: CNG stored in vehicle-mounted fuel supply containers. 
[52:6.4.3.2] 

42.5.1.4.3.3* Deflagration Venting. Deflagration (explosion) 
venting shall be provided in exterior walls or roof only. Vents 
shall be permitted to consist of any one or any combination of 
the following: 

(1) Walls of light material 

(2) Lightly fastened hatch covers 

(3) Lightly fastened, outward opening doors in exterior walls 

(4) Lightly fastened walls or roofs 

(5) Where applicable, snow loads shall be considered. 
[52:6.4.3.3] 



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42.5.1.4.3.4 Rooms Within Buildings. Rooms within or at- 
tached to other buildings shall be constructed of noncombus- 
tible or limited-combustible materials. Interior walls or parti- 
tions shall be continuous from floor to ceiling, shall be 
securely anchored, and shall have a fire resistance rating of at 
least 2 hours. At least one wall shall be an exterior wall. 

Exception: Window glazing shall be permitted to be plastic. 
[52:6.4.3.4] 

(A) Explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with 
42.5.1.4.3.3(C). [52:6.4.3.4.1] 

(B) Access to the room shall be from outside the primary 
structure. [52:6.4.3.4.2] 

(C) If such access is not possible, access from within the pri- 
mary structure shall be permitted where such access is made 
through a barrier space having two vapor-sealing, self-closing 
fire doors having the appropriate rating for the location where 
installed. [52:6.4.3.4.3] 

42.5.1.4.3.5 Ventilation. Indoor locations shall be ventilated 
utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust oudets arranged to pro- 
vide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall 
be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Out- 
lets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior 
walls or the roof. [52:6.4.3.5] 

(A) Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical ventila- 
tion system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by 
a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system where 
a gas concentration of not more than one-fifth of the lower 
flammable limit is present. In either case, the system shall shut 
down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventila- 
tion system. [52:6.4.3.5 (A)] 

(B)* The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 ft 3 /min-12 ft 3 
(1 m 3 /min-12m 3 ) of room volume. [52:6.4.3.5(B)] 

(C) A ventilation system for a room within or attached to 
another building shall be separate from any ventilation system 
for the other building. [52:6.4.3.5 (C) ] 

42.5.1.4.3.6 Where installed, a gas detection system shall be 
equipped to sound an alarm and visually indicate when a 
maximum of one-fifth of the lower flammable limit is reached. 
[52:6.4.3.6] 

42.5.1.4.3.7 Reactivation of the fueling system shall be by 
manual restart and shall be conducted by trained personnel. 

[52:6.4.3.7] 

42.5.1.4.3.8 Buildings and rooms used for compression, stor- 
age, and dispensing shall be classified in accordance with 
Table 6.4.3.8 of NFPA 52 for installations of electrical equip- 
ment. [52:6.4.3.8] 

42.5.1.4.3.9 Non-electrical sources of ignition, other than 
electrical installations as permitted by 42.5.1.4.3.8, shall not be 
permitted. [52:6.4.3.9] 

42.5.1.4.3.10 Pressure relief devices on storage systems shall 
have pressure relief device channels [see 4.5. 1(2) of NFPA 52] to 
convey escaping gas to the outdoors and then upward to a safe 
area to prevent impinging on buildings, other equipment, or 
areas open to the public (e.g., sidewalks). [52:6.4.3.10] 

42.5.1.4.3.11 Access doors shall have warning signs with the 
words WARNING — NO SMOKING — FLAMMABLE GAS. 
Such wording shall be in plainly legible, bright red letters on a 



white background with letters not less than 1 in. (25 mm) 
high. [52:6.4.3.11] 

42.5.1.4.3.12 Indoor Fast-Fill Fueling, Outdoor Storage, and 
Compression. Fast-fill fueling indoors is permitted where stor- 
age and compression equipment is located outdoors comply- 
ing with 42.5.1.4.2.1 through 42.5.1.4.2.7. [52:6.4.3.12] 

42.5.1.4.3.13 Where attended fast-fill fueling is performed 
indoors, the following shall be installed: 

(1) An emergency manual shutdown device shall be installed 
as required by 42.5.1.6.2. 

(2) A gas detection system equipped to sound an alarm and 
visually indicate when a maximum of one-fifth of the 
lower flammable limit is reached shall be installed. 
[52:6.4.3.13] 

(3) The detector shall shut down the compressor and stop the 
flow of gas into the structure. [52:6.4.3.13.1] 

42.5.1.5 Installation of Containers and Container Appurte- 
nances (Other Than Pressure Relief Devices). 

42.5.1.5.1* Storage containers shall be installed above ground 
on stable, noncombustible foundations or in vaults with venti- 
lation and drainage. Horizontal containers shall have no more 
than two points of support longitudinally. Where flooding can 
occur, each container shall be securely anchored to prevent 
floating. [52:6.5.1] 

42.5.1.5.2 Containers shall be protected by painting or other 
equivalent means where necessary to inhibit corrosion. Hori- 
zontally installed containers shall not be in direct contact with 
each other. 

Exception: Composite containers shall not be painted without prior 
permission from the container manufacturer. [52:6.5.2] 

42.5.1.5.3 Means shall be provided to prevent the flow or 
accumulation of flammable or combustible liquids under con- 
tainers, such as by grading, pads, or diversion curbs. [52:6.5.3] 

42.5.1.6 Installation of Emergency Shutdown Equipment. 

42.5.1.6. 1 Gas piping from an outdoor compressor or storage 
system into a building shall be provided with shutoff valves 
located outside the building. [52:6.11.5] 

42.5.1.6.2 An emergency manual shutdown device shall be 
provided at the dispensing area and also at a location remote 
from the dispensing area. This device, when activated, shall 
shut off the power supply and gas supply to the compressor 
and the dispenser. [52:6.11.6] 

42.5.1.6.2.1 Emergency shutdown devices shall be distincdy 
marked for easy recognition with a permanently affixed leg- 
ible sign. [52:6.11.6.1] 

42.5.1.6.3 Breakaway protection shall be provided in a man- 
ner that, in the event of a pullaway, natural gas ceases to flow at 
any separation. [52:6.11.7] 

42.5.1.6.4 A breakaway device shall be installed at every dis- 
pensing point. Such a device shall be arranged to separate 
using a force not greater than 150 lb (68 kg) when applied in 
any horizontal direction. [52:6.11.8] 

42.5.1.6.5 Control circuits shall be arranged so that, when an 
emergency shutdown device is activated or electric power is 



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cut off, systems that shut down shall remain down until manu- 
ally activated or reset after a safe condition is restored. 
[52:6.11.9] 

42.5.1.6.6 Each line between a gas storage facility and a dis- 
penser at a fast-fill station shall have a valve that closes when 
one of the following occurs: 

(1) The power supply to the dispenser is cut off. 

(2) Any emergency shutdown device at the refueling station is 
activated. [52:6.11.10] 

42.5.1.6.7 A fast-closing, "quarter turn" manual shutoff valve 
shall be provided at a fast-fill station upstream of the break- 
away device specified in 42.5.1.6.4, where it is readily acces- 
sible to the person dispensing natural gas, unless one of the 
following occurs: 

(1) The self-closing valve referred to in 42.5.1.6.6 is located 
immediately upstream of the dispenser. 

(2) The dispenser is equipped with a self-closing valve that 
closes each time the control arm is turned to the off 
position or when an emergency device is activated. 
[52:6.11.11] 

42.5.1.6.8 A self-closing valve shall be provided on the inlet of 
the compressor that shuts off the gas supply to the compressor 
when one of the following occurs: 

(1) An emergency shutdown device is activated. 

(2) A power failure occurs. 

(3) The power to the compressor is switched to the off posi- 
tion. [52:6.11.12] 

42.5.1.7 Operation. 

42.5.1.7.1 The transfer of CNG into a fuel supply container 
shall be performed in accordance with instructions posted at 
the dispensing station. [52:6.14.4] 

42.5.1.7.2 Where CNG is being transferred to or from a mo- 
tor vehicle, the engine shall be turned off. [52:6.14.5] 

42.5.1.7.3 During the transfer of CNG to or from cargo ve- 
hicles, the hand or emergency brake of the vehicle shall be set, 
and chock blocks shall be used to prevent rolling of the ve- 
hicle. [52:6.14.6] 

42.5.1.7.4 Transfer systems shall be capable of depressurizing 
to facilitate disconnection. Bleed connections shall lead to a 
safe point of discharge. [52:6.14.7] 

42.5.1.7.5 CNG shall not be used to operate any device or 
equipment that has not been designed or properly modified 
for CNG service. [52:6.14.8] 

42.5.1.7.6 Sources of ignition shall not be permitted within 
10 ft (3.0 m) of any filling connection during a transfer opera- 
tion. [52:6.14.9] 

42.5.1.7.7 A warning sign with the words STOP MOTOR, NO 
SMOKING, FLAMMABLE GAS shall be posted at dispensing 
station and compressor areas. The location of signs shall be 
determined by local conditions, but the lettering shall be large 
enough to be visible and legible from each point of transfer. 
[52:6.14.10] 

42.5.1.8 Fire Protection. Aportable fire extinguisher having a 
rating of not less than 20-B:C shall be provided at the dispens- 
ing area. [52:6.15] 



42.5.1.9* Maintenance. 

42.5.1.9.1 Containers and their appurtenances, piping sys- 
tems, compression equipment, controls, and detection de- 
vices shall be maintained in proper operating condition and 
according to manufacturer's instructions. [52:6.16.1] 

42.5.1.9.2 After the original installation, vehicle fueling hose 
shall be examined visually at such intervals as are necessary to 
ensure that they are safe for use. Hose shall be tested for leaks 
per manufacturer's requirements, but at least annually, and 
any unsafe leakage shall be reason for rejection. [52:6.16.2] 

42.5.1.9.3 While in transit, fueling hose and flexible metal 
hose on a cargo vehicle to be used in a transfer operation, 
including their connections, shall be depressurized and pro- 
tected from wear and injury. [52:6.16.3] 

42.5.2 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas). 

42.5.2.1 Fuel dispensing facilities for vehicles using LP-Gas 
shall comply with NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, and 
this subsection. 

42.5.2.2 Application. 

42.5.2.2.1* Subsection 42.5.2 shall apply to fuel systems using 
LP-Gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Included are 
provisions for containers, container appurtenances, carbure- 
tion equipment, piping, hose and fittings, and provisions for 
their installation. Subsection 42.5.2 covers engine fuel systems 
for engines installed on vehicles for any purpose, as well as 
fuel systems for stationary and portable engines. It also in- 
cludes provisions for garaging of vehicles upon which such 
systems are installed. [58:8.1.1.1] 

42.5.2.2.2 Containers supplying fuel to engines on vehicles, 
regardless of whether the engine is used to propel the vehicle 
or is mounted on it for other purposes, shall be constructed 
and installed in accordance with 42.5.2. [58:8.1.1.2] 

42.5.2.2.3 Nonapplication. Containers supplying fuel to sta- 
tionary engines or to portable engines used in lieu of station- 
ary engines shall be installed in accordance with Section 3.2 of 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. (See Section 3.4 of 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code for portable engines used in 
buildings or on roofs or exterior balconies under certain conditions.). 
[58:8.1.2] 

42.5.2.2.4 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with 1.12.19. 

42.5.2.3 Training. In the interest of safety, each person en- 
gaged in installing, repairing, filling, or otherwise servicing an 
LP-Gas engine fuel system shall be properly trained in the nec- 
essary procedures. [58:8.1.3] 

42.5.2.4 Marking. Each over-the-road general-purpose ve- 
hicle powered by LP-Gas shall be identified with a weather- 
resistant diamond-shaped label located on an exterior vertical 
or near vertical surface on the lower right rear of the vehicle 
(on the trunk lid of a vehicle so equipped but not on the 
bumper of any vehicle) inboard from any other markings. The 
label shall be approximately 4% in. (120 mm) long by 3V4 in. 
(83 mm) high. The marking shall consist of a border and the 
word PROPANE [1 in. (25 mm) minimum height centered in 
the diamond] in silver or white reflective luminous material 
on a black background. (SeeFigure 42.5.2.4.) [58:8.2.10] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE T 




PROPANE 




FIGURE 42.5.2.4 Example of Vehicle Identification Mark- 
ing. [58:Figm-e 8.2.10] 

42.5.2.5 Industrial (and Forklift) Trucks Powered by LP-Gas. 

42.5.2.5.1 Paragraph 42.5.2.5 shall apply to LP-Gas installa- 
tion on industrial trucks (including forklift trucks), both to 
propel them and to provide the energy for their materials- 
handling attachments. LPG-fueled industrial trucks shall com- 
ply with NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial 
Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, 
Maintenance, and Operation. [58:8.3.1] 

42.5.2.5.2 The operation of industrial trucks (including fork- 
lift trucks) powered by LP-Gas engine fuel systems shall com- 
ply with NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial 
Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, 
Maintenance, and Operation, and with the following. 

42.5.2.5.2.1 
as follows: 



Refueling of such trucks shall be accomplished 



(1) Trucks with permanently mounted containers shall be re- 
fueled outdoors. 

(2) Where cylinders are exchanged indoors, the fuel piping 
system shall be equipped to minimize the release of fuel 
when cylinders are exchanged, in accordance with either 
of the following: 

(a) Using an approved quick-closing coupling in the fuel 
line 

(b) Closing the shutoff valve at the fuel cylinder and al- 
lowing the engine to run until the fuel in the line is 
exhausted [58:8.3.6] 

42.5.2.5.2.2 Where LP-Gas fueled industrial trucks are used 
in buildings or structures the following shall apply: 

(1) The number of fuel cylinders on such a truck shall not 
exceed two. 

(2) The use of industrial trucks in buildings frequented by 
the public, including those times when such buildings are 
occupied by the public, shall require the approval of the 
AHJ. The total water capacity of the fuel cylinders on an 
individual truck shall not exceed 105 lb (48 kg) [nominal 
45 lb (20 kg) LP-Gas capacity] . 

(3) Trucks shall not be parked and left unattended in areas 
occupied by or frequented by the public without the ap- 
proval of the AHJ. If left unattended with approval, the 
cylinder shutoff valve shall be closed. 

(4) In no case shall trucks be parked and left unattended in 
areas of excessive heat or near sources of ignition. 
[58:8.3.6] 



42.5.2.5.3 All cylinders used in industrial truck service (in- 
cluding forklift truck cylinders) shall have the cylinder pres- 
sure relief valve replaced by a new or unused valve within 
12 years of the date of manufacture of the cylinder and every 
10 years thereafter. [58:8.3.7] 

42.5.2.6 General Provisions for Vehicles Having Engines 
Mounted on Them (Including Floor Maintenance Machines). 

42.5.2.6.1 Subparagraph 42.5.2.6.1 shall apply to the installa- 
tion of equipment on vehicles that supply LP-Gas as a fuel for 
engines mounted on these vehicles. Vehicles shall include 
floor maintenance and any other portable mobile unit, 
whether the engine is used to propel the vehicle or is mounted 
on it for other purposes. [58:8.4.1] 

42.5.2.6.2 Gas vaporizing, regulating, and carburetion equip- 
ment to provide LP-Gas as a fuel for engines shall be installed 
in accordance with 8.2.8 and 8.2.9 of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petro- 
leum Gas Code, and the following. [58:8.4.2] 

42.5.2.6.2.1 Industrial trucks (including forklift trucks) and 
other engines on vehicles operating in buildings other than 
those used exclusively to house engines, shall have an ap- 
proved automatic shutoff valve installed in the fuel system in 
accordance with 8.2.4.3 of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
Code. [58:8.4.2] 

42.5.2.6.2.2 The source of air for combustion shall be iso- 
lated from the driver and passenger compartment, ventilating 
system, or air conditioning system on the vehicle. [58:8.4.2] 

42.5.2.6.3 Piping and hose shall comply with 8.2.5.1 through 
8.2.5.4 of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [58:8.4.3] 

42.5.2.6.4 Non-self-propelled floor maintenance machinery 
(floor polishers, scrubbers, buffers) and other similar portable 
equipment shall be listed and shall comply with the following. 
[58:8.4.4] 

42.5.2.6.4.1 The provisions of 8.3.2 through 8.3.5 of NFPA58, 
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, and 42.5.2.5.2.1(1) and (2) shall 
apply. [58:8.4.4] 

42.5.2.6.4.2 The storage of cylinders mounted or used on 
such machinery or equipment shall comply with Chapter 5 of 
NFPA 58. [58:8.4.4] 

42.5.2.6.4.3 A label shall be affixed to the machinery or 
equipment, with the label facing the operator, denoting that 
the cylinder or portion of the machinery or equipment con- 
taining the cylinder shall be stored in accordance with Chap- 
ter 5 of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [58:8.4.4] 

42.5.2.6.5 The use of floor maintenance machines in build- 
ings frequented by the public, including the times when such 
buildings are occupied by the public shall require the ap- 
proval of the AHJ. [58:8.4.5] 

42.5.2.7 Garaging of Vehicles. Where vehicles with LP-Gas en- 
gine fuel systems mounted on them and general-purpose ve- 
hicles propelled by LP-Gas engines are stored or serviced in- 
side garages, the following conditions apply. [58:8.6] 

42.5.2.7.1 The fuel system shall be leak-free. [58:8.6] 

42.5.2.7.2 The cylinder(s) shall not be filled beyond the lim- 
its specified in Chapter 4 of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
Code. [58:8.6] 

42.5.2.7.3 The cylinder shutoff valve shall be closed when 
vehicles or engines are under repair except when engine is 
operated. [58:8.6] 



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42.5.2.7.4 The vehicle shall not be parked near sources of 
heat, open flames, or similar sources of ignition, or near inad- 
equately ventilated pits. [58:8.6] 

42.5.3* Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Fuel dispensing facili- 
ties for marine, highway, rail, off-road, and industrial vehicles 
using LNG and LNG storage in ASME containers of 70,000 gal 
(265 m 3 ) or less shall comply with NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural 
Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code. 

42.5.3.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 



g, and Cofflti 
■ustiMe Materia 



er 43 Spraying, 
MammaMe or Commfoi 



43.1 Application. 

43.1.1* Operations involving the spray application of flam- 
mable and combustible materials shall comply with NFPA 33, 
Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Ma- 
terials and Section 43.1. 

43.1.1.1 Section 43.1 shall apply to the spray application of 
flammable liquids, combustible liquids, or combustible pow- 
ders either continuously or intermittendy, by any of the follow- 
ing methods: 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 



Compressed air atomization 
Airless or hydraulic atomization 
Electrostatic application methods 
Fluidized bed application methods 
Electrostatic fluidized bed application methods 
Other acceptable application means 



43.1.1.2 Section 43.1 shall not apply to the following: 

(l)*Spray application processes or operations that are con- 
ducted outdoors 

(2)*Small portable spraying equipment or aerosol products 
that are not used repeatedly in the same location 

(3) Spray application of noncombustible materials 

(4) The hazards of toxicity or industrial health and hygiene 

43.1.1.3 Where certain waterborne, spray-applied materials 
that contain flammable or combustible liquids or that pro- 
duce combustible residues or deposits are used, the applicable 
provisions of Section 43.1 shall apply. 

43.1.1.4 Pen-units. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

43.1.2 Location of Spray Application Operations. 

43.1.2.1* General. Spray application operations and processes 
shall be confined to spray booths, spray rooms, or spray areas, 
as defined in this Code. [33:2.1] 

43.1.2.2 Locations in Other Occupancies. Spray application 
operations and processes shall not be conducted in any build- 
ing that is classified as an assembly, educational, institutional, 
or residential occupancy, unless they are located in a room 
that is separated both vertically and horizontally from all sur- 
rounding areas by construction having a fire resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours and that is protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system designed and installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems. [33:2.2] 



43.1.3 Construction and Design of Spray Areas, Spray Rooms, 
and Spray Booths. 

43.1.3.1* Walls and Ceilings. Walls and ceilings that intersect 
or enclose a spray area shall be constructed of noncombus- 
tible or limited-combustible materials or assemblies and shall 
be securely and rigidly mounted or fastened. The interior sur- 
faces of the spray area shall be smooth, designed and installed 
to prevent pockets that can trap residues, and designed to 
facilitate ventilation and cleaning. [33:3.1] 

43.1.3.1.1 Air intake filters that are a part of a wall or ceiling 
assembly shall be listed as Class 1 or Class 2, in accordance with 
UL900, Standard for Test Performance of Air Filter Units. [33:3.1] 

43. 1 .3. 1 .2 The floor of the spray area shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material, limited-combustible material, or 
combustible material that is completely covered by noncom- 
bustible material. [33:3.1] 

43.1.3.1.3 Aluminum shall not be used for structural support 
members or the walls or ceiling of a spray booth or spray room 
enclosure. Aluminum shall also not be used for ventilation 
ductwork associated with a spray booth or spray room. Alumi- 
num shall be permitted to be used for interior components, 
such as platforms, spray apparatus components, and other an- 
cillary devices. [33:3.1] 

43.1.3.1.4 If walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of 
sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 
0.0478 in. (1.2 mm) and each sheet of double-skin assemblies 
shall be no thinner than 0.0359 in. (0.9 mm). [33:3.1.1] 

43.1.3.1.5 Structural sections of spray booths shall be permit- 
ted to be sealed with a caulk or sealant to minimize air leakage. 
[33:3.1.2] 

43. 1 .3. 1 .6 Spray rooms shall be constructed of and separated 
from surrounding areas of the building by construction assem- 
blies that have a fire resistance rating of 1 hour. [33:3.1.3] 

43.1.3.1.7 Enclosed spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
provided with means of egress that meet the requirements of 
NFPA 10 f, Life Safety Code®. [33:3.1.4] 

43.1.3.1.8 Spray booths that are used exclusively for powder 
coating shall meet the requirements of Chapter 13 of 
NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Com- 
bustible Materials. They shall be permitted to be constructed of 
fire-retardant combustible materials where approved by the 
AHJ. 

Exception: Listed spray booth assemblies that are constructed of other 
materials shall be permitted. [33:3. 1.5] 

43.1.3.2 Conveyor Openings. Conveyor openings that are 
necessary for transporting or moving work into and out of the 
spray area shall be as small as practical. [33:3.2] 

43.1.3.3* Separation froim Other Occupancies. Spray booths 
shall be separated from other operations by a minimum dis- 
tance of 3 ft (915 mm) or by a partition, wall, or floor/ceiling 
assembly having a minimum fire resistance rating of 1 hour. 
Multiple connected spray booths shall not be considered as 
"other operations." 

Exception: As provided for in Section 11.3 of NFPA 33, Standard for 
Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. 
[33:3.3] 

43.1.3.3.1 Spray booths shall be installed so that all parts of 
the booth are readily accessible for cleaning. [33:3.3.1] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE™ 



43.1.3.3.2 A clear space of not less than 3 ft (915 mm) shall be 
maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space 
shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray 
booth closer than 3 ft (915 mm) to or directly against an interior 
partition, wall, or floor/ceiling assembly that has afire resistance rat- 
ing of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray booth can be maintained 
and cleaned. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray 
booth closer than 3 ft (915 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly 
provided the wall or roof is constructed ofnoncombustible material and 
provided the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned. 
[33:3.3.2] 

43.1.3.4 Movement of Powered Vehicles. Powered vehicles 
shall not be moved into or out of a spray area or operated in a 
spray area unless the spray application operation or process is 
stopped and the ventilation system is maintained in operation. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to vehicles that are listed 
for the specific hazards of the spray area. [33:3.4] 

43.1.3.5 Vision Panels. Panels for light fixtures or for observa- 
tion shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass, or hammered- 
wired glass and shall be sealed to confine vapors, mists, resi- 
dues, dusts, and deposits to the spray area. Panels for light 
fixtures shall be separated from the fixture to prevent the sur- 
face temperature of the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C) . 
[33:3.5] 

43.1.3.6 Ventilation. Spray areas that are equipped with venti- 
lation distribution or baffle plates or with dry overspray collec- 
tion filters shall meet the requirements of 43.1.3.6.1 through 
43.1.3.6.5. [33:3.6] 

43.1.3.6.1 Distribution plates or baffles shall be constructed 
ofnoncombustible materials and shall be readily removable or 
accessible for cleaning on both sides. [33:3.6.1] 

43.1.3.6.2 Filters shall not be used when applying materials 
known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating or 
spontaneous ignition. [33:3.6.2] 

43.1.3.6.3 Supports and holders for filters shall be con- 
structed ofnoncombustible materials. [33:3.6.3] 

43.1.3.6.4 Overspray collection filters shall be readily remov- 
able or accessible for cleaning or replacement. [33:3.6.4] 

43.1.3.6.5 Filters shall not be alternately used for different 
types of coating materials if the combination of the materials 
might result in spontaneous heating or ignition. (See also Sec- 
tion 8.8 o/NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flam- 
mable or Combustible Materials.) [33:3.6.5] 

43.1.4 Electrical and Other Sources of Ignition. 

43.1.4.1* General. Electrical wiring and utilization equipment 
shall meet all the applicable requirements of Articles 500, 501, 
502, and 516 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, and 43.1.4.1 
through 43.1.4.7. 

Exception No. 1: Powered vehicles shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 3.4 ofNFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flam- 
mable or Combustible Materials. 

Exception No. 2: Resin application operations shall meet the require- 
ments of Chapter 15 of NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application 
Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. [33:4. 1] 



43.1.4.1.1 Electrostatic spray application apparatus also shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 9 or Chapter 10 of 
NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Com- 
bustible Materials, whichever is applicable. [33:4.1.1] 

43.1.4.1.2 Drying, curing, and fusing apparatus also shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 11 of NFPA 33, Standard for 
Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. 
[33:4.1.2] 

43.1.4.1.3 Vehicle undercoating and body lining operations 
also shall meet the requirements of Section 12.1 of NFPA 33, 
Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Ma- 
terials. [33:4.1.3] 

43.1.4.1.4 Powder coating apparatus also shall meet the re- 
quirements of Chapter 13 of NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Appli- 
cation Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. [33:4.1.4] 

43.1.4.1.5* Open flames, spark-producing equipment or pro- 
cesses, and equipment whose exposed surfaces exceed the au- 
toignition temperature of the material being sprayed shall not 
be located in the spray area or in surrounding areas classified 
as Division 2. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to drying curing, or 
fusing apparatus as covered by Chapter 11 ofNFPA 33, Standard for 
Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. 
[33:4.1.5] 

43.1.4.1.6* Any utilization equipment or apparatus that is ca- 
pable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal and is lo- 
cated above or adjacent to either the spray area or the sur- 
rounding Division 2 areas shall be of the totally enclosed type 
or shall be constructed to prevent the escape of sparks or par- 
ticles of hot metal. [33:4.1.6] 

43.1.4.2 Electrical Devices in Spray Areas. 

43.1.4.2.1* Electrical wiring and utilization equipment that 
is located in the spray area and is not subject to deposits of 
combustible residues shall be suitable for Class I, Division 1 
or Class II, Division 1 locations, whichever is applicable. 

[33:4.2.1] 

43.1.4.2.2* Electrical wiring and utilization equipment that is 
located in the spray area and is subject to deposits of combus- 
tible residues shall be listed for such exposure and shall be 
suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 locations, 
whichever is applicable. [33:4.2.2] 

43.1.4.3 Electrical Devices Adjacent to Spray Areas. Electrical 
wiring and utilization equipment located adjacent to the spray 
area shall be classified in accordance with 43.1.4.3.1 through 
43.1.4.3.5. [33:4.3] 

43.1.4.3.1 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment lo- 
cated outside, but within 20 ft (6100 mm) horizontally and 
10 ft (3050 mm) vertically, of an unenclosed spray area and 
not separated from the spray area by partitions extending to 
the boundaries of the area designated as Division 2 in Figure 

43.1.4.3.1 shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, 
Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable. [33:4.3.1] 

43.1.4.3.2 If spray application operations are conducted 
within a closed-top, open-face or open-front booth or room, 
any electrical wiring or utilization equipment located outside 
of the booth or room but within the boundaries designated as 
Division 2 in Figure 43.1.4.3.2(a) and Figure 43.1.4.3.2(b) 
shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
locations, whichever is applicable. [33:4.3.2] 



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-179 




20 ft 
(6100 mm) 



Top (plan) 



Roof 



■ 10 ft (3050 mm) radius 

3 ft (915 mm) radius 



3 ft (915 mm) radius 

3 ft (915 mm) 
radius ' 



C 



•-5T^ 



; 3 ft (915 mm) ■' 
■ radius ! 

3 ft (915 mm) radius 

3 ft (915 mm) radius ' 





Conveyor 
jopening 



10 ft (3050 mm) radius 



10ft 
(3050 mm) 



Spray area 




Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 



^ 



Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 



FIGURE 43.1.4.3.1 Electrical Area Classification for 
Spray Areas. [33:Figuire 4.3.1] 



- 5 ft (1525 mm) radius 
\. n 3 ft (915 mm) radius 



c 



3 ft (915 mm) radius, 
3 ft (915 mm) radius 



V ■ V3 ft (915 mm) 
" ' radius 

3 ft (915 mm) radius 

3 ft (915 mm) radius 




Open 
face 




Conveyor 
opening 



5 ft (1525 mm) radius 



FIGURE 43.1.4.3.2(a) Class I (or Class II), Division 2 Loca- 
tions Adjacent to an Opem-Faced or Open-Front Spray Booth 
or Spray Room Where Exhaust Ventilation Interlocked with 
Spray Application Equipment. [33:Figure 4.3.2(a)] 

43.1.4.3.2.1 The Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 lo- 
cations shown in Figure 43.1.4.3.2(a) and Figure 43.1.4.3.2(b) 
shall extend from the edges of the open face or open front of 
the booth or room in accordance with the following: 

(1) If the exhaust ventilation system is interlocked with the 
spray application equipment, then the Division 2 location 
shall extend 5 ft (1525 mm) horizontally and 3 ft 



FIGURE 43.1.4.3.2(b) Class I (or Class II), Division 2 Loca- 
tions Adjacent to an Open-Faced or Open-Front Spray Booth 
or Spray Room Where Exhaust Ventilation Not Interlocked 
with Spray Application Equipment. [33:Figure 4.3.2(b)] 



(915 mm) vertically from the open face or open front of 
the booth or room, as shown in Figure 43.1.4.3.2(a). 
(2) If the exhaust ventilation system is not interlocked with the 
spray application equipment, then the Division 2 location 
shall extend 10 ft (3050 mm) horizontally and 3 ft (915 mm) 
vertically from the open face or open front of the booth or 
room, as shown in Figure 43.1.4.3.2(b). [33:4.3.2] 

43.1.4.3.2.2 For the purposes of this subsection, interlocked 
shall mean that the spray application equipment cannot be 
operated unless the exhaust ventilation system is operating 
and functioning as designed and spray ap